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  • Print publication year: 2018
  • Online publication date: November 2018


  • Amatole Museum, King William’s Town, South Africa

  • Cory Library, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa

  • Lovedale Collection

  • Records of the Methodist Church of Southern Africa (MCSA)

  • Eastern Cape Provincial Archives, King William’s Town, South Africa

  • Historical Papers, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa (WHP)

  • Records of the Presbyterian Church of Southern Africa (PCSA)

  • Archive of the Church of the Province of South Africa (CPSA)

  • Howard Pim Library, University of Fort Hare, Alice, South Africa (UFH)

  • Olive Schreiner Letters Online, Letters quoted are from Historical Manuscripts, University of Cape Town, South Africa.

  • Rhodes House Library, University of Oxford, United Kingdom

  • Papers of the United Society for the Propagation of the Gospel (SPG)

  • School of Oriental and African Studies, London, United Kingdom (SOAS)

  • Archives of the London Missionary Society/Council of World Mission (LMS)

  • Archives of the (Wesleyan) Methodist Missionary Society (WMMS)

  • South African National Archives, Pretoria, South Africa (SAB)

  • Western Cape Provincial Records and Archives Service (CA), Cape Town, South Africa

  • Magistrate’s Office, East London (1/ELN)

  • Magistrate’s Office, Idutywa (1/IDW)

  • Magistrate’s Office, Middledrift (1/MDT)

  • Magistrate’s Office, Nqamakwe (1/NKE)

  • Magistrate’s Office, Tamacha (1/TAM)

  • British Kaffrarian Papers (BK)

  • Office of the Chief Magistrate of the Transkeian Territories (CMT)

  • Fingo Agent (FA)

  • Lieutenant Governor of the Eastern Cape (LG)

  • Special Magistrate, Middledrift (MDS)

  • Secretary of Native Affairs (NA)

  • Solicitor General’s Office (SGG)

  • Women’s Christian Temperance Union of the Cape Colony (WCTU)

  • Colony of the Cape of Good Hope, Debates in the House of Assembly (Cape Town: Cape Times Ltd, 1854–1912) (House of Assembly Debates).

  • British Parliamentary Papers. House of Commons Sessional Papers (BPP).

  • (Names are given fully or partially at the request of the interviewee.)

  • Interview with Albertina and Nonkosi, Masimanyane Women’s Support Centre, East London, South Africa, September 11, 2008.

  • Interview with Mrs. Kama, chief of the amaGqunukhwebe, King William’s Town, South Africa, September 17, 2008.

  • Interview with Monique, Masimanyane Women’s Support Centre, East London, South Africa, August 26, 2008.

  • Interview with Annie Ngcuka and Godon Ngcuka, Annshaw, South Africa, August 8, 2008.

  • Interview with Nono Sihlali, Social Development Office, Middledrift, South Africa, August 27, 2008.

  • Interview with Xoliswa Tunyiswa, Annshaw, South Africa, May 4, 2008.

  • ANC Today,

  • Christian Express (also published as Kafir Express), Lovedale.

  • The Crisis, New York.

  • Daily Dispatch, East London.

  • Daily Maverick,

  • Foreign Missionary Chronicle, Pittsburgh PA.

  • The Guardian, London.

  • Imvo Zabantsundu, King William’s Town.

  • Isigidimi Samaxhosa, Lovedale.

  • Izwi Labantu, East London.

  • Mail and Guardian, Johannesburg.

  • New York Times, New York.

  • Sunday Independent, London.

  • Cape Supreme Reports (Juta: Cape Town) (SC).

  • Reports of Cases Decided in the Eastern District Court of the Colony of the Cape of Good Hope (Juta: Cape Town) (EDC).

  • Reports of Cases Decided in the Supreme Court of the Transvaal (African Book Company: Grahamstown.) (TS).

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