Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2014
  • Online publication date: June 2014

10 - The impacts of climate change on marine turtle reproductive success

Summary

Why marine turtles?

Ectothermic species are fundamentally affected by environmental temperatures, which largely dictate their metabolic rate. In marine turtles, foraging behavior, migratory patterns, and ultimately breeding success may be modulated by the environment and influenced by climate change. This has the potential to have both positive and negative effects. The seven species of marine turtles broadly occupy three foraging niches (planktivory, herbivory, and omnivory) and occur in almost every non-polar ocean basin in the world, from shallow coastal seas to open ocean habitats. The effects of climate change to marine turtles likely will be wide ranging and of direct relevance to other marine animals in these varied habitats. Marine turtles are a fascinating “canary in the coal mine” with which to study the effects of climate change in marine habitats, and there has been an exponential increase in interest in the effects of climate change on them in the last decade (Poloczanska et al., 2009; Hamann et al., 2010; Hawkes et al., 2010). Marine turtles are also generally considered charismatic, making them ideal subjects with which to raise awareness of climate change effects to biodiversity and to increase support for effective management and conservation of marine environments.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO
References
Airoldi, L., Abbiati, M., Beck, M. W., et al. (2005). An ecological perspective on the deployment and design of low-crested and other hard coastal defence structures. Coastal Engineering, 52, 1073–1087.
Allen, Z. C., Shah, N. J., Grant, A., Derand, G. D. & Bell, D. (2010). Hawksbill turtle monitoring in Cousin Island, Seychelles: An eight-fold increase in annual nesting numbers. Endangered Species Research, 11, 195–200.
Baez, J. C., Bellido, J. J., Ferri-Yanez, F., et al. (2011). The North Atlantic Oscillation and sea surface temperature affect loggerhead abundance around the Strait of Gibraltar. Scientia Marina, 75, 571–575.
Baker, J., Littnan, C. & Johnston, D. (2006). Potential effects of sea level rise on the terrestrial habitats of endangered and endemic megafauna in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Endangered Species Research, 2, 21–30.
Baptistotte, C., Scalfoni, J. T. & Mrosovsky, N. (1999). Male-producing thermal ecology of a southern loggerhead turtle nesting beach in Brazil: Implications for conservation. Animal Conservation, 2, 9–13.
Beggs, J., Horrocks, J. & Krueger, B. (2007). Increase in hawksbill sea turtle Eretmochelys imbricata nesting in Barbados, West Indies. Endangered Species Research, 3, 159–168.
Bell, C. D. L., Parsons, J., Austin, T. J., et al. (2005). Some of them came home: The Cayman Turtle Farm headstarting project for the green turtle Chelonia mydas. Oryx, 39, 137–148.
Bell, C. D., Solomon, J. L., Blumenthal, J. M., et al. (2007). Monitoring and conservation of critically reduced marine turtle nesting populations: Lessons from the Cayman Islands. Animal Conservation, 10, 39–47.
Bell, C. D., Blumenthal, J. M., Broderick, A. C. & Godley, B. J. (2009). Investigating potential for depensation in marine turtles: How low can you go?Conservation Biology, 24, 226–235.
Bengtsson, L. (2001). Weather – Hurricane threats. Science, 293, 440–441.
Bentivegna, F., Rasotto, M. B., de Lucia, G. A., et al. (2010). Loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) nests at high latitudes in Italy: A call for vigilance in the western Mediterranean. Chelonian Conservation and Biology, 9, 283–289.
Bollmer, J. L., Irwin, M. E., Rieder, J. P. & Parker, P. G. (1999). Multiple paternity in loggerhead turtle clutches. Copeia, 1999, 475–478.
Booth, D. T. & Evans, A. (2011). Warm water and cool nests are best: How global warming might influence hatchling green turtle swimming performance. PLos ONE, 6, e23162.
Bouchard, S., Moran, K., Tiwari, M., et al. (1998). Effects of exposed pilings on sea turtle nesting activity at Melbourne Beach, Florida. Journal of Coastal Research, 14, 1343–1347.
Bowen, B., Avise, J. C., Richardson, J. I., et al. (1993). Population structure of loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Conservation Biology, 7, 834–844.
Bowen, B. W. & Karl, S. A. (2007). Population genetics and phylogeography of sea turtles. Molecular Ecology, 16, 4886–4907.
Brock, K. A., Reece, J. S. & Ehrhart, L. M. (2009). The effects of artificial beach nourishment on marine turtles: Differences between loggerhead and green turtles. Restoration Ecology, 17, 297–307.
Broderick, A. C., Godley, B. J. & Hays, G. C. (2001). Metabolic heating and the prediction of sex ratios for green turtles (Chelonia mydas). Physiological and Biochemical Zoology, 74, 161–170.
Burke, L. & Maidens, J. (2004). Reefs at Risk in the Caribbean. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute.
Caut, S., Guirlet, E. & Girondot, M. (2010). Effect of tidal overwash on the embryonic development of leatherback turtles in French Guiana. Marine Environmental Research, 69, 254–261.
Chaieb, O., El Ouaer, A.Mafucci, F., et al. (2011). Genetic survey of loggerhead turtle Caretta caretta nesting population in Tunisia. Marine Biodiversity Records, 3, e20.
Chaloupka, M., Kamezaki, N. & Limpus, C. (2008). Is climate change affecting the population dynamics of the endangered Pacific loggerhead sea turtle?Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 356, 136–143.
Chan, E. H. & Liew, H. C. (1995). Incubation temperatures and sex-ratios in the Malaysian leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea). Biological Conservation, 74, 169–174.
Cowell, P. J., Thom, B. G., Jones, R. A., Everts, C. H. & Simanovic, D. (2006). Management of uncertainty in predicting climate-change impacts on beaches. Journal of Coastal Research, 22, 232–245.
Crain, D. A., Bolten, A. B. & Bjorndal, K. A. (1995). Effects of beach nourishment on sea turtles: Review and research initiatives. Restoration Ecology, 3, 95–104.
Crim, J. L., Spotila, L. D., Spotila, J. R., et al. (2002). The leatherback turtle, Dermochelys coriacea, exhibits both polyandry and polygyny. Molecular Ecology, 11, 2097–2106.
Cuevas, E., de los Angeles, M., Liceaga, C. & Marino-Tapia, I. (2010). Influence of beach slope and width on hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata) and green turtle (Chelonia mydas) nesting activity in El Cuyo, Yucatan, Mexico. Chelonian Conservation and Biology, 9, 262–267.
Ditmer, M. A. & Stapleton, S. P. (2012). Factors affecting hatch success of hawksbill sea turtles on Long Island, Antigua, West Indies. PLoS ONE, 7, e38472.
Doody, J. S., Guarino, E., Georges, A. , et al. (2006). Nest site choice compensates for climate effects on sex ratios in a lizard with environmental sex determination. Evolutionary Ecology, 20, 307–330.
Dugan, J. E., Hubbard, D. M., Rodil, I. F., Revell, D. L. & Schroeter, S. (2008). Ecological effects of coastal armoring on sandy beaches. Marine Ecology – An Evolutionary Perspective, 29, 160–170.
Dutton, P. H., Bowen, B. W., Owens, D. W., Barragan, A. & Davis, S. K. (1999). Global phylogeography of the leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea). Journal of Zoology, 248, 397–409.
Ekanayake, E. M. L., Kapurusinghe, T., Sama, M. M., et al. (2013). Paternity of green turtles (Chelonia mydas) clutches laid at Kosgoda, Sri Lanka. Herpetological Conservation and Biology, 8, 27–36.
Encalada, S. E., Bjorndal, K. A., Bolten, A. B., et al. (1998). Population structure of loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) nesting colonies in the Atlantic and Mediterranean as inferred from mitochondrial DNA control region sequences. Marine Biology, 130, 567–575.
Ewert, M. A., Etchberger, C. R. & Nelson, C. E. (2004). Turtle sex determining modes and TSD patterns, and some TSD pattern correlates. In Valenzuela, N. & Lance, V. (eds.), Temperature-dependent Sex Determination in Vertebrates. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, pp. 21–32.
Ewert, M. A., Lang, J. W. & Nelson, C. E. (2005). Geographic variation in the pattern of temperature-dependent sex determination in the American snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina). Journal of Zoology, 265, 81–95.
Fish, M. R., Cote, I. M., Gill, J. A., et al. (2005). Predicting the impact of sea-level rise on Caribbean sea turtle nesting habitat. Conservation Biology, 19, 482–491.
Fish, M. R., Cote, I. M., Horrocks, J. A., et al. (2008). Construction setback regulations and sea-level rise: Mitigating sea turtle nesting beach loss. Ocean and Coastal Management, 51, 330–341.
Fitzsimmons, N. N. (1998). Single paternity of clutches and sperm storage in the promiscuous green turtle (Chelonia mydas). Molecular Ecology, 7, 575–584.
Fitzsimmons, N. N., Limpus, C. J., Norman, J. A., et al. (1997). Philopatry of male marine turtles inferred from mitochondrial DNA markers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 94, 8912–8917.
Freedberg, S. & Wade, M. J. (2001). Cultural inheritance as a mechanism for population sex-ratio bias in reptiles. Evolution, 55, 1049–1055.
Fuentes, M. M. P. B. & Abbs, D. (2010). Effects of projected changes in tropical cyclone frequency on sea turtles. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 412, 283–292.
Fuentes, M. M. P. B. & Porter, W. P. (2013). Using a microclimate model to evaluate impacts of climate change on sea turtles. Ecological Modelling, 251, 150–157.
Fuentes, M. M. P. B., Maynard, J. A., Guinea, M., et al. (2009). Proxy indicators of sand temperature help project impacts of global warming on sea turtles in northen Australia. Endangered Species Research, 9, 33–40.
Fuentes, M. M. P. B., Limpus, C. J., Hamann, M. & Dawson, J. (2010). Potential impacts of projected sea-level rise on sea turtle rookeries. Aquatic Conservation-Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 20, 132–139.
Fuentes, M. M. P. B., Limpus, C. J. & Hamann, M. (2011). Vulnerability of sea turtle nesting grounds to climate change. Global Change Biology, 17, 140–153.
Fuentes, M. M. P. B., Fish, M. R. & Maynard, J. (2012). Management strategies to mitigate the impacts of climate change on sea turtle’s terrestrial reproductive phase. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 17, 51–63.
Garcon, J. S., Grech, A., Moloney, J. & Hamann, M. (2010). Relative Exposure Index: An important factor in sea turtle nesting distribution. Aquatic Conservation-Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 20, 140–149.
Girondot, M. & Fretey, J. (1996). Leatherback turtles, Dermochelys coriacea, nesting in French Guiana, 1978–1995. Chelonian Conservation and Biology, 2, 204–208.
Godfrey, M. H., Barreto, R. & Mrosovsky, N. (1996). Estimating past and present sex ratios of sea turtles in Suriname. Canadian Journal of Zoology – Revue Canadienne De Zoologie, 74, 267–277.
Godfrey, M. H., Barreto, R. & Mrosovsky, N. (1997). Metabolically-generated heat of developing eggs and its potential effect on sw ratio of sea turtle hatchlings. Journal of Herpetology, 31, 616–619.
Goldenberg, S. B., Landsea, C. W., Mestas-Nunez, A. M. & Gray, W. M. (2001). The recent increase in Atlantic hurricane activity: Causes and implications. Science, 293, 474–479.
Gyuris, E. (1994). The rate of predation by fishes on hatchlings of the green turtle (Chelonia mydas). Coral Reefs, 13, 137–144.
Hamann, M., Limus, C. J. & Read, M. A. (2007). Vulnerability of marine reptiles in the Great Barrier Reef to climate change. In Johnson, J. E. & Marshall, P. A. (eds.), Climate Change and the Great Barrier Reef: A Vulnerability Assessment. Hobart: Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority and Australia Greenhouse Office.
Hamann, M., Godfrey, M., Seminoff, J., et al. (2010). Global research priorities for sea turtles: Informing management and conservation in the 21st century. Endangered Species Research, 11, 245–269.
Hansen, L., Hoffman, J., Drews, C. & Mielbrecht, E. (2010). Designing climate-smart conservation: Guidance and case studies. Conservation Biology, 24, 63–69.
Harry, J. L. & Briscoe, D. A. (1988). Multiple paternity in the loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta). Journal of Heredity, 79, 96–99.
Hawkes, L. A., Broderick, A. C., Godfrey, M. H. & Godley, B. J. (2007). Investigating the potential impacts of climate change on a marine turtle population. Global Change Biology, 13, 923–932.
Hawkes, L. A., Broderick, A. C., Godfrey, M. H. & Godley, B. J. (2010). Climate change and marine turtles. Endangered Species Research, 7, 137–154.
Hays, G. C., Mackay, A., Adams, C. R., et al. (1995). Nest-site selection by sea-turtles. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 75, 667–674.
Hays, G. C., Fossette, S., Katseledis, K. A., Schofield, G. & Gravenor, M. B. (2010). Breeding periodicity for male sea turtles, operational sex ratios, and implications in the face of climate change. Conservation Biology, 24, 1636–1643.
Hoekert, W. E. J., Neufeglise, H., Schouten, A. D. & Menken, S. B. J. (2002). Multiple paternity and female-biased mutation at a microsatellite locus in the olive ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea). Heredity, 89, 107–113.
Hoggard, W. (1991). First recorded turtle nesting on Mississippi’s man-made beach. Marine Turtle Newsletter, 52, 11–12.
Houghton, J. D. R., Myers, A. E., Lloyd, C., et al. (2007). Protracted rainfall decreases temperature within leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) clutches in Grenada, West Indies: Ecological implications for a species displaying temperature dependent sex determination. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 345, 71–77.
Hulin, V., Delmas, V., Girondot, M., Godfrey, M. H. & Guillon, J. M. (2009). Temperature-dependent sex determination and global change: Are some species at greater risk?Oecologia, 160, 493–506.
IPCC. (2007). Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Geneva, Switzerland: IPCC.
Ireland, J. S., Broderick, A. C., Glen, F., et al. (2003). Multiple paternity assessed using microsatellite markers, in green turtles Chelonia mydas (Linnaeus, 1758) of Ascension Island, South Atlantic. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 291, 149–160.
Iverson, J. B. (1991). Patterns of survivorship in turtles (Order Testudines). Canadian Journal of Zoology – Revue Canadienne De Zoologie, 69, 385–391.
James, M. C., Eckert, S. A. & Myers, R. A. (2005a). Migratory and reproductive movements of male leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea). Marine Biology, 147, 845–853.
James, M. C., Myers, R. A. & Ottensmeyer, C. A. (2005b). Behaviour of leatherback sea turtles, Dermochelys coriacea, during the migratory cycle. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, Biological Sciences, 272, 1547–1555.
Jensen, M. P., Abreu-Grobois, F. A., Frydenburg, J. & Loeschcke, V. (2006). Microsatellites provide insight into contrasting mating patterns in arribada vs. non-arribada olive ridley sea turtle rookeries. Molecular Ecology, 15, 2567–2575.
Jones, T. T., Reina, R. D., Darveau, C. A. & Lutz, P. L. (2007). Ontogeny of energetics in leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea) and olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea) sea turtle batchlings. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular and Integrative Physiology, 147, 313–322.
Joseph, J. & Shaw, P. W. (2011). Multiple paternity in egg clutches of hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata). Conservation Genetics, 12, 601–605.
Kallimanis, A. S. (2010). Temperature dependent sex determination and climate change. Oikos, 119, 197–200.
Kamel, S. J. & Mrosovsky, N. (2004). Nest site selection in leatherbacks, Dermochelys coriacea: Individual patterns and their consequences. Animal Behaviour, 68, 357–366.
Kamel, S. J. & Mrosovsky, N. (2005). Repeatability of nesting preferences in the hawksbill sea turtle, Eretmochelys imbricata, and their fitness consequences. Animal Behaviour, 70, 819–828.
Kaska, Y., Downie, R., Tippett, R. & Furness, R. W. (1998). Natural temperature regimes for loggerhead and green turtle nests in the eastern Mediterranean. Canadian Journal of Zoology – Revue Canadienne De Zoologie, 76, 723–729.
Kelle, L., Gratiot, N., Nolibos, I., et al. (2007). Monitoring of nesting leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea): Contribution of remote sensing for real-time assessment of beach coverage in French Guiana. Chelonian Conservation and Biology, 6, 142–147.
Kichler, K., Holder, M. T., Davis, S. K., Marquez, R. & Owens, D. W. (1999). Detection of multiple paternity in the Kemp’s ridley sea turtle with limited sampling. Molecular Ecology, 8, 819–830.
Koike, K. (1996). The countermeasures against coastal hazards in Japan. GeoJournal, 38, 301–312.
Kraus, N. C. & McDougal, W. G. (1996). The effects of seawalls on the beach: Part I, An updated literature review. Journal of Coastal Research, 12, 691–701.
Kwan, D. 1994. Fat reserves and reproduction in the green turtle (Chelonia mydas). Wildlife Research, 21, 257–266.
Lamont, M. & Fujisaki, I. (2013). Effects of ocean temperature on nesting phenology and fecundity of loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta). Journal of Herpetology, .
Lara-De La Cruz, L. I., Nakagawa, K. O., Cono-Camodio, H., et al. (2010). Detecting patterns of fertilization and frequency of multiple paternity in Chelonia mydas of Colola (Michoacán, Mexico). Hidrobiologica, 20, 85–89.
Lasala, J. A., Harrison, J. S., Williams, K. L. & Rostal, D. C. (in press). Strong male-biased operational sex ratio in a breeding population of loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) inferred by paternal genotype reconstruction analysis. Ecology and Evolution, .
Lee, P. L. M. & Hays, G. C. (2004). Polyandry in a marine turtle: Females make the best of a bad job. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101, 6530–6535.
Lee, P. L. M., Luschi, P. & Hays, G. C. (2007). Detecting female precise natal philopatry in green turtles using assignment methods. Molecular Ecology, 16, 61–74.
Leslie, L. M., Karoly, D. J., Leplastrier, M. & Buckley, B. W. (2007). Variability of tropical cyclones over the southwest Pacific Ocean using a high-resolution climate model. Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics, 97, 171–180.
Limpus, C. J. (1993). The green turtle, Chelonia mydas, in Queensland: Breeding males in the Southern Great Barrier Reef. Wildlife Research, 20, 513–523.
Lutcavage, M. E., Plotkin, P., Witherington, B. E. & Lutz, P. L. (1997). Human impacts on sea turtle survival. In Lutz, P. L. & Musick, J. A. (eds.), The Biology of Sea Turtles, vol. 1. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, pp. 387–410.
Makowski, C., Rusenko, K. & Kruempel, C. J. (2008). Abiotic suitability of recycled glass cullet as an alternative sea turtle nesting substrate. Journal of Coastal Research, 24, 771–779.
Manzella, S. A., Caillouet, C. W. & Fontaine, C. T. (1988). Kemps ridley, Lepidochelys kempi, sea turtle head-start tag recoveries – Distribution, habitat and method of recovery. Marine Fisheries Review, 50, 24–32.
Martins, R. E. (1996). Storm impacts on loggerhead turtle reproductive success. Marine Turtle Newsletter, 73, 10–12.
Matsuzawa, Y., Sato, K., Sakamoto, W. & Bjorndal, K. A. (2002). Seasonal fluctuations in sand temperature: Effects on the incubation period and mortality of loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) pre-emergent hatchlings in Minabe, Japan. Marine Biology, 140, 639–646.
Mazaris, A. D., Kramer-Schast, S., Tzanopoulos, J. et al. (2009). Assessing the relative importance of conservation measures applied on sea turtles: Comparison of measures focusing on nesting success and hatching recruitment success. Amphibia–Reptilia, 30, 221–231.
Mazaris, A. D., Kallimanis, A. S., Pantis, J. D. & Hays, G. C. (2013). Phenological response of sea turtles to environmental variation across a species’ northern range. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, Biological Sciences, 280, 2012–2397.
McClenachan, L., Jackson, J. B. C. & Newman, M. J. H. (2006). Conservation implications of historic sea turtle nesting beach loss. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 4, 290–296.
Micheli-Campbell, M. A., Campbell, H. A., Cramp, R. L., Booth, D. T. & Franklin, C. E. (2011). Staying cool, keeping strong: Incubation temperature affects performance in a freshwater turtle. Journal of Zoology, 285, 266–273.
Mickelson, L. E. & Downie, J. R. (2010). Influence of incubation temperature on morphology and locomotion performance of leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea) hatchlings. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 88, 359–368.
Miller, J. D. (1997). Reproduction in sea turtles. In Lutz, P. L. & Musick, J. A. (eds.), The Biology of Sea Turtles, vol. 1. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, pp. 51–82.
Milton, S. L., Leonekabler, S., Schulman, A. A. & Lutz, P. L. (1994). Effects of hurricane Andrew on the sea-turtle nesting beaches of South Florida. Bulletin of Marine Science, 54, 974–981.
Milton, S. L., Schulman, A. A. & Lutz, P. L. (1997). The effect of beach nourishment with aragonite versus silicate sand on beach temperature and loggerhead sea turtle nesting success. Journal of Coastal Research, 13, 904–915.
Mitchell, N. J. & Janzen, F. J. (2010). Temperature-dependent sex determination and contemporary climate change. Sexual Development, 4, 129–140.
Montague, C. L. (2008). Recovering the sand deficit from a century of dredging and jetties along Florida’s Atlantic coast: A reevaluation of beach nourishment as an essential tool for ecological conservation. Journal of Coastal Research, 24, 899–916.
Moore, M. K. & Ball, R. M. (2002). Multiple paternity in loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) nests on Melbourne Beach, Florida: A microsatellite analysis. Molecular Ecology, 11, 281–288.
Morreale, S. J., Ruiz, G. J., Spotila, J. R. & Standora, E. A. (1982). Temperature-dependent sex determination: Current practices threaten conservation of sea turtles. Science, 216, 1245–1247.
Mortimer, J. A. (1990). The influence of beach and sand characteristics on the nesting-behaviour and clutch survival of green turtles (Chelonia mydas). Copeia, 1990, 802–817.
Mrosovsky, N. (1983). Conserving Sea Turtles. London: British Herpetological Society.
Mrosovsky, N. (1988). Pivotal temperatures for loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) from northern and southern nesting beaches. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 66, 661–669.
Mrosovsky, N. (2006). Distorting gene pools by conservation: Assessing the case of doomed turtle eggs. Environmental Management, 38, 523–531.
Naro-Maciel, E., Mrosovsky, N. & Marcovaldi, M. A. (1999). Thermal profiles of sea turtle hatcheries and nesting areas at Praia do Forte, Brazil. Chelonian Conservation and Biology, 3, 407–413.
Neuwald, J. L. & Valenzuela, N. (2011). The lesser known challenge of climate change: Thermal variance and sex-reversal in vertebrates with temperature-dependent sex determination. PLos ONE, 6, e18117.
Nicholls, R. J. (1998). Coastal Vulnerability Assessment for Sea-level Rise: Evaluation and Selection of Methodologies for Implementation. Technical report R098002. Caribbean Planning for Adaptation to Global Climate Change (CPACC) project.
O’Steen, S. (1998). Embryonic temperature influences juvenile temperature choice and growth rate in snapping turtles Chelydra serpentina. Journal of Experimental Biology, 201, 439–449.
Patino-Martinez, J., Marco, A., Quinones, L. & Hawkes, L. A. (2012). A potential tool to mitigate the impacts of climate change to the Caribbean leatherback sea turtle. Global Change Biology, 18, 401–411.
Pearse, D. E. & Avise, J. C. (2001). Turtle mating systems: Behavior, sperm storage, and genetic paternity. Journal of Heredity, 92, 206–211.
Peterson, C. H. & Bishop, M. J. (2005). Assessing the environmental impacts of beach nourishment. Bioscience, 55, 887–896.
Phillips, K. P., Jorgensen, T. H., Jolliffe, K. G., et al. (2013). Reconstructing paternal genotypes to infer patterns of sperm storage and sexual selection in the hawksbill turtle. Molecular Ecology, 22, 2301–2312.
Pike, D. A. & Stiner, J. C. (2007). Sea turtle species vary in their susceptibility to tropical cyclones. Oecologia, 153, 471–478.
Pike, D. A., Antworth, R. L. & Stiner, J. C. (2006). Earlier nesting contributes to shorter nesting seasons for the loggerhead seaturtle, Caretta caretta. Journal of Herpetology, 40, 91–94.
Pilkey, O. H. & Wright, H. L. (1988). Seawalls versus beaches. Journal of Coastal Research, SI4, 41–64.
Pintus, K., Godley, B. J., McGowan, A. & Broderick, A. C. (2009). Impact of clutch relocation on green turtle offspring. Journal of Wildlife Management, 73, 1151–1157.
Plotkin, P. T. (2007). Biology and Conservation of Ridley Sea Turtles. Washington, DC: John Hopkins University Press.
Poloczanska, E. S., Limpus, C. J. & Hays, G. C. (2009). Vulnerability of marine turtles to climate change. Advances in Marine Biology, 56, 151–211.
Prusty, G., Dash, S. & Singh, M. P. (2007). Spatio-temporal analysis of multi-date IRS imageries for turtle habitat dynamics characterization at Gahirmatha coast, India. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 28, 871–883.
Rabon, D., Johnson, S. B., Dodd, M., et al. (2004). Confirmed leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) nests from North Carolina, with a summary of nesting activities north of Florida. Marine Turtle Newsletter, 101, 4–8.
Reece, S. E., Broderick, A. C., Godley, B. J. & West, S. A. (2002). The effects of incubation environment, sex and pedigree on the hatchling phenotype in a natural population of loggerhead turtles. Evolutionary Ecology Research, 4, 737–748.
Reich, K. J., Bjorndal, K. A. & Bolten, A. B. (2007). The ‘lost years’ of green turtles: Using stable isotopes to study cryptic lifestages. Biology Letters, 3, 712–714.
Reina, R. D., Spotila, J. R., Paladino, F. V. & Dunham, A. E. (2009). Changed reproductive schedule of eastern Pacific leatherback turtles Dermochelys coriacea following the 1997–1998 El Nino to La Nina transition. Endangered Species Research, 7, 155–161.
Rivalan, P., Dutton, P. H., Baudry, E., Roden, S. E. & Girondot, M. (2006). Demographic scenario inferred from genetic data in leatherback turtles nesting in French Guiana and Suriname. Biological Conservation, 130, 1–9.
Rizkalla, C. E. & Savage, A. (2011). Impact of seawalls on loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) nesting and hatching success. Journal of Coastal Research, 27, 166–173.
Ross, J. P. (2005). Hurricane effects on nesting Caretta caretta. Marine Turtle Newsletter, 108, 13–14.
Rumbold, D. G., Davis, P. W. & Perretta, C. (2001). Estimating the effect of beach nourishment on Caretta caretta (loggerhead sea turtle) nesting. Restoration Ecology, 9, 304–310.
Saba, V. S., Santidrian-Tomillo, P., Reina, R. D., et al. (2007). The effect of the El Nino Southern Oscillation on the reproductive frequency of eastern Pacific leatherback turtles. Journal of Applied Ecology, 44, 395–404.
Saba, V. S., Spotila, J. R., Chavez, F. P. & Musick, J. A. (2008). Bottom-up and climatic forcing on the worldwide population of leatherback turtles. Ecology, 89, 1414–1427.
Sakaoka, K., Yoshii, M., Okamoto, H., Sakai, F. & Nagasawa, K. (2011). Sperm utilization patterns and reproductive success in captive loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta). Chelonian Conservation and Biology, 10, 62–72.
Sakaoka, K., Yoshii, M., Okamoto, H., Sakai, F. & Nagasawa, K. (2012). Mate selection based on genetic relatedness of loggerhead turtles in captivity. Chelonian Conservation and Biology, 11, 214–222.
Sandoval, S., Gomez-Munoz, V., Gutierrez, J. & Angel Porta-Gandara, M. (2011). Metabolic heat estimation of the sea turtle Lepidochelys olivacea embryos. Journal of Thermal Biology, 36, 138–141.
Schlacher, T. A., Schoeman, D. S., Dugan, J., et al. (2008). Sandy beach ecosystems: Key features, sampling issues, management challenges and climate change impacts. Marine Ecology – An Evolutionary Perspective, 29, 70–90.
Schulz, J. P. (1975). Sea Turtles Nesting in Surinam. Zoologische Verhandelingen (Leiden) No. 143. Leiden: Brill, pp. 3–143.
Schwanz, L. E., Spencer, R. J., Bowden, R. M. & Janzen, F. J. (2010). Climate and predation dominate juvenile and adult recruitment in a turtle with temperature-dependent sex determination. Ecology, 91, 3016–3026.
Sénégas, J. B., Hochscheid, S., Groul, J. M., Lagarrigue, B. & Bentivegna, F. (2008). Discovery of the northernmost loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) nest. Marine Biodiversity Records (Online), 2.
Shaver, D. J. & Caillouet, C. W. (1998). More Kemp’s ridley turtles return to South Texas to nest. Marine Turtle Newsletter, 82, 1–5.
Slott, J. M., Murray, A. B., Ashton, A. D. & Crowley, T. J. (2006). Coastline responses to changing storm patterns. Geophysical Research Letters, 33, L18404.
Solow, A. R., Bjorndal, K. A. & Bolten, A. B. (2002). Annual variation in nesting numbers of marine turtles: The effect of sea surface temperature on re-migration intervals. Ecology Letters, 5, 742–746.
Standora, E. A. & Spotila, J. R. (1985). Temperature-dependent sex determination in sea turtles. Copeia, 1985, 711–722.
Steckenreuter, A., Pilcher, N., Krueger, B. & Ben, J. (2010). Male-biased primary sex ratio of leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) at the Huon Coast, Papua New Guinea. Chelonian Conservation and Biology, 9, 123–128.
Stewart, K. R. & Dutton, P. H. (2011). Paternal genotype reconstruction reveals multiple paternity and sex ratios in a breeding population of leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea). Conservation Genetics, 12, 1101–1113.
Telemeco, R. S., Elphick, M. J. & Shine, R. (2009). Nesting lizards (Bassiana duperreyi) compensate partly, but not completely, for climate change. Ecology, 90, 17–22.
Theissinger, K., Fitzsimmons, N. N., Limpus, C. J. & Phillott, A. D. (2009). Mating system, multiple paternity and effective population size in the endemic flatback turtle (Natador depressus) in Australia. Conservation Genetics, 10, 329–346.
Thom, B. G. & Hall, W. (1991). Behavior of beach profiles during accretion and erosion dominated periods. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 16, 113–127.
Tucker, J. K., Dolan, C. R., Lamer, J. T. & Dustman, E. A. (2008). Climatic warming, sex ratios, and red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans) in Illinois. Chelonian Conservation and Biology, 7, 60–69.
Uller, T. & Olsson, M. (2008). Multiple paternity in reptiles: Patterns and processes. Molecular Ecology, 17, 2566–2580.
Valverde, R. A., Wingard, S., Gomez, F., Tordoir, M. T. & Orrego, C. M. (2010). Field lethal incubation temperature of olive ridley sea turtle Lepidochelys olivacea embryos at a mass nesting rookery. Endangered Species Research, 12, 77–86.
Van Houtan, K. S. & Bass, O. L. (2007). Stormy oceans are associated with declines in sea turtle hatching. Current Biology, 17, R590–R591.
Wallace, B. P., Seminoff, J. A., Kilham, S. S., Spotila, J. R. & Dutton, P. H. (2006). Leatherback turtles as oceanographic indicators: Stable isotope analyses reveal a trophic dichotomy between ocean basins. Marine Biology, 149, 953–960.
Weber, S. B., Broderick, A. C., Groothuis, T. G. G., et al. (2011). Fine-scale thermal adaptation in a green turtle nesting population. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, Biological Sciences, 279, 1077–1084.
Webster, P. J., Holland, G. J., Curry, J. A. & Chang, H. R. (2005). Changes in tropical cyclone number, duration, and intensity in a warming environment. Science, 309, 1844–1846.
Weishampel, J. F., Bagley, D. A. & Ehrhart, L. M. (2004). Earlier nesting by loggerhead sea turtles following sea surface warming. Global Change Biology, 10, 1424–1427.
Weishampel, J. F., Bagley, D. A., Ehrhart, L. M. & Weishampel, A. C. (2010). Nesting phenologies of two sympatric sea turtle species related to sea surface temperatures. Endangered Species Research, 12, 41–47.
Wetterer, J. K., Wood, L. D., Johnson, C., Krahe, H. & Fitchett, S. (2009). Predaceous ants, beach replenishment, and nest placement by sea turtles. Environmental Entomology, 36, 1084–1091.
Whitmore, C. P. & Dutton, P. H. (1985). Infertility, embryonic mortality and nest-site selection in leatherback and green sea turtles in Suriname. Biological Conservation, 34, 251–272.
Witherington, B., Hirama, S. & Mosier, A. (2011a). Barriers to sea turtle nesting on Florida (United States) beaches: Linear extent and changes following storms. Journal of Coastal Research, 27, 450–458.
Witherington, B., Hirama, S. & Mosier, A. (2011b). Sea turtle responses to barriers on their nesting beach. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 401, 1–6.
Witt, M. J., Hawkes, L. A., Godfrey, M. H., Godley, B. J. & Broderick, A. C. (2010). Predicting the impacts of climate change on a globally distributed species: The case of the loggerhead turtle. Journal of Experimental Biology, 213, 901–911.
Wright, L., Fuller, W., Godley, B., et al. (2012). Reconstruction of paternal genotypes over multiple breeding seasons reveals male green turtles do not breed annually. Molecular Ecology, 21, 3625–3635.
Yntema, C. L. & Mrosovsky, N. (1980). Sexual differentiation in hatchling loggerheads (Caretta caretta) incubated at different controlled temperatures. Herpetologica, 36, 33–36.
Yntema, C. L. & Mrosovsky, N. (1982). Critical periods and pivotal temperatures for sexual-differentiation in loggerhead sea turtles. Canadian Journal of Zoology – Revue Canadienne De Zoologie, 60, 1012–1016.
Zbinden, J. A., Margaritoulis, D. & Arlettaz, R. (2006). Metabolic heating in Mediterranean loggerhead sea turtle clutches. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 334, 151–157.
Zbinden, J. A., Largiader, A. R., Leippert, F., Margaritoulis, D. & Arlettaz, R. (2007). High frequency of multiple paternity in the largest rookery of Mediterranean loggerhead sea turtles. Molecular Ecology, 16, 3703–3711.
Zheng, J. H., Jeng, D. S. & Mase, H. (2007). Sandy beach profile response to sloping seawalls: An experimental study. Journal of Coastal Research, SI50, 334–337.