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  • Print publication year: 2015
  • Online publication date: April 2015

Chapter 64 - Menopause

from Section 8 - Infertility and reproductive endocrinology


1. HahnPM, WongJ, ReidRL. Menopausal-like hot flashes reported in women of reproductive age. Fertil Steril 1998;70:913–918.
2. ColN, PolitiM, GuthrieJ. Duration of vasomotor symptoms in middle-aged women: a longitudinal study. Menopause 2009;16:453–457.
3. FreedmanRR, RoehrsTA. Lack of sleep disturbance from menopausal hot flashes. Fertil Steril 2004;82:138–144.
4. SoaresCN, AlmeidaOP, JoffeH, et al. Efficacy of estradiol for the treatment of depressive disorders in perimenopausal women: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2001;58:529–534.
5. Barrett-ConnorE, LaughlinG. Endogenous and exogenous estrogen, cognitive function, and dementia in postmenopausal women: evidence from epidemiologic studies and clinical trials. Semin Reprod Med 2009;27:275–282.
6. GarneroP, Somay-RenduE, ChapuyMC, et al. Increased bone turnover in late postmenopausal women is a major determinant of osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Res 1996;11:337–349.
7. CauleyJA, ThompsonDE, EnsrudKC, et al. Risk of mortality following clinical fractures. Osteoporosis Int 2000;11:556–561.
8. FletcherSW, ElmoreJG. Mammographic screening for breast cancer. New Engl J Med 2003;348:1672–1680.
9. KungHC, HoyertDL, XuJ, MurphySL. Deaths: final data for 2005. Natl Vital Stat Rep 2008;56:1–120.
10. JoakimsenO, BonnaaK, Stensland-BuggeE, et al. Population based study of age at menopause and ultrasound assessed carotid atherosclerosis. J Clin Epidemiol 2000;53:525–530.
11. AllisonMA, MansonJA, LangerRD, for the Women's Health Initiative. Oophorectomy, hormone therapy, and subclinical coronary artery disease in women with hysterectomy: the Women's Health Initiative coronary artery calcium study. Menopause 2008 15:639–647.
12. Lindh-AstrandL, NedstrandE, WyonY, et al. Vasomotor symptoms and quality of life in previously sedentary postmenopausal women randomized to physical activity or estrogen therapy. Maturitas 2004;48:97–105.
13. MacLennanA, LesterS, MooreV. Oral estrogen replacement therapy versus placebo for hot flushes: a systematic review. Climacteric 2001;4:58–74.
14. BensterB, CareyA, WadsworthF, et al. A double-blind placebo controlled study to evaluate the effect of progestelle progesterone cream on postmenopausal women. Menopause Int 2009;15:63–69.
15. HallE. FreyBN. SoaresCN. Non-hormonal treatment strategies for vasomotor symptoms: a critical review. Drugs 2011;71:287–304.
16. KontosM. AgbajeOF. RymerJ. FentimanIS. What can be done about hot flushes after treatment for breast cancer?Climacteric 2010;13:4–21.
17. HuntleyAL, ErnstE. A systematic review of herbal medicinal products for the treatment of menopausal symptoms. Menopause 2003;10:465–476.
18. North American Menopause Society. Treatment of menopause-associated vasomotor symptoms: position statement. Menopause 2004;11:11–33.
19. Ang-LeeMK, MossJ, YuanCS. Herbal medicines and perioperative care. JAMA 2001;286:208–216.
20. Anon. Treatment of menopausal vasomotor symptoms. Med Lett 2004;46:1197–1198.
21. KrebsEE, EnsrudEB, MacDonaldR, et al. Phytoestrogens for treatment of menopausal symptoms: a systematic review. Obstet Gynecol 2004;104:824–836.
22.[No author listed]. Bioidentical hormones. Med Lett Drugs Ther 2010;52:43–44.
23. CardozoL, BachmannG, McClishD, et al. Meta-analysis of estrogen therapy in the management of urogenital atrophy in postmenopausal women: second report of the Hormones and Urogenital Committee. Obstet Gynecol 1998;92:722–727.
24. MoehrerB, HextallA, JacksonS. Oestrogens for urinary incontinence in women. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2003;(2):CD 001405.
25. NygaardIE, HeitM. Stress urinary incontinence. Obstet Gynecol 2004;104:607–620.
26. BachmannGA, LeiblumSR. The impact of hormones on menopausal sexuality: a literature review. Menopause 2004;11:120–130.
27. GoldstatR, BrigantiE, TranJ, et al. Transdermal testosterone therapy improves well-being, mood, and sexual function in premenopausal women. Menopause 2003;10:390–398.
28. MillerPD, SirisES, Barrett-ConnorE, et al. Prediction of fracture risk in postmenopausal white women with peripheral bone densitometry: evidence from the National Osteoporosis Risk Assessment. J Bone Miner Res 2002;17:2222–2230.
29. GallagherJC, LevineJP. Preventing osteoporosis in symptomatic postmenopausal women. Menopause 2011;18:109–118.
30. GreendaleGA, EspelandM, SloneS, for the PEPI Safety Followup Study Investigators. Bone mass response to discontinuation of long-term hormone replacement therapy. Arch Intern Med 2002;162:665–672.
31. Women's Health Initiative Steering Committee: Writing Group. Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women: principal results from the Women's Health Initiative randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2002;288:321–333.
32. AndersonGL, LimacherM, AssafAR, et al. Effects of conjugated equine estrogen in postmenopausal women with hysterectomy. The Women's Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Trial. JAMA 2004;291:1701–1712.
33. RiggsBL, HartmannLC. Drug therapy: selective estrogen-receptor modulators – mechanisms of action and application to clinical practice. N Engl J Med 2003;348:618–629.
34. WildmanRP, SchottL, BrockwellS, et al. A dietary and exercise intervention slows menopause-associated progression of subclinical atherosclerosis as measured by intima-media thickness of the carotid arteries. J Am Coll Cardiol 2004;44:579–585.
35. CollinsP. Vascular effects of hormones. Maturitas 2001;38:45–50.
36. The PEPI Investigators. The Postmenopausal Estrogen/Progestin Interventions (PEPI) trial. Effects of estrogen or estrogen/progestin regimens on heart disease risk factors in postmenopausal women. JAMA 1995;273:199–208.
37. GrodsteinF, StampferMJ, ColditzGA, et al. Postmenopausal hormone therapy and mortality. N Engl J Med 1997;336:1769–1775.
38. MendelsohnME, KarasR. The protective effects of estrogen on the cardiovascular system. N Engl J Med 1999;340:1801–1811.
39. MillerJ, ChanBKS, NelsonHD. Postmenopausal estrogen replacement and risk for venous thromboembolism: a systematic review and meta-analysis for the US Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med 2002;136:680–690.
40. ScuteriA, BosAJG, BrantLJ, et al. Hormone replacement therapy and longitudinal changes in blood pressure in postmenopausal women. Ann Intern Med 2001;135:229–238.
41. GrodsteinF, MansonJE, ColditzGA, et al. A prospective observational study of postmenopausal hormone therapy and primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Ann Intern Med 2001;133:933–941.
42. HulleyS, GradyD, BushT, et al. Randomized trial of estrogen plus progestin for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease in postmenopausal women. Heart and Estrogen/progestin Replacement Study (HERS) Research Group. JAMA 1998;280:605–613.
43. HodisHN, MackWJ, AzenSP, et al. Hormone therapy and the progression of coronary artery atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women. N Engl J Med 2003;349:535–545.
44. NairGV, HerringtonDM. The ERA trial: findings and implications for the future. Climacteric 2000;3:227–232.
45. ClarkeSC, KelleherJ, Lloyd-JonesH, et al. A study of hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women with ischemic heart disease: the Papworth HRT Atherosclerosis Study. BJOG 2002;109:1056–1062.
46. ClarksonTB. The new conundrum: do estrogens have any cardiovascular benefits?Int J Fertil Womens Med 2002;47:61–68.
47. HodisHN, MackWJ, LoboRA, for the Estrogen in the Prevention of Atherosclerosis Trial Research Group. Estrogen in the prevention of atherosclerosis. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 2001;135:939–953.
48. MansonJE, AllisonMA, RossouwJE, for the WHI and WHI_CACS Investigators. Estrogen therapy and coronary artery calcification. N Engl J Med356:2591–2602.
49. PrenticeRL, MansonJE, LangerRD, et al. Benefits and risks of postmenopausal hormone therapy when it is initiated soon after menopause. Am J Epidemiol 2009;170:12–23.
50. ChoiSD, SteinbergEM, LeeHH, NaftolinF. The timing hypothesis remains a valid explanation of differential cardioprotective effects of menopausal hormone treatment. Menopause 2011;18:230–236.
51. NaftolinF, TaylorHS, KarasR, et al. The Women's Health Initiative could not have detected cardioprotective effects of starting hormone therapy during the menopausal transition. Fertil Steril 2004;81:1498–1501.
52. ReidRL. Translating the latest scientific advances into clinical practice –the Women's Health Initiative Study. Evid Based Obstet Gynecol 2002;4:110–111.
53. MackWJ, SlaterCC, XiangM, et al. Elevated subclinical atherosclerosis associated with oophorectomy is related to time since menopause rather than type of menopause. Fertil Steril 2004;82:391–397.
54. RossouwJE, PrenticeRL, MansonJE, et al. Postmenopausal hormone therapy and risk of cardiovascular disease by age and years since menopause. JAMA 2007;297:1465–1477.
55. LaCroixAZ, ChlebowskiRT, MansonJE, et al. Health outcomes after stopping conjugated equine estrogens among postmenopausal women with prior hysterectomy: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2011;305:1305–1314.
56. SalpeterSR, ChengJ, ThabaneL, et al. Bayesian meta-analysis of hormone therapy and mortality in younger postmenopausal women. Am J Med122:1016–1022.
57. BrettKM, ReubenCA. Prevalence of estrogen or estrogen-progestin hormone therapy use. Obstet Gynecol 2003;102:1240–1249.
58. HarmanSM, BrintonEA, CedarsM, et al. KEEPS: the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study. Climacteric 2005;8:3–12.
59. North American Menopause Society. Estrogen and progestogen use in postmenopausal women: 2010 position statement of the North American Menopause Society. Menopause 2010;17:242–255.
60. BirgeSJ. Hormone therapy and stroke. Clin Obstet Gynecol 2008;51:581–591.
61. Wassertheil-SmollerS, HendrixSL, LimacherM, et al. Effect of estrogen and progestin on stroke in postmenopausal women. The Women's Health Initiative: a randomized trial. JAMA 2003;289:2673–2684.
62. LoboRA, ClarksonTB. Different mechanisms for benefit and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke in early postmenopausal women: a hypothetical explanation. Menopause 2011;18:237–240.
63. SperoffL. Transdermal hormone therapy and the risk of stroke and venous thrombosis. Climacteric 2010;13:429–432.
64. GomesMPV, DeitcherSR. Risk of venous thromboembolic disease associated with hormonal contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy. Arch Intern Med 2004;164:1965–1976.
65. CushmanM, KullerLH, PrenticeR, et al. Estrogen plus progestin and risk of venous thrombosis. JAMA 2004;292:1573–1580.
66. ScarabinPY, OgerE, Plu-BureauG, for the EStrogen and THromboEmbolism Risk (ESTHER) Study Group. Differential association of oral and transdermal oestrogen-replacement therapy with venous thromboembolism risk. Lancet 2003;362:428–432.
67. MulnardRA, CotmanCW, KawasC, for the Alzheimer's Disease Co-operative Study. Estrogen replacement therapy for the treatment of mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease. JAMA 2000;283:1007–1015.
68. ShumakerSA, LegaultC, KullerL, for the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study Investigators. Conjugated equine estrogens and incidence of probable dementia and mild cognitive impairment in postmenopausal women. Women's Health Initiative Memory Study. JAMA 2004;291:2947–2958.
69. BirgeS. The WHI and the brain: what have we learned?Sex Reprod Menopause 2004;2:71–75.
70. MargolisKL, BondsDE, RodaboughRJ, for the Women's Health Initiative Investigators. Effect of oestrogen plus progestin on the incidence of diabetes in postmenopausal women: results from the Women's Health Initiative Hormone Trial. Diabetologia 2004;47:1175–1187.
71. Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer. Breast cancer and hormone replacement therapy: collaborative reanalysis of data from 51 epidemiological studies of 52 705 women with breast cancer and 108 411 women without breast cancer. Lancet 1997;350:1047–1059.
72. ReidRL. Double jeopardy: hormone therapy on trial again. J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2004;26:541–543.
73. BushTL, WhitemanM, FlawsJA. Hormone replacement therapy and breast cancer: a qualitative review. Obstet Gynecol 2001;98:498–508.
74. Million Women Study Collaborators. Breast cancer and hormone-replacement therapy in the Million Women Study. Lancet 2003;362:419–427.
75. StefanickML, AndersonGL, MargolisKL, for the WHI Investigators. Effects of conjugated equine estrogens on breast cancer and mammography screening in postmenopausal women with hysterectomy. JAMA 2006;295:1647–1657.
76. FournierA, MesrineS, Boutron-TaultMC, et al. Estrogen-progestagen menopausal hormone therapy and breast cancer: does delay from menopause onset to treatment initiation influence risks?J Clin Onc 2009;27:5138–5143.
77. BeralV, ReevesG, BullD, et al. Breast cancer risk in relation to the interval between menopause and starting hormone therapy. JNCI 2011;103:296–305.
78. TaylorHS, MansonJE. Update in hormone therapy use in menopause. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96:255–264.
79. GompelA, Plu Bureau. Is the decrease in breast cancer incidence related to a decrease in postmenopausal hormone therapy?Ann N Y Acad Med 2010;1205:268–276.
80. SingletarySE. Rating the risk factors for breast cancer. Ann Surg 2003;237:474–482.
81. HartAR, LubenR, WelchA, BinghamS, KhawKT. Hormone replacement therapy and symptomatic gallstones: a prospective population study in the EPIC-Norfolk cohort. Digestion 2008;77:4–9.
82. FuchsCS, StampferMJ, ColditzGA, et al. Alcohol consumption and mortality among women. N Engl J Med 1995;332:1245–1250.
83. LewJQ, FreedmanND, LeitzmannMF, et al. Alcohol and risk of breast cancer by histologic type and hormone receptor status in postmenopausal women: the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Am J Epidemiol 2009;170:308–317.
84. ThuneI, BrennT, LundE, GaardM. Physical activity and the risk of breast cancer. N Engl J Med 1997;336:1269–1275.
85. McTiernanA, KooperbergC, WhiteE, et al. Recreational physical activity and the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. The Women's Health Initiative cohort study. J Am Med Assoc 2003;290:1331–1336.
86. Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer. Breast cancer and breastfeeding: collaborative reanalysis of individual data from 47 epidemiological studies in 30 countries, including 50302 women with breast cancer and 96973 women without the disease. Lancet 2002;360:187–195.
87. MorimotoLM, WhiteE, ChenZ, et al. Obesity, body size, and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer: the Women's Health Initiative. Cancer Causes Control 2002;13:741–751.
88. ByrneC, ConnollyJL, ColditzGA, et al. Biopsy proven benign breast disease, postmenopausal use of exogenous female hormones and breast carcinoma risk. Cancer 2000;89:2046–2052.
89. UrsinG, TsengCC, Paganini-HillA, et al. Does menopausal hormone replacement interact with known factors to increase risk of breast cancer?J Clin Oncol 2002;20:699–706.
90. SellarsTA, MinkPJ, CerhanJR, et al. The role of hormone replacement therapy in the risk for breast cancer and total mortality in women with a family history of breast cancer. Ann Intern Med 1997;127:973–980.
91. ColNF, HirotaLK, OrrRK, et al. Hormone replacement therapy after breast cancer: a systematic review and quantitative assessment of risk. J Clin Oncol 2001;19:2357–2363.
92. IngleJN, AhmannDL, GreenSJ, et al. Randomized clinical trial of diethylstilbestrol versus tamoxifen in postmenopausal women with advanced breast cancer. N Engl J Med 1981;304:16–21.
93. PeethambaramPP, IngleJN, SumanVJ, et al. Randomized trial of diethylstilbestrol vs. tamoxifen in postmenopausal women with metastatic breast cancer. An updated analysis. Breast Cancer Res Treat 1999;54:117–122.
94. SongRX, MorG, NaftolinF, et al. Effect of longterm estrogen deprivation on apoptotic responses of breast cancer cells to 17beta-estradiol. JNCI 2001;93:1714–1723.
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96. PerssonI, AdamiHO, BergkvistL, et al. Risk of endometrial cancer after treatment with oestrogens alone or in conjunction with progestogens: results of a prospective study. BMJ 1989;289:147–151.
97. EttingerB, EnsrudKE, WallaceR, et al. Effects of ultralow-dose transdermal estradiol on bone mineral density: a randomized clinical trial. Obstet Gynecol 2004;104:443–451.
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