Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2008
  • Online publication date: November 2009

8 - Stroke – imaging and therapy

References

Abciximab in Ischemic Stroke Investigators. Abciximab in acute ischemic stroke: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation study. Stroke 2000; 31: 601–609.
Adams, H. P., Jr, Brott, T. G., Furlan, A. J., et al. Guidelines for thrombolytic therapy for acute stroke: a supplement to the guidelines for the management of patients with acute ischemic stroke: a statement for healthcare professionals from a special writing group of the Stroke Council, American Heart Association. Circulation 1996; 94: 1167–1174.
Albers, G. W. Expanding the window for thrombolytic therapy in acute stroke: the potential role of acute MRI in patient selection. Stroke 1999; 30: 2230–2237.
Barber, P. A., Darby, D. G., Desmond, P. M. et al. Predicition of stroke outcome with echoplanar perfusion- and diffusion-weighted MRI. Neurology 1998; 51(2): 418–426.
Barnett, H. J. M., Meldrum, H. E., and Eliasziw, M. The appropriate use of carotid endarterectomy. Canadian Medical Association Journal 2002; 166(9): 1169–1179.
Becker, K. J., and Brott, T. G. Approval of the Merci clot retriever: a critical view. Stroke 2005; 36: 400–403.
Buchan, A. M., Barber, P. A., Newcommon, N. et al. Effectiveness of t-PA in acute ischemic stroke: outcome relates to appropriateness. Neurology 2000; 54: 679–684.
Butcher, K. S., Parsons, M., MacGregor, L. et al. Refining the diffusion-perfusion mismatch hypothesis. Stroke 2005; 36: 1153–1159.
Chalela, J. A., Kand, D. W., Luby, M. et al. Early magnetic resonance imaging findings in patients receiving tissue plasminogen activator predict outcome: insights into the pathophysiology of acute stroke in the thrombolysis era. Annals of Neurology 2004; 55(1): 105–112.
Demchuk, A. M., and Coutts, S. B. Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score in Acute Stroke Triage. Neuroimaging Clinics of North America 2005a; 15: 409–419.
Demchuk, A. M., Hill, M. D., Barber, P. A., et al. Importance of early ischemic computed tomography changes using ASPECTS in NINDS rtPA stroke study. Stroke 2005b; 36: 2110.
Desmond, P. M., Lovell, A. C., Rawlinson, A. A., et al. The value of apparent diffusion coefficient maps in early cerebral ischemia. American Journal of Neuroradiology 2001; 22: 1260–1267.
Executive Committee for the Asymptomatic Carotid Atherosclerosis Study. Endarterectomy for asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis. Journal of the American Medical Association 1995; 273: 1421–1428.
Executive Committee of the ASITN; Intraarterial Thrombolysis: Ready for Prime Time? American Journal of Neuroradiology 2001a; 22: 55–58.
Executive Committee of the ASITN; Intraarterial thrombolysis. The American Journal of Neuroradiology AJNR 2001b; 22: S18-S21.
Fiebach, J. B., Schellinger, P. D., and Gass, A. Stroke magnetic resonance imaging is accurate in hyperacute intracerebral hemorrhage: a multicenter study on the validity of stroke imaging. Stroke, 2004; 35(2): 502–506.
Fisher, M., Pessin, M. S., and Furian, A. J. ECASS: lessons for future thrombolytic stroke trials. European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study. Journal of the American Medical Association 1995; 274(13): 1058–1059.
Furlan, A., Higashida, R., and Weschler, L. Intra-arterial prourokinase for acute ischemic stroke: The PROACT II Study: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association 1999; 282: 2003–2011.
Furlan, A. J., Eyding, D., Albers, G. W. et al. the DEDAS Investigators. Dose escalation of desmoteplase for acute ischemic stroke (DEDAS): evidence of safety and efficacy 3 to 9 hours after stroke onset. Stroke 2006; 37(5): 1227–1231.
Garcia, J. H. Experimental ischemic stroke: a review. Stroke 1984; 15: 5–14.
Gaskill-Shipley, M. F. Routine CT evaluation of acute stroke. Neuroimaging Clinics of North America 1999; 9(3): 411–422.
Gonzalez, R. G., Schaefer, P. W., Buonanno, F. S. et al. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging: diagnostic accuracy in patients imaged within 6 hours of stroke symptom onset. Radiology 1999; 210: 155–162.
Grossman, R. I., and Yousem, D. M. Neuroradiology: the Requisites. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Mosby Publishers, 2003, 195.
Hacke, W., Kaste, M., Fieschi, C. et al. Intravenous thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator for acute hemispheric stroke. The European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study (ECASS). Journal of the American Medical Association 1995; 274: 1017–1025.
Hacke, W., Kaste, M., Fieshchi, C. et al. Randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of thrombolytic therapy with intravenous alteplase in acute ischemic stroke (ECASS II) Lancet 1998a; 352: 1245–1251.
Hacke, W., Bluhmki, E., Steiner, T. et al. Dichotomized efficacy end points and global end-point analysis applied to the ECASS intention-to-treat data set: post hoc analysis of ECASS I. Stroke 1998b; 29: 2073–2075.
Hacke, W., Donnan, G., Fieschi, C. et al., on behalf of the ATLANTIS Trials Investigators, ECASS Trials Investigators, NINDS rt-PA Study Group Investigators; Association of outcome with early stroke treatment: pooled analysis of ATLANTIS, ECASS, and NINDS rt-PA stroke trials. Lancet 2004; 363: 768–774.
Hacke, W., Albers, G., Al-Rawi, Y. et al. DIAS Study Group; The Desmoteplase in acute ischemic stroke trial (DIAS): a phase II MRI-based 9-hour window acute stroke thrombolysis trial with intravenous desmoteplase. Stroke 2005; 36(11): 66–73.
Heiserman, J. E., Dean, B. L., Hodak, J. A. et al. Neurologic complications of cerebral angiography. American Journal of Neuroradiology 1994; 15: 1401.
Hjort, N., Butcher, K., Davis, S. M. et al. Magnetic resonance imaging criteria for thrombolysis in acute cerebral infarct. Stroke 2005; 36: 388–410.
Johnston, D. C. and Goldstein, L. B. Clinical carotid endarterectomy decision-making: noninvasive vascular imaging versus angiography. Neurology 2001; 56: 1009–1015.
Kidwell, C. S., Saver, J. L., Mattiello, J. et al. Thrombolytic reversal of acute human cerebral ischemic injury shown by diffusion/perfusion magnetic resonance imaging. Annals of Neurology 2000; 47(4): 462–469.
Kidwell, C. S., Saver, J. L., Starkman, S. et al. Late secondary ischemic injury in patients receiving intra-arterial thrombolysis. Annals of Neurology 2002a; 52: 698–705.
Kidwell, C. S., Saver, J. L., Villablanca, J. P. et al. Magnetic resonance imaging detection of microbleeds before thrombolysis: an emerging application. Stroke 2002b; 33(1): 95–98.
Kidwell, C. S., Chalela, J. A., Saver, J. L. et al. Comparison of MRI and CT for detection of acute intracerebral hemorrhage. Journal of the American Medical Association 2004; 292(15): 1823–1830.
Kim, J.-A., Chung, J. I., Yoon, P. H. et al. Transient MR signal changes in patients with generalized tonicoclonic seizure or status epilepticus: periictal diffusion-weighted imaging. American Journal of Neuroradiology 2001; 22: 1149–1160.
Kleindorfer, D., Kissela, B., Schneider, A. et al. Eligibility for recombinant tissue plasminogen activator in acute ischemic stroke: a population-based study. Stroke 2004; 35(2):E27–E29.
Liebeskind, D. S., Kidwell, C. S. for the UCLA Thrombolysis Investigators. Advanced MR imaging of acute stroke: the University of California at Los Angeles endovascular therapy experience. Neuroimaging Clinics of North America 2005; 15: 455–466.
Lewandowski, C., Frankel, M., Tomsick, T. et al. Combined intravenous and intra-arterial r-TPA versus intra-arterial therapy of acute ischemic stroke. Emergency management of stroke (EMS) bridging trial. Stroke 1999; 30: 2598–2605.
Leys, D., Pruvo, J. P., Godefroy, O. et al. Prevalence and significance of hyperdense middle cerebral artery in acute stroke. Stroke 1992; 23: 317–324.
Lyden, P. Early major ischemic changes on computed tomography should not preclude use of tissue plasminogen activator. Stroke 2003; 34: 821–822.
Manelfe, C., Larrue, V., von Kummer, R. et al. Association of hyperdense middle cerebral artery sign with clinical outcome in patients treated with tissue plasminogen activator. Stroke 1999; 30: 769–772.
Marks, M. P. Computed tomography angiography. Neuroimaging Clinics of North America 1996; 6(4): 899.
Marler, J. R., Tilley, B. C., Lu, M. et al. Early stroke treatment associated with better outcome: the NINDS rt-PA stroke study. Neurology 2000; 55(11): 1649–1655.
Meschia, J. F., Miller, D. A., and Brott, T. G. Thrombolytic treatment of acute ischemic stroke. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 2002; 77: 542–551.
Mlynash, M., Eyngorn, I., Bammer, R. et al. Automated method for generating the arterial input function on perfusion-weighted M R imaging: validation in patients with stroke. American Journal of Neuroradiology 2005; 26: 1479–1486.
Mullins, M. E., Schaefer, P. W., Sorensen, A. G. et al. CT and conventional and diffusion-weighted MR imaging in acute stroke: study in 691 patients at presentation to the emergency department. Radiology 2002; 224: 353–360.
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke rt-PA Stroke Study Group; Tissue plasminogen activator for acute ischemic stroke. New England Journal of Medicine, 1995; 333: 1581–1587.
NINDS t-PA Stroke Study Group. Intracerebral hemorrhage after intravenous t-PA therapy for ischemic stroke. Stroke 1997a Nov; 28(11): 2109–2118.
NINDS t-PA Stroke Study Group. Generalized efficacy of t-PA for acute stroke: subgroup analysis of the NINDS t-PA stroke trial. Stroke 1997b; 28: 2119–2125.
North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial Collaborators. Beneficial effect of carotid endarterectomy in symptomatic patients with high-grade carotid stenosis. New England Journal of Medicine 1991; 325: 445–453.
Oppenheim, C., Stanescu, R., Dormont, D. et al. False-negative diffusion-weighted MR findings in acute ischemic stroke. American Journal of Neuroradiology 2000; 21: 1434–1440.
Oppenheim, C., Grandin, C., Samson, Y. et al. Is there an apparent diffusion coefficient threshold in prediciting tissue viability in hyperacute stroke? Stroke 2001; 32: 2486–2491.
Parsons, M. W., Barber, P. A., Chalk, J. et al. Diffusion- and perfusion-weighted MRI response to thrombolysis in stroke. Annals of Neurology, 2002; 51(1): 28–37.
Patel, S. C., Levine, S. R., Tilley, B. C., et al. Lack of clinical significance of early ischemic changes on computed tomography in acute stroke. Journal of the American Medical Association 2001; 286: 2830–2838.
Qureshi, A. I., Siddiqui, A. M., Suri, M. F. et al. Aggressive mechanical clot disruption and low-dose intra-arterial third-generation thrombolytic agent for ischemic stroke: a prospective study. Neurosurgery 2002; 51: 1319–1329.
Qureshi, A. I., Siddiqui, A. M., and Kim, S. H. Reocclusion of recanalized arteries during intra-arterial thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke. American Journal of Neuroradiology 2004; 25(2): 322–328.
Qureshi, A. I., Suri, M. F., Nasar, A. et al. Thrombolysis for ischemic stroke in the United States: data from National Hospital Discharge Survey 1999–2001. Neurosurgery 2005; 57(4): 647–654.
Qureshi, A. I., Ezzedine, M. A., Nasar, M. S. et al. Is IV tissue plasminogen activator beneficial in patients with hyperdense artery sign? Neurology 2006; 66: 1171–1174.
Rohl, L., Ostergaard, L., Simonsen, C. Z., et al. Viability thresholds of of ischemic penumbra of hyperacute stroke defined by perfusion-weighted MRI and apparent diffusion coefficient. Stroke 2001; 32: 1140–1146.
Romero, J. M., Ackerman, R. H., Dault, N. A. et al. Noninvasive evaluation of carotid atery stenosis: indications, strategies and accuracy. Neuroimaging Clinics of North America 2005; 15: 351–365.
Schaefer, P. W., Ozsunar, Y., He, J. et al. Assessing tissue viability with MR diffusion and perfusion imaging. American Journal of Neuroradiology 2003; 24: 436–443.
Schafer, P. W., Copen, W. A., Lev, M. H. et al. Diffusion-weighted imaging in acute stroke. Neuroimaging Clinics of North America 2005; 15: 503–530.
Schellinger, P. D. The evolving role of advanced MR imaging as a management tool for adult ischemic stroke: a Western European perspective. Neuroimaging Clinics of North America 2005; 15: 245–258.
Shih, L. C., Saver, J. L., Alger, J. R. et al. Perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging thresholds identifying core, irreversibly infarcted tissue. Stroke 2003; 34(6): 1425–1430.
Suarez, J., Sunshine, J., Tarr, R. et al. Predictors of clinical improvement, angiographic recanalization, and intracranial hemorrhage after intra-arterial thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke. Stroke 1999; 30: 2094–2100.
Sugg, R. M., Noser, E. A., Shaltoni, H. M. et al. Intra-arterial reteplase compared to urokinase for thrombolytic recanalization in acute ischemic stroke. American Journal of Neuroradiology 2006; 27(4): 769–773.
Thijs, V. N., Somford, D. M., Bammer, R. et al. Influence of arterial input function on hypoperfusion volumes measured with perfusion-weighted imaging. Stroke 2004; 35(1): 94–98.
Thomalla, G., Schwark, C., Sobesky, J. et al. Outcome and symptomatic bleeding complications of intravenous thrombolysis within 6 hours in MRI-selected stroke patients: comparison of a German multicenter study with the pooled data of ATLANTIS, ECASS, and NINDS tPA trials. Stroke 2006; 37: 852–858.
Tomsick, T. A., Brott, T. G., Chambers, A. A., et al. Hyperdense middle cerebral artery sign on CT: Efficacy in detecting middle cerebral artery thrombosis. American Journal of Neuroradiology 1990; 11: 473–477.
Tomsick, T., Brott, T., Barsan, W. et al. Prognostic value of the hyperdense middle cerebral artery sign and stroke scale score before ultraearly thrombolytic therapy. American Journal of Neuroradiology 1996; 17(1): 79–85.
Unger, M., Littlefield, J., and Gado, M. Water content and water structures in CT and MR signal changes: possible influence in detection of early stroke. American Journal of Neuroradiology 1988; 9: 687–691.
von Kummer, R., Allen, K. L., Holle, R. et al. Acute stroke: usefulness of early CT findings before thrombolytic therapy. Radiology 1997; 205: 327–333.
von Kummer, R., Bourquain, H., Bastianello, S. et al. Early prediction of irreversible brain damage after ischemic stroke at CT. Radiology 2001; 219: 95–100.
Wolpert, S. M., Bruckmann, H., and Greenlee, R., Neuroradiologic evaluation of patients with acute stroke treated with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator. American Journal of Neuroradiology 1993; 14: 3–13.
Wu, O., Ostergaard, L., and Sorensen, A. G. Technical aspects of perfusion-weighted imaging. Neuroimaging Clinics of North America 2005; 15: 623–637.
Xavier, A. R. and Farkas, J.; Catheter-based recanalization techniques for acute ischemic stroke. Neuroimaging Clinics of North America 2005; 15: 441–453.