Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2015
  • Online publication date: April 2015

Section 7 - Gynecological oncology

References

1. KriegeM, BrekelmansCTM, BoetesC, et al. Efficacy of MRI and mammography for breast-cancer screening in women with a familial or genetic predisposition. N Engl J Med 2004;351:427–437.
2. KingMC. Breast cancer genes: how many, where and who are they?Nat Genet 1992;2:89–90.
3. Early Breast Cancer Trialists’ Collaborative Group. Tamoxifen for early breast cancer: an overview of the randomised trials. Lancet 1998;351:1451–1467.
4. Early Breast Cancer Trialists’ Collaborative Group. Polychemotherapy for early breast cancer: an overview of the randomised trials. Lancet 1998;352:930–942.
5. BaumM, BudzarAU, CuzickJ, et al. Anastrozole alone or in combination with tamoxifen versus tamoxifen alone for adjuvant treatment of postmenopausal women with early breast cancer: first results of the ATAC randomised trial. Lancet 2002;359:2131–2139.
6. BaumM, BuzdarA, CuzickJ, et al. Anastrozole alone or in combination with tamoxifen versus tamoxifen alone for adjuvant treatment of postmenopausal women with early-stage breast cancer: results of the ATAC (Arimidex, Tamoxifen Alone or in Combination) trial efficacy and safety update analyses. Cancer 2003;98:1802–1810.
7. CoombesRC, HallE, GibsonLJ, et al. A randomized trial of exemestane after two to three years of tamoxifen therapy in postmenopausal women with primary breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2004;350:1081–1092.
8. GeyerCE, ForsterJ, LindquistD, et al. Lapatinib plus capecitabine for HER2-positive advanced breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2006;355:2733–2743.
9. SlamonDJ, Leyland-JonesB, ShakS, et al. Use of chemotherapy plus a monoclonal antibody against HER2 for metastatic breast cancer that overexpresses HER2. N Engl J Med 2001;344:783–792.
10. RosenLS, GordonDH, DuganW Jr., et al. Zoledronic acid is superior to pamidronate for the treatment of bone metastases in breast carcinoma patients with at least one osteolytic lesion. Cancer 2004;100:36–43.
11. LiptonA. Bisphosphonates and breast carcinoma: present and future. Cancer 2000;88(Suppl):3033–3037.
12. DesantisC, SiegelR, BandiP, JemalA. Breast cancer statistics, 2011. CA Cancer J Clin 2011;61:409–418.
13. EastonDF, FordD, BishopDT. Breast and ovarian cancer incidence in BRCA1-mutation carriers. Breast Cancer Linkage Consortium. Am J Hum Genet 1995;56:265–271.
14. MetcalfeK, LynchHT, GhadirianP, et al. Contralateral breast cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. J Clin Oncol 2004;22:2328–2335.
15. FordD, EastonDF, StrattonM, et al. Genetic heterogeneity and penetrance analysis of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in breast cancer families. The Breast Cancer Linkage Consortium. Am J Hum Genet 1998;62:676–689.
16. RebbeckTR, FriebelT, LynchHT, et al. Bilateral prophylactic mastectomy reduces breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: the PROSE Study Group. J Clin Oncol 2004;22:1055–1062.
17. RebbeckTR, LevinAM, EisenA, et al. Breast cancer risk after bilateral prophylactic oophorectomy in BRCA1 mutation carriers. J Natl Cancer Inst 1999;91:1475–1479.
18. PerouCM, SørlieT, EisenMB, et al. Molecular portraits of human breast tumours. Nature 2000;406:747–752.
19. BeatsonG. On the treatment of inoperable cases of carcinoma of the mamma: suggestions for a new method of treatment, with illustrative cases. Lancet 1896;ii:104–107.
20. PaffenbargerRS Jr., KampertJB, ChangHG. Characteristics that predict risk of breast cancer before and after the menopause. Am J Epidemiol 1980;112:258–268.
21. RosnerB, ColditzGA. Nurses’ health study: log-incidence mathematical model of breast cancer incidence. J Natl Cancer Inst 1996;88:359–364.
22. Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer. Breast cancer and breastfeeding: collaborative reanalysis of individual data from 47 epidemiological studies in 30 countries, including 50 302 women with breast cancer and 96 973 women without the disease. Lancet 2002;360:187–195.
23. GradyD, HerringtonD, BittnerV, et al. Cardiovascular disease outcomes during 6.8 years of hormone therapy: Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study follow-up (HERS II). JAMA 2002;288:49–57.
24. AndersonGL, LimacherM, AssafAR, et al. Effects of conjugated equine estrogen in postmenopausal women with hysterectomy: the Women’s Health Initiative randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2004;291:1701–1712.
25.[No authors listed]. Potential risks, benefits of progestins in birth control pills outlined. Contracept Technol Update 1984;5:71.
26. HuangZ, WillettWC, ColditzGA, et al. Waist circumference, waist:hip ratio, and risk of breast cancer in the Nurses’ Health Study. Am J Epidemiol 1999;150:1316–1324.
27. HankinsonSE, WillettWC, MansonJE, et al. Alcohol, height, and adiposity in relation to estrogen and prolactin levels in postmenopausal women. J Natl Cancer Inst 1995;87:1297–1302.
28. GoldschmidtRA, VictorTA. Lobular carcinoma in situ of the breast. Semin Surg Oncol 1996;12:314–320.
29. FisherB, DignamJ, WolmarkN, et al. Tamoxifen in treatment of intraductal breast cancer: National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project B-24 randomised controlled trial. Lancet 1999;353:1993–2000.
30. GailMH, BrintonLA, ByarDP, et al. Projecting individualized probabilities of developing breast cancer for white females who are being examined annually. J Natl Cancer Inst 1989;81:1879–1886.
31. PowlesT, EelesR, AshleyS, et al. Interim analysis of the incidence of breast cancer in the Royal Marsden Hospital tamoxifen randomised chemoprevention trial. Lancet 1998;352:98–101.
32. VeronesiU, MaisonneuveP, CostaA, et al. Prevention of breast cancer with tamoxifen: preliminary findings from the Italian randomised trial among hysterectomised women. Italian Tamoxifen Prevention Study. Lancet 1998;352:93–97.
33. VogelVG, CostantinoJP, WickerhamDL, et al. Effects of tamoxifen vs raloxifene on the risk of developing invasive breast cancer and other disease outcomes: the NSABP Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR) P-2 trial. JAMA 2006;295:2727–2741.
34. GossPE, IngleJN, Alés-MartínezJE, et al. Exemestane for breast-cancer prevention in postmenopausal women. N Engl J Med 2011;364:2381–2391.
35. RobsonM, GilewskiT, HaasB, et al. BRCA-associated breast cancer in young women. J Clin Oncol 1998;16:1642–1649.
36. SorlieT, TibshiraniR, ParkerJ, et al. Repeated observation of breast tumor subtypes in independent gene expression data sets. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2003;100:8418–8423.
37. KingMC, WieandS, HaleK, et al. Tamoxifen and breast cancer incidence among women with inherited mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2: National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP-P1) Breast Cancer Prevention Trial. JAMA 2001;286:2251–2256.
38. SingletarySE, AllredC, AshleyP, et al. Revision of the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system for breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 2002;20:3628–3636.
39. WoodwardWA, StromEA, TuckerSL, et al. Changes in the 2003 American Joint Committee on Cancer staging for breast cancer dramatically affect stage-specific survival. J Clin Oncol 2003;21:3244–3248.
40. AlbainKS, BarlowWE, ShakS, et al. Prognostic and predictive value of the 21-gene recurrence score assay in postmenopausal women with node-positive, oestrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer on chemotherapy: a retrospective analysis of a randomised trial. Lancet Oncol 2010;11:55–65.
41. GianniL, ZambettiM, ClarkK, et al. Gene expression profiles in paraffin-embedded core biopsy tissue predict response to chemotherapy in women with locally advanced breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 2005;23:7265–7277.
42. EllisMJ, CoopA, SinghB, et al. Letrozole is more effective neoadjuvant endocrine therapy than tamoxifen for ERBB-1- and/or ERBB-2-positive, estrogen receptor-positive primary breast cancer: evidence from a phase III randomized trial. J Clin Oncol 2001;19:3808–3816.
43. HalstedWSI. The results of radical operations for the cure of carcinoma of the breast. Ann Surg 1907;46:1–19.
44. National Institutes of Health. Consensus Development Conference Statement on treatment of early stage breast cancer. Consensus Statement 1990;8:1–19. [NB This statement is more than five years old and is provided solely for historical purposes].
45. HaagensenCD, StoutAP. Carcinoma of the breast. II-Criteria of operability. Ann Surg 1943;118:1032–1051.
46. JacquillatC, WeilM, BailletF, et al. Results of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy in the breast-conserving treatment of 250 patients with all stages of infiltrative breast cancer. Cancer 1990;66:119–129.
47. GiulianoAE. Mapping a pathway for axillary staging: a personal perspective on the current status of sentinel lymph node dissection for breast cancer. Arch Surg 1999;134:195–199.
48. GolshanM, MartinWJ, DowlatshahiK. Sentinel lymph node biopsy lowers the rate of lymphedema when compared with standard axillary lymph node dissection. Am Surg 2003;69:209–211; discussion 212.
49. HarrisJ. Diseases of the Breast, 3rd edn. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2004.
50. FisherB, AndersonS, BryantJ, et al. Twenty-year follow-up of a randomized trial comparing total mastectomy, lumpectomy, and lumpectomy plus irradiation for the treatment of invasive breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2002;347:1233–1241.
51. HughesKS, SchnaperLA, BerryD, et al. Lumpectomy plus tamoxifen with or without irradiation in women 70 years of age or older with early breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2004;351:971–977.
52. FylesAW, McCreadyDR, ManchulLA, et al. Tamoxifen with or without breast irradiation in women 50 years of age or older with early breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2004;351:963–970.
53. FisherB, DignamJ, WolmarkN, et al. Lumpectomy and radiation therapy for the treatment of intraductal breast cancer: findings from National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project B-17. J Clin Oncol 1998;16:441–452.
54. FowbleB, GrayR, GilchristK, et al. Identification of a subgroup of patients with breast cancer and histologically positive axillary nodes receiving adjuvant chemotherapy who may benefit from postoperative radiotherapy. J Clin Oncol 1988;6:1107–1117.
55. RagazJ, JacksonSM, LeN, et al. Adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy in node-positive premenopausal women with breast cancer. N Engl J Med 1997;337:956–962.
56. OvergaardM, HansenPS, OvergaardJ, et al. Postoperative radiotherapy in high-risk premenopausal women with breast cancer who receive adjuvant chemotherapy. Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group 82B Trial. N Engl J Med 1997;337:949–955.
57. FowbleBL, SolinLJ, SchultzDJ, GoodmanRL. Ten year results of conservative surgery and irradiation for stage I and II breast cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1991;21:269–277.
58. Early Breast Cancer Trialists’ Collaborative Group. Favourable and unfavourable effects on long-term survival of radiotherapy for early breast cancer: an overview of the randomised trials. Lancet 2000;355:1757–1770.
59. WhelanTJ, JulianJ, WrightJ, JadadAR, LevineML. Does locoregional radiation therapy improve survival in breast cancer? A meta-analysis. J Clin Oncol 2000;18:1220–1229.
60. ViciniFA, KestinL, ChenP, et al. Limited-field radiation therapy in the management of early-stage breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 2003;95:1205–1210.
61. RemouchampsVM, LettsN, ViciniFAet al. Initial clinical experience with moderate deep-inspiration breath hold using an active breathing control device in the treatment of patients with left-sided breast cancer using external beam radiation therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2003;56:704–715.
62. FreedmanG, HanlonA, AndersonP. Pattern of local recurrence after conserving surgery and whole-breast irradiation: implications for partial breast irradiation. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2005;61:1328–1336.
63. KeischM, ViciniF, KuskeRR, et al. Initial clinical experience with the MammoSite breast brachytherapy applicator in women with early-stage breast cancer treated with breast-conserving therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2003;55:289–293.
64. FisherB, BryantJ, WolmarkN, et al. Effect of preoperative chemotherapy on the outcome of women with operable breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 1998;16:2672–2685.
65. WolmarkN, WangJ, MamounasE, BryantJ, FisherB. Preoperative chemotherapy in patients with operable breast cancer: nine-year results from National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project B-18. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr 2001;30:96–102.
66. SmithIC, HeysSD, HutcheonAW, et al. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer: significantly enhanced response with docetaxel. J Clin Oncol 2002;20:1456–1466.
67. FisherB, CostantinoJP, WickerhamDL, et al. Tamoxifen for prevention of breast cancer: report of the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project P-1 Study. J Natl Cancer Inst 1998;90:1371–1388.
68. FisherB, DignamJ, BryantJ, WolmarkN. Five versus more than five years of tamoxifen for lymph node-negative breast cancer: updated findings from the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project B-14 randomized trial. J Natl Cancer Inst 2001;93:684–690.
69. GossPE, IngleJN, MartinoS, et al. A randomized trial of letrozole in postmenopausal women after five years of tamoxifen therapy for early-stage breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2003;349:1793–1802.
70. GossP, IngleJ, MartinoS. Updated analysis of the NCIC CTG MA.17 randomized placebo (P) controlled trial of letrozole (L) after five years of tamoxifen in postmenopausal women with early stage breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 2004;22(Suppl):88.
71. JonatW, KaufmannM, SauerbreiW, et al. Goserelin versus cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil as adjuvant therapy in premenopausal patients with node-positive breast cancer: The Zoladex Early Breast Cancer Research Association Study. J Clin Oncol 2002;20:4628–4635.
72. BiancoAR, Del MastroL, GalloC, et al. Prognostic role of amenorrhea induced by adjuvant chemotherapy in premenopausal patients with early breast cancer. Br J Cancer 1991;63:799–803.
73. GoldhirschA, GelberRD, CastiglioneM. The magnitude of endocrine effects of adjuvant chemotherapy for premenopausal breast cancer patients. The International Breast Cancer Study Group. Ann Oncol 1990;1:183–188.
74. RichardsMA, O’ReillySM, HowellA, et al. Adjuvant cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil in patients with axillary node-positive breast cancer: an update of the Guy’s/Manchester trial. J Clin Oncol 1990;8:2032–2039.
75. FisherB, BrownAM, DimitrovNV, et al. Two months of doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide with and without interval reinduction therapy compared with 6 months of cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil in positive-node breast cancer patients with tamoxifen-nonresponsive tumors: results from the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project B-15. J Clin Oncol 1990;8:1483–1496.
76. LevineMN, BramwellVH, PritchardKI, et al. Randomized trial of intensive cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, and fluorouracil chemotherapy compared with cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil in premenopausal women with node-positive breast cancer. National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group. J Clin Oncol 1998;16:2651–2658.
77. HutchinsL, GreenS, RavdinP. CMF versus CAF with and without tamoxifen in high-risk node-negative breast cancer patients and a natural history follow-up study in low-risk node-negative patients: first results of Intergroup Trial INT 0102. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 1998;1a.
78. HendersonIC, BerryDA, DemetriGD, et al. Improved outcomes from adding sequential paclitaxel but not from escalating doxorubicin dose in an adjuvant chemotherapy regimen for patients with node-positive primary breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 2003;21:976–983.
79. MamounasEP, BryantJ, LemberskyB, et al. Paclitaxel after doxorubicin plus cyclophosphamide as adjuvant chemotherapy for node-positive breast cancer: results from NSABP B-28. J Clin Oncol 2005;23:3686–3696.
80. MartínM, SeguíMA, AntónA, et al. Adjuvant docetaxel for high-risk, node-negative breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2010;363:2200–2210.
81. CitronML, BerryDA, CirrincioneC, et al. Randomized trial of dose-dense versus conventionally scheduled and sequential versus concurrent combination chemotherapy as postoperative adjuvant treatment of node-positive primary breast cancer: first report of Intergroup Trial C9741/Cancer and Leukemia Group B Trial 9741. J Clin Oncol 2003;21:1431–1439.
82. HorwitzKB, McGuireWL. Predicting response to endocrine therapy in human breast cancer: a hypothesis. Science 1975;189:726–727.
83. MouridsenH, GershanovichM, SunY, et al. Superior efficacy of letrozole versus tamoxifen as first-line therapy for postmenopausal women with advanced breast cancer: results of a phase III study of the International Letrozole Breast Cancer Group. J Clin Oncol 2001;19:2596–2606.
84. MouridsenH, GershanovichM, SunY, et al. Phase III study of letrozole versus tamoxifen as first-line therapy of advanced breast cancer in postmenopausal women: analysis of survival and update of efficacy from the International Letrozole Breast Cancer Group. J Clin Oncol 2003;21:2101–2109.
85. NabholtzJM, BuzdarA, PollakM, et al. Anastrozole is superior to tamoxifen as first-line therapy for advanced breast cancer in postmenopausal women: results of a North American multicenter randomized trial. Arimidex Study Group. J Clin Oncol 2000;18:3758–3767.
86. ParidaensRJ, DirixLY, BeexLV, et al. Phase III study comparing exemestane with tamoxifen as first-line hormonal treatment of metastatic breast cancer in postmenopausal women: the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Breast Cancer Cooperative Group. J Clin Oncol 2008;26:4883–4890.
87. HowellA, RobertsonJFR, QuaresmaAlbano J, et al. Fulvestrant, formerly ICI 182 780, is as effective as anastrozole in postmenopausal women with advanced breast cancer progressing after prior endocrine treatment. J Clin Oncol 2002;20:3396–3403.
88. VogelCL, CobleighMA, TripathyD, et al. Efficacy and safety of trastuzumab as a single agent in first-line treatment of HER2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 2002;20:719–726.
89. PegramM, HsuS, LewisG, et al. Inhibitory effects of combinations of HER-2/neu antibody and chemotherapeutic agents used for treatment of human breast cancers. Oncogene 1999;18:2241–2251.
90. PegramMD, FinnRS, ArzooK, et al. The effect of HER-2/neu overexpression on chemotherapeutic drug sensitivity in human breast and ovarian cancer cells. Oncogene 1997;15:537–547.
91. CameronD, CaseyM, OlivaC, et al. Lapatinib plus capecitabine in women with HER-2-positive advanced breast cancer: final survival analysis of a phase III randomized trial. Oncologist 2010;15:924–934.
92. CameronD, CaseyM, PressM, et al. A phase III randomized comparison of lapatinib plus capecitabine versus capecitabine alone in women with advanced breast cancer that has progressed on trastuzumab: updated efficacy and biomarker analyses. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2008;112:533–543.
93. JohnstonS, PippenJ Jr., PivotX, et al. Lapatinib combined with letrozole versus letrozole and placebo as first-line therapy for postmenopausal hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 2009;27:5538–5546.
94. O’BrienMER, WiglerN, InbarM, et al. Reduced cardiotoxicity and comparable efficacy in a phase III trial of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin HCl (CAELYX/Doxil) versus conventional doxorubicin for first-line treatment of metastatic breast cancer. Ann Oncol 2004;15:440–449.
95. SeidmanAD, BerryD, CirrincioneC, et al. Randomized phase III trial of weekly compared with every-3-weeks paclitaxel for metastatic breast cancer, with trastuzumab for all HER-2 overexpressors and random assignment to trastuzumab or not in HER-2 nonoverexpressors: final results of Cancer and Leukemia Group B protocol 9840. J Clin Oncol 2008;26:1642–1649.
96. JonesSE, ErbanJ, OvermoyerB, et al. Randomized phase III study of docetaxel compared with paclitaxel in metastatic breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 2005;23:5542–5551.
97. OshaughnessyJA, BlumJ, MoiseyenkoV, et al. Randomized, open-label, phase II trial of oral capecitabine (Xeloda) vs. a reference arm of intravenous CMF (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil) as first-line therapy for advanced/metastatic breast cancer. Ann Oncol 2001;12:1247–1254.
98. AlbainKS, NagSM, Calderillo-RuizG, et al. Gemcitabine plus paclitaxel versus paclitaxel monotherapy in patients with metastatic breast cancer and prior anthracycline treatment. J Clin Oncol 2008;26:3950–3957.
99. O’ShaughnessyJ, MilesD, VukeljaS, et al. Superior survival with capecitabine plus docetaxel combination therapy in anthracycline-pretreated patients with advanced breast cancer: phase III trial results. J Clin Oncol 2002;20:2812–2823.
100. TheriaultRL, LiptonA, HortobagyiGN, et al. Pamidronate reduces skeletal morbidity in women with advanced breast cancer and lytic bone lesions: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Protocol 18 Aredia Breast Cancer Study Group. J Clin Oncol 1999;17:846–854.

References

1. RomrellLJ, BlandKI. Anatomy of the breast, axilla, chest wall, and related metastatic sites. In BlandKI, CopelandEM III (eds.) The Breast: Comprehensive Management of Benign and Malignant Diseases, 4th edn. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders, 2009, pp. 21–38.
2. American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts and Figures. Atlanta, GA: American Cancer Society, 2012 (http://www.cancer.org/acs/groups/content/@epidemiologysurveilance/documents/document/acspc-031941.pdf, accessed 1 March, 2014).
3. American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts and Figures 2014. Atlanta, GA: American Cancer Society, 2014 (http://www.cancer.org/acs/groups/content/@epidemiologysurveilance/documents/document/acspc-042151.pdf, accessed 25 August, 2014).
4. World Health Organization. Breast Cancer: Prevention and Control. Geneva: World Health Organization (http://www.who.int/cancer/detection/breastcancer/en/index1.html, accessed 30 November 2013).
5. PorterP. “Westernizing” women’s risks? Breast cancer in lower income countries. N Engl J Med 2008;358:213–216.
6. FerlyaJ, BrayF, PisaniP, ParkinDM. GLOBOCAN 2008: Cancer Incidence, Mortality and Prevalence Worldwide. Lyon, France: IAEC Press; 2008. Available at http://www-dep.iarc.fr/. Accessed January 28, 2012.
7. World Health Organization. The Global Burden of Disease. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2004, updated 2008.
8. ForouzanfarM, ForemanKJ, DelossantosAM, et al. Breast and cervical cancer in 187 countries between 1980 and 2010: a systematic analysis. Lancet 2011;378:1461–1484.
9. American Cancer Society. Cancer Fact Sheet. Atlanta, GA: American Cancer Society, 2014 (cancer.org/cancer/breastcancer/detailedguide/breast_Cancer_Key_Statistics, accessed 25 August 2014).
10. ChopraR. The Indian scene. J Clin Oncol 2001;19(Suppl):106S–111S
11. SantM, AllemaniC, BerrinoF, et al. Breast carcinoma survival in Europe and the United States. Cancer 2004;100:715–722.
12. ColemanMP, QuaresmaM, BerrinoF, et al. Cancer survival in five continents: a worldwide population-based study (CONCORD). Lancet Oncol 2008;9:730–756.
13. PinskyRW, HelvieMA. Mammographic breast density: effect on imaging and breast cancer risk. JNCCN 2010;8:1157–1165.
14. ChenWY, RosnerB, HankinsonSE, et al. Moderate alcohol consumption during adult life, drinking patterns and breast cancer risk. JAMA 2011;306:1884–1890.
15. LaceyJV, Jr., KreimerAR, BuysSS. Breast cancer epidemiology according to recognized breast cancer risk factors in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer screening trial cohort. BMC Cancer 2009;9:84.
16. McCulloughML, FeigelsonHS, DiverWR, et al. Risk factors for fatal breast cancer in African-American women and white women in a US prospective cohort. Am J Epidemiology 2005;162:734–742.
17. BachPB, SchragD, BrawleyOW, et al. Survival of blacks and whites after a cancer diagnosis. JAMA 2002;287:2106–2113.
18. HansenN, MorrowM. Breast disease. Med Clin North AM 1998:82:203–222.
19. MaddamsJ, ParkinDM, DarbySC. The cancer burden in the United Kingdom in 2007 due to radiotherapy. Int J Cancer 2011;129:2885–2893.
20. World Health Organization. 2008–2013 Action Plan for the Global Strategy for the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2008.
21. FisherB, CostantinoJP, WickerhamDL, et al. Tamoxifen for prevention of breast cancer: report of the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project P-1 Study. JNCI 1998;90:1371–1388.
22. HartmannLC, SchaidDJ, WoodsJE, et al. Efficacy of bilateral prophylactic mastectomy in women with a family history of breast cancer. N Engl J Med 1999;14:71–84.
23. BoltonKL, Chenevix-TrenchG, GohC, et al. Association between BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations and survival in women with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer. JAMA 2012, 307:382–390.
24. FisherB, ConstantinoJP, WickerhamDL, et al. Tamoxifen for prevention of breast cancer. Report of the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project P-1 Study. J Natl Cancer Inst 1998;90:1371–1378.
25. GailMH, BrintonLA, ByarDP, et al. Projection individualized probabilities of developing breast cancer for white females who are being examined annually. JNCI 1989;81:1879–1996.
26. ClausEB, RischN, ThompsonWD. Autosomal dominant inheritance of early-onset breast cancer: implications for risk prediction. Cancer 1994;73:643–651.
27. BondyMO, LustbaderED, HalabiS, et al. Validation of a breast cancer risk assessment model in women with a positive family history. JNCI 1994;86:620–625.
28. Adams-CampbellLL, MakambiKH, FrederickWA, et al. Breast cancer risk assessments comparing Gail and CARE models in African-American women. Breast J 2009;15(Suppl 1):S72–S75.
29. National Comprehensive Cancer Network. NCCN Clinical Practice Oncology Guidelines. Genetic/Familial High Risk Assessment: Breast and Ovarian, version 1.2010. Fort Washington, PA: National Comprehensive Cancer Network, 2011 (http://demystifyingmedicine.od.nih.gov/DM10/0413-BreastCancer/NCCN%20br%20genetics_screening.pdf, accessed 1 December 2013).
30. TyrerJ, DuffySW, CuzickJ. A breast cancer prediction model incorporating familial and personal risk factors. Stat Med 2004;23:1111–1130.
31. BougheyJC, HartmannLC, AndersonSS, et al. Evaluation of the Tyrer–Cuzick (International Breast Cancer Intervention Study) model for breast cancer risk prediction in women with atypical hyperplasia. J Clin Oncol 2010;28:3591–3596.
32. EvansDG, HowellA. Breast cancer risk assessment models. Breast Cancer Res 2001;61:5683–5687.
33. TiceJA, CummingsSR, Smith-BindmanR, et al. Using clinical factors and mammographic breast density to estimate breast cancer risk: development and validation of a new predictive model. Ann Intern Med 2008;148:337–347.
34. WoosterR, BignellG, LancasterJ, et al. Identification of the breast cancer susceptibility gene BRCA2. Nature 1995;378:789–792.
35. BerchuckA, CarneyM, LancasterJM, et al. Familial breast-ovarian cancer syndromes: BRCA1 and BRCA2. Clin Obstet Gynecol 1998;41:157–166.
36. CollinsFS. BRCA1: lots of mutations, lots of dilemmas. New Engl J Med 1996;334:186–188.
37. MalkinD, LiFP, StrongLC, et al. Germ line p53 mutations in a familial syndrome of breast cancer, sarcomas, and other neoplasia. Science 1990;250:1233–1238.
38. SwiftM, ReitnauerPJ, MorrellD, et al. Breast and other cancers in families with ataxia-telangiectasia. N Engl J Med 1987;316:1289–1294.
39. WarmuthMA, SuttonLM, WinerEP. A review of hereditary breast cancer: from screening to risk factor modification. Am J Med 1997;102:407–415.
40. PetrucelliN, DalyMB, FeldmanGL. Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer due to mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2. Genet Med 2010;12:245–259.
41. American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. ACOG Practice Bulletin 103: Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Syndrome. Washington, DC: American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 2009.
42. SmithRA, SaslowD, SawyerKA, et al. American Cancer Society guidelines for breast cancer screening: update 2003. CA Cancer J Clin 2003;53:141–169.
43. National Comprehensive Cancer Network. Clinical Practice Oncology Guidelines. Breast Cancer Screening and Diagnosis, version 1. Fort Washington, PA: National Comprehensive Cancer Network, 2011 (http://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/f_guidelines.asp#site, accessed 30 November 2013).
44. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Familial Breast Cancer: The Classification and Care of Women at Risk of Familial Breast Cancer in Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Care. London: National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, 2006.
45. Myriad Genetic Laboratories. BRCA1 and BRCA2 Prevalence Tables for Mutations Detected by Sequencing, the 5-site Rearrangement Panel (LRP) and the BRAC Analysis Large Rearrangement Test (BART) in High Risk Patients. Salt Lake City, UT: Myriad Genetic Laboratories (http://www.myriad.com/lib/brac/BART-table-faq.pdf, accessed 30 November 2013).
46. WeitzelJ, LagosVI, HerzogJS, et al. Evidence for common ancestral origin of a recurring BRCA1 genomic rearrangement identified in high risk Hispanic families. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2007;16:1615–20.
47. American Cancer Society. Recommendations for Early Breast Cancer Detection in Women Without Breast Symptoms. Atlanta, GA: American Cancer Society, 2011 (www.cancer.org/Cancer/Breastcancer/MoreInformation/BreastCancerEarlyDetection/Breast-cancer-early-detection-acs-recs, revised 10/04/11, accessed 1 March 2014).
48. American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Screening Practice Bulletin No. 122: Breast Cancer. Washington, DC: American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 2011.
49. KlabundeDN, BrownM, Ballard-BarbashR, et al. Cancer screening: United States, 2010. MMWR 2012;61:41–45.
50. US Department of Health and Human Services. Healthy People 2020 Topics and Objectives: Cancer. Washington, DC: US Department of Health and Human Services, 2013 (http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/objectiveslist.aspx?topicId=5, accessed 1 March 2014).
51. CoatesRJ, UhlerRJ, BroganDJ, et al. Patterns and predictors of the breast cancer detection methods in women under age 45 years of age (United States). Cancer Causes Control 2001;12:431–442.
52. NewcomerL, MewcombP, Trentham-DietzA, et al. Detection method and breast carcinoma histology. Cancer 2002;95:470–477.
53. BaxterN. Preventive health care, 2001 update: should women be routinely taught breast self-examination to screen for breast cancer?CMAJ 2011;164:1837–1846.
54. KostersJP, GotzschePC. Regular self examination or clinical examination for early detection of breast cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2003;(2):CD003373.
55. ThomasDB, DaoLG, RayRM, et al. Randomized trial of breast self examination in Shanghai: final results. JNCI 2002;94:1445–1457.
56. US Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for breast cancer: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. Ann Intern Med 2009;151:716–726.
57. ShenY, ZelenM. Screening sensitivity and sojourn time from breast cancer early detection clinical trials: mammograms and physical examinations. J Clin Oncol 2001;19:3490–3499.
58. AuvinenA, ElovainioL, HakamaM. Breast self-examination and survival from breast cancer: a prospective follow up study. Breast Cancer Res Treat 1996;38:161–8.
59. SemiglazovVF, MoiscenkoVM, ManikhasAG, et al. Interim results of a prospective randomized study of self-examination for early detection of breast cancer (Russia/St. Petersburg/WHO). Vopr Onkol 1999;45:265–271.
60. US Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for breast cancer: recommendations and rationale. Ann Intern Med 2002;137:347–360.
61. Canadian Task Force on Periodic Health Examination. Health Canada. Ottawa: Canadian Task Force on Periodic Health Examination, 1994, pp. 788–795 (reaffirmed by the Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination 1999).
62. NekhlyudovL, FletcherSW. Is it time to stop teaching breast self-examination?CMAJ 2001;164:1851–1852.
63. AndersonBO, YipCH, SmithRA, et al. Guideline implementation for breast healthcare in low income and middle income countries: overview of the breast health global initiative global summit 2007. Cancer 2008;113:2221–2243.
64. DuffySW, TabarL, VitakB, WarwickJ. Tumor size and breast cancer detection: what might be the effect of a less sensitive screening tool than mammography?Breast J 2006;12(Suppl):S91–S95.
65. PisaniP, ParkinDM, NgelangelC, et al. Outcome of screening by clinical examination of the breast in a trial in the Philippines. Int J Cancer 2006;118:149–154.
66. ColemanEA, HeardJK. Clinical breast examination: an illustrated educational review and update. Clin Excell Nurse Pract 2001;5:197–204.
67. SaslowD, HannanJ, OsuchJ, et al. Clinical breast examination: practical recommendations for optimizing performance and reporting. CA Cancer J Clin 2004;54:327–344.
68. SaundersKJ, PilgrimCA, PennypackerHS. Increased proficiency of search in breast self-examination. Cancer 1986;58:2531–2537.
69. DixonJ, MaB, NigelJ. Management of disorders of the ductal system and infections. In HarrisJR (ed.) Diseases of the Breast. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000, pp. 47–55.
70. ChiarelliAM, MajpruzV, BrownP, et al. The contribution of clinical breast examination to the accuracy of breast screening. JNCI 2009;101:1236–1243.
71. BoboJK, LeeNC, ThamesSF. Findings from 752 081 clinical breast examinations reported to a national screening program from 1995 through 1998. JNCI 2000;92:971–976.
72. AlexanderFE, AndersonTJ, BrownHK, et al. 14 years of follow-up from the Edinburgh randomized trial of breast-cancer screening. Lancet 1999;353:1903–1914.
73. ShapiroS, VenetW, StraxP, et al. Periodic Screening for Breast Cancer: The Health Insurance Plan Project and its Sequelae. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Press, 1988.
74. MillerABToT, BainesCJ, WallC. Canadian national breast screening study-2; 13-year results of a randomized trial in women aged 50–59 years. JNCI 2000;92:1490–1499.
75. International Agency for Research on Cancer. IARC Handbooks on Cancer Prevention: Breast Cancer Screening. Lyon: IARC, 2002, pp. 34–39.
76. NystromL, AnderssonI, BjurstamN, et al. Long-term effects of mammography screening: updated overview of the Swedish randomized trials. Lancet 2002;359:909–919.
77. KerlikowskeK, GradyD, RubinSM, et al. Efficacy of screening mammography: a meta-analysis. JAMA 1995;273:149–154.
78. ChurKC, SmartCR, TaroneRE. Analysis of breast cancer mortality and state distribution by age of the Health Insurance Clinical Trial. JNCI 1988;80:1125–1132.
79. BakerLH. Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Project: Five year summary report. CA Cancer J Clin 1982;32:194.
80. TabarL, FagerberCJ, GadA, et al. Reduction in mortality from breast cancer after mass screening with mammography: randomized trial from the breast cancer screening work group of the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare. Lancet 1985;i:829–832.
81. MillerAB, BainesCJ, ToT, et al. Canadian National Breast Screening Study. Breast cancer detection and death rates among women aged 40–49 years. CMAJ 1992;147:1459–1476.
82. DalesLG, FriedmanGD, CollenMF. Evaluating periodic multi-phasic health check ups: a controlled trial. J Chronic Dis 1979;2:385–404.
83. GotzschePC, OlsenO. Is screening for breast cancer with mammography justifiable?Lancet 2000;355:129–134.
84. OlsenO, GotzschePC. Cochrane review on screening for breast cancer with mammography. Lancet 2001;358:1340–1342.
85. National Cancer Institute. NCI Statement on Mammography Screening. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute, 2002.
86. HumphreyLL, HelfandM, ChanBK, et al. Breast cancer screening: a summary of the evidence for the US Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med 2002;137:347–360.
87. TabarL, SmithRA, DuffySW. Update on effects of screening mammography. Lancet 2002;360:337–340.
88. NelsonHD, TyneK, MailA, et al. Screening for breast cancer: an update for the US Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med 2009;151:727–37;W237–W242.
89. GotzschePC, NielsenM. Screening for breast cancer with mammography. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2011;(1):CD001877.
90. American Medical Association. Report 16 of the Council on Scientific Affairs (A-99): Mammographic Screening for Asymptomatic Women. Chicago, IL: American Medical Association, 1999.
91. FeigSA, D’OrsiCJ, HendrickRE, et al. American College of Radiology guidelines for breast cancer screening. Am J Roentgenol 1998;171:29–33.
92. RingashJ. Preventive health care, 2001 update: screening mammography among women aged 40–49 years at average risk of breast cancer. CMAJ 2001;164:469–476.
93. MoskowitzM. Breast cancer: age specific growth rates and screening strategies. Radiology 1986;161:37–41.
94. LarssonL, AndersonI, BjurstamN, et al. Update overview of the Swedish randomized trials in breast cancer screening with mammography: age group 40–49 at randomization. JNCI Monogr 1997;22:57–61.
95. HendrickRE, SmithRA, RutledgeJH III, SmartCR. Benefit of screening mammography in women aged 40–49: a new meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. JNCI 1997;22:87–92.
96. FeigSA. Increased benefit from shorter screening mammography intervals for women ages 40–49 years. Cancer 1997;80:2035–2039.
97. MichaelsonJS, HalpernE, KopansDB. Breast cancer computer simulation methods for estimation of optimal intervals for screening. Radiology 1999;212:551–560.
98. KerlikowskeKI, SalzmannP, PhillipsKA, CauleyJA, CummingsSR. Continuing screening mammography in women aged 70–79 years: impact on life expectancy and cost-effectiveness. JAMA 1999;282:2156–2163.
99. MandelblattJ, SahaS, TeutschS. et al. The cost-effectiveness of screening mammography beyond age 65 years: a systematic review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. Cos Work Group of the US Preventive Services task force. Ann Intern Med 2003;39:835–842.
100. ZahlPH, StrandBH, MaehlenJ. Incidence of breast cancer in Norway and Sweden during introduction of nationwide screening: prospective cohort study. BMJ 2004;328:921–924.
101. ElmoreJG, BartonMB, MoceriVM, et al. Ten year risk of false positive screening mammograms and clinical breast examinations. N Engl J Med 1998;338:1089–1096.
102. RosenbergRD, HuntWC, WilliamsonMR, et al. Effects of age, breast density, ethnicity and estrogen replacement therapy on screening mammographic sensitivity and cancer stage at diagnosis: review of 183 134 mammograms in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Radiology 1998;209:511–518.
103. BrewerNT, SalzT, LillieSE. Systematic review: the long term effects of false positive mammograms. Ann Intern Med 2007;146:502–510.
104. YipCH, SmithRA, AndersonBO, et al. Guideline implementation for breast healthcare in low and middle income countries: early detection resource allocation. Cancer 2008;113, 2244–2256.
105. KopansDB (ed.) Breast Imaging Report: Data Management, False-Negative Mammography, and the Breast Imaging Audit in Breast Imaging, 2nd edn. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott-Raven, 1998, pp. 761–796.
106. KerlikowskeD, GradyD, BarclayJ, et al. Variability and accuracy in mammographic interpretation using the American College of Radiology Breast Imaging Reporting And Data System. JNCI 1998;90:1801–1809.
107. SchillingRB, CoxJD, SharmaSR. Advanced digital mammography. J Digit Imaging 1998;11(Suppl 1):163–165.
108. LewinJM, D’OrsiCJ, HendrickRE, et al. Clinical comparison of full-field digital mammography and screen-film mammography for detection of breast cancer. Am J Roentgenol 2002;179:671–677.
109. SkaaneP, HofvindS, SjkjennaldA. Randomized trial of screen-film versus full field digital mammography with soft-copy reading in population-based screening program: follow up and final results of Oslo II study. Radiology 2007;244:708–717.
110. VinnicombeS, Pinto PereiraSM, McCormackVA, et al. Full-field digital versus screen-film mammography: comparison within the UL breast screening program and systematic review of published data. Radiology 2009;251:347–358.
111. PisanoED, GatsonisC, HendrickE, et al. Diagnostic performance of digital versus film mammography for breast-cancer screening. N Engl J Med 2005;353: 1773–1783.
112. PisanoED, SuddhasattaA, ColeEB, et al. Cancer cases from ACRIN Digital Mammographic Imaging Trial: radiologist analysis with use of a logistic regression model. Radiology 2009;252:348–357.
113. TostesonAM, StoutNK, FrybackDG, et al. Cost-effectiveness of digital mammography breast cancer screening. Ann Int Med 2008;148:1–10
114. NiklasonLT, ChristianBT, NiklasonLE, et al. Digital tomosynthesis in breast imaging. Radiology 1997;205:399–406.
115. StavrosAT, ThickmanD, RappCL, et al. Solid breast nodules: Use of sonography to distinguish between benign and malignant lesions. Radiology 1995;196:123.
116. Mammography Quality Standards Act 1992 as amended by the Mammography Quality Standards Reauthorization Act of 1998 and 2004. Title 42; Chapter 6A. As amended by H.R. 4382. Pub L No. 102–539.
117. American College of Radiology. American College of Radiology Standards: Practice Guidelines for Performing and Interpreting Diagnostic Ultrasounds. Reston, VA: American College of Radiology, 2011.
118. ChaJH, MoonWK, ChoN, et al. Differentiation of benign and malignant solid breast masses: conventional US vs. spatial compound imaging. Radiology 2005;237:841–846.
119. HsiaoYH, HuangYL, LiangWM, et al. Characterization of benign and malignant solid breast masses: harmonic vs. non harmonic 3D power Doppler imaging. Ultrasound Med Biol 2009;35:353–359.
120. WatermannDO, FoldiM, Hanjalic-BeckA, et al. Three dimensional ultrasound for assessment of breast lesions. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2005;25:592–598.
121. BennettIC, MullerJ, CockburnL, et al. Outcomes of multimodality breast screening for women at increased risk of familial breast cancer. World J Surg 2010;34:979–986.
122. KolbTM, LichyJ, NewhouseJH. Occult cancer in women with dense breasts: detection with screening US-diagnostic yield and tumor characteristics. Radiology 1998;207:191–199.
123. O’DriscolD, WarrenR, MackayJ, et al. Screening with breast ultrasound in a population at moderate risk due to family history. J Med Screen 2001;8:106–109.
124. WarnerE, PlewesDB, ShumakRS, et al. Comparison of breast magnetic resonance imaging, mammography and ultrasound for surveillance of women at high risk for hereditary breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 2001;19:3524–3531.
125. BuchbergerW, DeKoekkoek-DollP, SpringerP, et al. Incidental findings on sonography of the breast: clinical significance and diagnostic workup. Am J Roentgenol 1999;173:921–927.
126. KolbTM, LichyJ, NewhouseJH. Comparison of the performance of screening mammography, physical examination, and breast US and evaluation of factors that influence them: an analysis of 27 825 patient evaluations. Radiology 2002;225:165–175.
127. KaplanSS. Clinical utility of bilateral whole-breast US in the evaluation of women with dense breast tissue. Radiology 2001;221:641–649.
128. BergWA, BlumeJD, CormackJB, et al. Combined screening with ultrasound and mammography vs. mammography alone in women at elevated risk of breast cancer. JAMA 2008;299:2151–2163.
129. Le-PetrossHT, ShettyMK. Magnetic resonance imaging and breast ultrasonography as an adjunct to mammographic screening in high risk women. Semin Ultrasound CT MR 2011;32:266–272.
130. ScheidhauerK, WalterC, SeemannMD. FDG PET and other imaging modalities in the primary diagnosis of suspicious breast lesions. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2004;31(Suppl 1):S70–S79.
131. American College of Radiology. ACR Practice Guideline for the Performance of Contract-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the Breast. Reston, VA: American College of Radiology, 2013 (http://www.acr.org/~/media/2a0eb28eb59041e2825179afb72ef624.pdf, accessed 26 February 2014).
132. BergWA, GutierrezL, NewwaiverMS, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of mammography, clinical examination, US, and MR imaging in preoperative assessment of breast cancer. Radiology 2004;233:830–849.
133. LehmanC. MRI in the evaluation of ductal carcinoma in situ. JNCI Monog 2010;41:150–151.
134. KuhlCK, SchradingS, BielingHB, et al. MRI for diagnosis of pure ductal carcinoma in situ: a prospective observational study. Lancet 2007;370:485–492.
135. WarnerE, PlewesDB, HillKA, et al. Surveillance of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers with magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound, mammography and clinical breast examination. JAMA 2004;292:1317–1325.
136. WeinsteinSP, LocalioAR, ConantEF, et al. Multimodality screening of high-risk women: a prospective cohort study. JCO 2009 27:6124–6128.
137. MorrowN, WatersJ, MorrisE. MRI for breast cancer screening, diagnosis, and treatment. Lancet 2011;378:1804–1811.
138. KriegeM, BrekelmansCTM, BoetesC, et al. Efficacy of MRI and mammography for breast cancer screening in women with a familial or genetic predisposition. New Engl J Med 2004;351:427–437.
139. StoutjesdijkMJ, BoetesC, JagerGJ, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging and mammography in women with a hereditary risk for breast cancer. JNCI 2001;93:1095–1102.
140. SaslowD, BoetesC, BurkeW, et al. American Cancer Society Guidelines for breast screening with MRI as an adjunct to mammography. CA Cancer J Clin 2007;57:75–89.
141. FentonJJ, TaplinSH, CarneyPA, et al. Influence of computer aided detection on performance of screening mammography. N Engl J Med 2007;356:1399–1409.
142. MortonMJ, WhaleyDH, BrandtKR, AmramiKK. Screening mammograms: interpretation with computer aided detection prospective evaluation. Radiology 2006;239:375–383.
143. DeanJD, IlventoCC. Improved cancer detection using computer aided detection with diagnostic and screening mammography: prospective study of 104 cancers. Am J Roentgenology 2006;187:20–28.
144. WuY, GigerML, DoiK, et al. Application of neural networks in mammography: applications in decision making in the diagnosis of breast cancer. Radiology 1993;187:81.
145. JiangY, MetzCE, NishikawaRM. A receiver operating characteristic partial area index for highly sensitive diagnostic tests. Radiology 1996;201:745.
146. HuoZ, GigerML, VybornyCJ, et al. Automated computerized classification of benign and malignant masses on digital mammograms. Acad Radiol 1998;5:155.
147. DunnwaldLK, GralowJR, EllisGK, et al. Tumor metabolism and blood flow changes by positron emission tomography: relation to survival in patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced breast cancer. J Clin Ooncol 2008;26:4449–4457.
148. LeungJW. New modalities in breast imaging: digital mammography, positron emission tomography, and sestamibi scintimammography. Radiol Clin North Am 2002;40:467–482.
149. XuH, LiL, XuQ. Tc-99m sestamibi scintimammography for the diagnosis of breast cancer: meta-analysis and meta-regression. Nucl Med Commun 2011;32:980–988.
150. BuscombeJR, CwiklaJB, HollowayB, et al. Prediction of the usefulness of combined mammography and scintimammography in suspected primary breast cancer using ROC curves. J Nucl Med 2001;42:3–8.
151. ImbriacoM, Del VecchioS, RiccardiA, et al. Scintimammography with 99mTc-MIBI versus dynamic MRI for non-invasive characterization of breast masses. Eur J Nucl Med 2001;28:56–63.
152. KlausAJ, KlingensmithWC III, ParkerSH, et al. Comparative value of 99mTc- sestamibi scintimammography and sonography in the diagnostic workup of breast masses. Am J Radiol 2000;174:1779–1783.
153. PalmedoH, GrunwaldF, BenderH, et al. Scintimammography with technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile: comparison with mammography and magnetic resonance imaging. Eur J Nucl Med 1996;23:940–946.
154. TilingR, SommerH, PechmannM, et al. Comparison of technetium-99m-sestamibi scintimammography with contrast-enhanced MRI for diagnosis of breast lesions. J Nucl Med 1997;38:58–62.
155. WellingsSR. A hypothesis of the origin of human breast cancer from the terminal ductal lobular unit. Pathol Res Pract 1980;166:515–535.
156. WrenschMR, PetrakisNL, KingEB, et al. Breast cancer incidence in women with abnormal cytology in nipple aspirates of breast fluid. Am J Epidemiol 1992;135:130–141.
157. WrenschMR, PetrakisNL, MiikeR, KingEB. Breast cancer risk in women with abnormal cytology in nipple aspirates of breast fluid. JNCI 2001;93:1791–1798.
158. SauterER, Wagner-MannC, EhyaH, Klein-SzantoA. Biologic markers of breast cancer in nipple aspirate fluid and nipple discharge are associated with clinical findings. Cancer Detect Prev 2007;31:50–58.
159. DooleyWC, LjungBM, VeronesiU, et al. Ductal lavage for detection of cellular atypia in women at high risk for breast cancer. JNCI 2001;93:1624–1632.
160. BrogiE, RobsonM, PanageasKS, et al. Ductal lavage in patients undergoing mastectomy for mammary carcinoma: a correlative study. Cancer 2003;98:2170–2176.
161. PortER, MontgomeryLL, HeerdtAS, et al. Patient reluctance toward tamoxifen use for breast cancer primary prevention. Ann Surg Oncol 2001;8:580–585.
162. VogelVG, CostantinoJP, WickerhamDL, et al. Update of the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR) P-2 trial: preventing breast cancer. Cancer Prev Res 2010;3:696–706.
163. NarayananK, JaramilloA, BenshoffND, et al. Response of established human breast tumors to vaccination with mammaglobin-A cDNA. JNCI 2004;96:1388–1396.
164. CyrAE, MargenthalerJA, ConwayJ, et al. Correlation of ductal lavage cytology with ductoscopy-directed duct excision histology in women at high risk for developing breast cancer: a prospective, single-institution trial. Ann Surg Oncol 2011, 18:3192–3197.
165. FacklerMJ, RiversA, TeoWW, et al. Hypermethylated genes as biomarkers of cancer in women with pathologic nipple discharge. Clin Cancer Res 2009;15:3802–3811.
166. BadveS, WileyE, RodriguezN. Assessment of utility of ductal lavage and ductoscopy in breast cancer – a retrospective analysis of mastectomy specimens. Mod Pathol 2003;16:206–209.
167. PetroffBK, PhillipsTA, KimlerBF, FabianCJ. Detection of biomarker gene expression by real time polymerase chain reaction using amplified riboneucleic acid from formalin fixed random periareolar fine needle aspirates of human breast tissue. Anal Quant Cytol Histol 2006;28:297–302.
168. ArunB, ValeroV, LoganC, et al. Comparison of ductal lavage and random periareolar fine-needle aspiration as tissue acquisition methods in early breast cancer prevention trials. Clin Cancer Res 2007;13:4943–4948.
169. FabianCJ, KimlerBF, MayoMS, KhanSA. Breast tissue sampling for risk assessment and prevention. Endocr Relat Cancer 2005;12:185–213.
170. HolmesJP, CliftonGT, PatilR, et al. Use of booster inoculations to sustain the clinical effect of an adjuvant breast cancer vaccine: from US Military Cancer Institute Clinical Trials Group 1-01 and 1-02. Cancer 2011;117:463–471.
171. VarnumSM, CovingtonCC, WoodburyRL, et al. Proteomic characterization of nipple aspirate fluid: identification of potential biomarkers of breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2003;80:87–97.
172. MannelloF, MaddaV, TontiG. Protein profile analysis of the breast microenvironment to differentiate healthy women from breast cancer patients. Expert Rev Proteom 2009;6:43–60.
173. ChattertonRT, ParkerNP, Habe-EvansM, et al. Breast ductal lavage for assessment of breast cancer biomarkersHorm Cancer 2010;1:197–204.
174. DowsettM, NielsenTO, A’HernR, et al. Assessment of Ki67 in breast cancer: recommendations from the International Ki67 in Breast Cancer Working Group. JNCI 2011;103:1656–1664.
175. FabianCJ, ZallesC, KamelS, et al. Prevalence of aneuploidy, over-expressed ER, and overexpressed EGFR in random breast aspirates of women at high and low risk for breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat 1994;30:263–274.
176. PediconiF, CatalanoC, RoselliA, et al. The challenge of imaging dense breast parenchyma: is magnetic resonance mammography the technique of choice? A comparative study with X-ray mammography and whole-breast ultrasound. Invest Radiol 2009;44:412–421.

References

1. TaussigFJ. Cancer of the vulva: An analysis of 155 cases (1911–1940). Am J Obstet Gynecol 1940;40:764.
2. BrintonLA, NascaPC, MallinK, et al. Case–control study of cancer of the vulva. Obstet Gynecol 1990;75:859–866.
3. BenedetJL, MurphyKJ. Squamous carcinoma in situ of the vulva. Gynecol Oncol 1982;14:213.
4. KaufmanRH. Intraepithelial neoplasia of the vulva. Gynecol Oncol 1995;56:8–21.
5. ChafeW, RichardsA, MorganL, et al. Unrecognized invasive carcinoma in vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN). Gynecol Oncol 1988;31:154–165.
6. BuscemaJ, WoodruffJD, ParmleyT, et al. Carcinoma in situ of the vulva. Obstet Gynecol 1980;55:225–230.
7. HomesleyHD, BundyBN, SedlisA, et al. Prognostic factors for groin node metastasis in squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva (a GOG study). Gynecol Oncol 1993;49:279–283.
8. SedlisA, HomesleyH, BundyBN, et al. Positive groin lymph nodes in superficial squamous cell vulvar cancer. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1987;156:1159.
9. RutledgeFN, MitchellMF, MunsellMF, et al. Prognostic indicators for invasive carcinoma of the vulva. Gynecol Oncol 1991;42:239–244.
10. BinderSW, HuangI, FuYS, HackerNF, BerekJS. Risk factors for the development of lymph node metastasis in vulvar squamous cell carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 1990;37:9–16.
11. HackerNF, BerekJS, LagasseLD, LeuchterRS, MooreJG. Management of regional lymph nodes and their prognostic influence in vulvar cancer. Obstet Gynecol 1983;61:408–412.
12. HomesleyHD, BundyBN, SedlisA, AdcockL. Radiation therapy versus pelvic node resection for carcinoma of the vulva with positive groin nodes. Obstet Gynecol 1986;68:733–740.
13. StehmanFB, BundyBN, DvoretskyPM, CreasmanT. Early stage I carcinoma of the vulva treated with ipsilateral superficial inguinal lymphadenectomy and modified radical hemivulvectomy: a prospective study of the GOG. Obstet Gynecol 1992;79:490–497.
14. BurkeTW, LevenbackC, ColemanRC, et al. Surgical therapy of T1 and T2 vulvar carcinoma: further experience with radical wide excision and selective inguinal lymphadenectomy. Gynecol Oncol 1995;57:215–220.
15. HelmCW, HatchK, AustinJM, et al. A matched comparison of single and triple incision techniques for the surgical treatment of carcinoma of the vulva. Gynecol Oncol 1992;46:150–156.
16. HackerNF, BerekJS, LagasseLD, et al. Individualization of treatment for Stage I squamous cell vulvar carcinoma. Obstet Gynecol 1984;63:155–162.
17. StehmanF, BundyB, ThomasG, et al. Groin dissection versus groin radiation in carcinoma of the vulva: a GOG study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1992;24:389–396.
18. KohWJ, ChiuM, StelzerKJ, et al. Femoral vessel depth and the implications for groin node radiation. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1993;27:969–974.
19. DeHulluJA, HollemaH, PiersDA, et al. Sentinel lymph node procedure is highly accurate in squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. J Clin Oncol 2000;18:2811–2816.
20. LevenbackC, ColemanRL, BurkeTW, et al. Intraoperative lymphatic mapping and sentinel node identification with blue dye in patients with vulvar cancer. Gynecol Oncol 2001;83:276–281.
21. MooreRG, RobisonK, BrownAK, et al. Isolated sentinel lymph node dissection with conservative management in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva: a prospective trial. Gynecol Oncol 2008;109:65–70.
22. DiSaiaPJ, CreasmanWT, RichWM. An alternative approach to early cancer of the vulva. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1979;133:825–832.
23. BermanML, SoperJT, CreasmanWT, et al. Conservative surgical management of superficially invasive stage I vulvar carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 1989;35:352–357.
24. HeapsJM, FuYS, MontzFJ, et al. Surgical pathologic variables predictive of local recurrence in squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. Gynecol Oncol 1990;38:309–314.
25. BoronowRC, HickmanBT, ReaganMT, SmithA, SteadhamRE. Combined therapy as an alternative to exenteration for locally advanced vulvovaginal cancer: II. Results, complications and dosimetric and surgical considerations. Am J Clin Oncol 1987;10:171–181.
26. MooreDH, ThomasGM, MontanaGS, et al. Preoperative chemoradiation for advanced vulvar cancer: a phase II study of the GOG. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1998;42:79–85.
27. KohWJ, WallaceHJ, GreerBE, et al. Combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy in the management of local-regionally advanced vulvar cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1993;26:809–816.
28. ShylasreeTS, BryantA, HowellsRE. Chemoradiation for advanced primary vulval cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2011;(4):CD003752.
29. HoffmanMS, LaPollaJP, RobertsWS, FiorcaJV, CavanaghD. Use of local flaps for primary anal reconstruction following perianal resection for neoplasia. Gynecol Oncol 1990;36:348–352.
30. BurkeTW, MorrisM, RohMS, LevenbackC, GershensonDM. Perineal reconstruction using single gracilis myocutaneous flaps. Gynecol Oncol 1995;57:221–225.
31. PhillipsGL, BundyBN, OkagakiT, KuceraPR, StehmanFB. Malignant melanoma of the vulva treated by radical hemivulvectomy. A prospective study of the Gynecologic Oncology Group. Cancer 1994;73:2626–2632.
32. FeuerGA, ShevchukM, CalanogA. Vulvar Paget’s disease: the need to exclude an invasive lesion. Gynecol Oncol 1990;38:81–89.

References

1. FuYS. Pathology of the Uterine Cervix, Vagina and Vulva, 2nd edn. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders, 2001.
2. BellerU, BenedetJL, CreasmanWT, et al. Carcinoma of the vagina. FIGO 26th Annual Report on the Results of Treatment in Gynecological Cancer. Int J Gynecol Obstet 2006;95(Suppl 1):S29–S42.
3. DalingJR, MadeleineMM, SchwartzSM, et al. A population-based study of squamous cell vaginal cancer: HPV and cofactors. Gynecol Oncol 2002;84:263–270.
4. BoiceJD, Jr., EngholmG, KleinermanRA, et al. Radiation dose and second cancer risk in patients treated for cancer of the cervix. Radiat Res 1988;116:3–55.
5. PalmerJR, AndersonD, HelmrichSP, HerbstAL. Risk factors for diethylstilbestrol-associated clear cell adenocarcinoma. Obstet Gynecol 2000;95:814–820.
6. GuptaD, MalpicaA, DeaversMT, SilvaEG. Vaginal melanoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 26 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 2002;26:1450–1457.
7. CreasmanWT, PhillipsJL, MenckHR. The National Cancer Data Base report on cancer of the vagina. Cancer 1998;83:1033–1040.
8. KosariF, DaneshbodY, ParwareschR, KramsM, WackerHH. Lymphomas of the female genital tract: a study of 186 cases and review of the literature. Am J Surg Pathol 2005;29:1512–1520.
9. HoughtonCR, IversenT. Squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina: a clinical study of the location of the tumor. Gynecol Oncol 1982;13:365–372.
10. International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 26th annual report on the results of treatment in gynecological cancer. Int J Gynecol Obstet 2006;95(Suppl 1):S1–S257.
11. EdgeSB, ByrdDR, ComptonCC, for the American Joint Committee on Cancer. AJCC Cancer Staging Manual, Part VIII, Gynecological Sites: Vagina, 7th edn. New York: Springer-Verlag, 2010.
12. LamoreauxWT, GrigsbyPW, DehdashtiF, et al. FDG-PET evaluation of vaginal carcinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2005;62:733–737.
13. TranPT, SuZ, LeeP, et al. Prognostic factors for outcomes and complications for primary squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina treated with radiation. Gynecol Oncol 2007;105:641–649.
14. CutilloG, CigniniP, PizziG, et al. Conservative treatment of reproductive and sexual function in young woman with squamous carcinoma of the vagina. Gynecol Oncol 2006;103:234–237.
15. IndermaurMD, MartinoMA, FioricaJV, RobertsWS, HoffmanMS. Upper vaginectomy for the treatment of vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2005;193:577–580; discussion 580–581.
16. KrebsHB. Treatment of vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia with laser and topical 5-fluorouracil. Obstet Gynecol 1989;73:657–660.
17. HaidopoulosD, DiakomanolisE, RodolakisA, et al. Can local application of imiquimod cream be an alternative mode of therapy for patients with high-grade intraepithelial lesions of the vagina?Int J Gynecol Cancer 2005;15:898–902.
18. MockU, KuceraH, FellnerC, KnockeTH, PotterR. High-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy with or without external beam radiotherapy in the treatment of primary vaginal carcinoma: long-term results and side effects. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2003;56:950–957.
19. StockRG, ChenAS, SeskiJ. A 30-year experience in the management of primary carcinoma of the vagina: analysis of prognostic factors and treatment modalities. Gynecol Oncol 1995;56:45–52.
20. BurkeTW, MorrisM, RohMS, LevenbackC, GershensonDM. Perineal reconstruction using single gracilis myocutaneous flaps. Gynecol Oncol 1995;57:221–225.
21. ElaffandiAH, KhalilHH, Aboul KassemHA, El SherbinyM, El GemeieEH. Vaginal reconstruction with a greater omentum-pedicled graft combined with a vicryl mesh after anterior pelvic exenteration. Surgical approach with long-term follow-up. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2007;17:536–542.
22. WangX, QiaoQ, BurdA, et al. A new technique of vaginal reconstruction with the deep inferior epigastric perforator flap: a preliminary report. Plast Reconstr Surg 2007;119:1785–1790; discussion 1791.
23. PerezCA, KorbaA, SharmaS. Dosimetric considerations in irradiation of carcinoma of the vagina. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1977;2:639–649.
24. MundtAJ, LujanAE, RotmenschJ, et al. Intensity-modulated whole pelvic radiotherapy in women with gynecologic malignancies. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2002;52:1330–1337.
25. HudsonCN, FindlayWS, RobertsH. Successful pregnancy after radical surgery for diethylstilboestrol (DES)-related vaginal adenocarcinoma. Case report. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1988;95:818–819.
26. IrvinWP, Jr., BlissSA, RiceLW, TaylorPT, Jr., AndersenWA. Malignant melanoma of the vagina and locoregional control: radical surgery revisited. Gynecol Oncol 1998;71:476–480.
27. GrayRJ, PockajBA, KirkwoodJM. An update on adjuvant interferon for melanoma. Cancer Control 2002;9:16–21.
28. AndrassyRJ, HaysDM, RaneyRB, et al. Conservative surgical management of vaginal and vulvar pediatric rhabdomyosarcoma: a report from the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study III. J Pediatr Surg 1995;30:1034–1036; discussion 1036–1037.
29. PrevotS, HugolD, AudouinJ, et al. Primary non Hodgkin’s malignant lymphoma of the vagina. Report of 3 cases with review of the literature. Pathol Res Pract 1992;188(1–2):78–85.
30. TabataT, TakeshimaN, NishidaH, HiraiY, HasumiK. Treatment failure in vaginal cancer. Gynecol Oncol 2002;84:309–314.

References

1. ArbynM, CastellsagueX, de SS, et al. Worldwide burden of cervical cancer in 2008. Ann Oncol 2011;22:2675–2686.
2. AnttilaA, von KarsaL, AasmaaA, et al. Cervical cancer screening policies and coverage in Europe. Eur J Cancer 2009;45:2649–2658.
3. ForouzanfarMH, ForemanKJ, DelossantosAM, et al. Breast and cervical cancer in 187 countries between 1980 and 2010: a systematic analysis. Lancet 2011;378:1461–1484.
4. FerenczyA, WinklerB. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. In Kurman R (ed.) Blaustein’s Pathology of the Female Genital Tract, 3rd edn. New York: Springer Verlag, 1987, pp. 184–191.
5. zur HausenH. Papillomaviruses and cancer: from basic studies to clinical application. Nat Rev Cancer 2002;2:342–350.
6. MunozN, MendezF, PossoH, et al. Incidence, duration, and determinants of cervical human papillomavirus infection in a cohort of Colombian women with normal cytological results. J Infect Dis 2004;190:2077–2087.
7. WellingsK, CollumbienM, SlaymakerE, et al. Sexual behaviour in context: a global perspective. Lancet 2006;368:1706–1728.
8. SiebertU, SroczynskiG, HillemannsP, et al. The German cervical cancer screening model: development and validation of a decision-analytic model for cervical cancer screening in Germany. Eur J Public Health 2006;16:185–192.
9. KjaerSK, FrederiksenK, MunkC, IftnerT. Long-term absolute risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse following human papillomavirus infection: role of persistence. JNCI 2010;102:1478–1488.
10. ArbynM, RoncoG, MeijerCJ, NauclerP. Trials comparing cytology with human papillomavirus screening. Lancet Oncol 2009;10:935–936.
11. RoncoG, Giorgi-RossiP, CarozziF, et al. Efficacy of human papillomavirus testing for the detection of invasive cervical cancers and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol 2010;11:249–257.
12. KinneyW, FettermanB, CoxJT, et al. Characteristics of 44 cervical cancers diagnosed following Pap-negative, high risk HPV-positive screening in routine clinical practice. Gynecol Oncol 2011;121:309–313.
13. PetryKU, SchmidtD, ScherbringS, et al. Triaging Pap cytology negative, HPV positive cervical cancer screening results with p16/Ki-67 Dual-stained cytology. Gynecol Oncol 2011;121:505–509.
14. BlockSL, NolanT, SattlerC, et al. Comparison of the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of a prophylactic quadrivalent human papillomavirus (types 6, 11, 16, and 18) L1 virus-like particle vaccine in male and female adolescents and young adult women. Paediatrics 2006;118:2135–2145.
15. HarperDM, FrancoEL, WheelerCM, et al. Efficacy of a bivalent L1 virus-like particle vaccine in prevention of infection of human papillomavirus type 16 and 18 in young women: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2004;364:1757–1765.
16. MunozN, KjaerSK, SigurdssonK, et al. Impact of human papillomavirus (HPV)-6/11/16/18 vaccine on all HPV-associated genital diseases in young women. JNCI 2010;102:325–339.
17. GarlandSM, StebenM, SingsHL, et al. Natural history of genital warts: analysis of the placebo arm of 2 randomized phase III trials of a quadrivalent human papillomavirus (types 6, 11, 16, and 18) vaccine. J Infect Dis 2009;199:805–814.
18. HildesheimA, HerreroR, WacholderS, et al. Effect of human papillomavirus 16/18 L1 viruslike particle vaccine among young women with preexisting infection. JAMA 2007;298:743–753.
19. GarlandSM, Hernandez-AvilaM, WheelerCM, et al. Quadrivalent vaccine against human papillomavirus to prevent anogenital diseases. N Engl J Med 2007;356:1928–1943.
20. Group FIS. Quadrivalent vaccine against human papillomavirus to prevent high-grade cervical lesions. N Engl J Med 2007;356:1915–1927.
21. PaavonenJ, JenkinsD, BoschFX, et al. Efficacy of a prophylactic adjuvanted bivalent L1 virus-like-particle vaccine against infection with human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 in young women: an interim analysis of a phase III double-blind, randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2008;369:2161–2170.
22. JouraE, LeodolterS, Hernandez-AvilaM, et al. Efficacy of a quadrivalent prophylactic human papillomavirus (types 6, 11, 16, and 18) L1 virus-like-particle vaccine against high-grade vulval and vaginal lesions: a combined analysis of three randomised clinical trials. Lancet 2008;369:1693–1702.
23. PaavonenJ, NaudP, SalmeronJ, et al. Efficacy of human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine against cervical infection and precancer caused by oncogenic HPV types (PATRICIA): final analysis of a double-blind, randomised study in young women. Lancet 2009;374:301–314.
24. DonovanB, FranklinN, GuyR, et al. Quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccination and trends in genital warts in Australia: analysis of national sentinel surveillance data. Lancet Infect Dis 2011;11:39–44.
25. DavidMP, van HerckK, HardtK, et al. Long-term persistence of anti-HPV-16 and -18 antibodies induced by vaccination with the AS04-adjuvanted cervical cancer vaccine: modeling of sustained antibody responses. Gynecol Oncol 2009;115(Suppl):S1–SS6.
26. PetryKU, BreugelmansJG, BenardS, et al. Cost of screening and treatment of cervical dyskaryosis in Germany. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol 2008;29:345–349.
27. SolomonD, SchiffmanM, TaroneR. Comparison of three management strategies for patients with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance: baseline results from a randomized trial. JNCI 2001;93:293–299.
28. McCredieMR, SharplesKJ, PaulC, et al. Natural history of cervical neoplasia and risk of invasive cancer in women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet Oncol 2008;9:425–434.
29. PecorelliS. Revised FIGO staging for carcinoma of the vulva, cervix, and endometrium. Int J Gynecol Obstet 2009;105:103–104.
30. HricakH, GatsonisC, CoakleyFV, et al. Early invasive cervical cancer: CT and MR imaging in preoperative evaluation: ACRIN/GOG comparative study of diagnostic performance and interobserver variability. Radiology 2007;245:491–498.
31. StenstedtK, HellstromAC, FridstenS, BlomqvistL. Impact of MRI in the management and staging of cancer of the uterine cervix. Acta Oncol 2011;50:420–426.
32. KohlerC, KlemmP, SchauA, et al. Introduction of transperitoneal lymphadenectomy in a gynecologic oncology center: analysis of 650 laparoscopic pelvic and/or paraaortic transperitoneal lymphadenectomies. Gynecol Oncol 2004;95:52–61.
33. AltgassenC, HertelH, BrandstadtA, et al. Multicenter validation study of the sentinel lymph node concept in cervical cancer: AGO Study Group. J Clin Oncol 2008;26:2943–2951.
34. GargG, ShahJP, ToyEP, et al. Intra-operative detection of nodal metastasis in early stage cervical cancer: a survey of the practice patterns of SGO members. Gynecol Oncol 2011;121:143–147.
35. WertheimE. The extended abdominal operation for carcinoma uteri (based on 500 cases). Am J Obstet Gynecol 1912;66:169–171.
36. PiverMS, RutledgeF, SmithJP. Five classes of extended hysterectomy for women with cervical cancer. Obstet Gynecol 1974;44:265–272.
37. HockelM, HornLC, MantheyN, et al. Resection of the embryologically defined uterovaginal (Mullerian) compartment and pelvic control in patients with cervical cancer: a prospective analysis. Lancet Oncol 2009;10:683–692.
38. RogersL, SiuSS, LuesleyD, BryantA, DickinsonHO. Adjuvant radiotherapy and chemoradiation after surgery for cervical cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009;(4):CD007583.
39. GreenJA. Concurrent cisplatin-based chemotherapy plus radiotherapy for cervical cancer: a meta-analysis. Clin Oncol 2004;16:82.
40. BansalN, HerzogTJ, ShawRE, et al. Primary therapy for early-stage cervical cancer: radical hysterectomy vs radiation. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2009;201:485–489.
41. LongHJ, III, BundyBN, GrendysEC, Jr., et al. Randomized phase III trial of cisplatin with or without topotecan in carcinoma of the uterine cervix: a Gynecologic Oncology Group Study. J Clin Oncol 2005;23:4626–4633.

References

1. CreasmanW, OdicinoF, MaisonnenveP, et al. Carcinoma of the corpus uteri. J Epidemiol Biostat 1998;3:35–61.
2. FarhiDC, NosanchukJ, SilverbergSG. Endometrial adenocarcinoma in women under 25 years of age. Obstet Gynecol 1986;68:741–745.
3. KaminskiPF, PodczaskiES. Premalignant and malignant conditions of the uterus. In HernandezE, AtkinsonBF (eds.) Clinical Gynecologic Pathology. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders, 1995, pp. 287–359.
4. IrvinWP, RiceLW. Advances in the management of endometrial adenocarcinoma. A review. J Reprod Med 2002;47:173–190.
5. XieX, Wei-GuoL, Da-FengY, et al. The value of curettage in diagnosis of endometrial hyperplasia. Gynecol Oncol 202;84:135–139.
6. BarakatRR. Contemporary issues in the management of endometrial cancer. CA Cancer J Clin 1998;48:299–314.
7. KaminskiPF, PodczaskiES. Benign conditions of the uterus. In HernandezE, AtkinsonBF (eds.) Clinical Gynecologic Pathology. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders, 1995, pp. 223–286.
8. ChooY, NaylorB. Multiple primary neoplasms of the ovary and uterus. Int J Gynecol Obstet 1982;20:327–334.
9. EifelP, HendricksonM, RossJ, et al. Simultaneous presentation of carcinoma involving the ovary and the uterine corpus. Cancer 1982;50:163–170.
10. ZainoR, WhitneyC, BradyMF, et al. Simultaneously detected endometrial and ovarian carcinomas: a prospective clinicopathologic study of 74 cases: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study. Gynecol Oncol 2001;83:355–362.
11. MenkoFH, WijnenJT, VasenHFA, OosterwijkMH. Genetic counselling in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. Oncology 1996;10:71–76.
12. LindorNM, PetersenGM, HadleyDW, et al. Recommendations for the care of individuals with an inherited predisposition to Lynch syndrome. JAMA 2006;296:1507–1517.
13. BrintonLA, BermanML, MortelR, et al. Reproductive, menstrual, and medical risk factors for endometrial cancer: results from a case–control study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1992;167:1317–1325.
14. KalandiniA, TzonouA, LipwirthL, et al. Case–control study of endometrial cancer in relation to reproductive, somatometric, and life-style variables. Oncology 1996;53:354–359.
15. JickSS, WalkerAM, JickH. Oral contraceptives and endometrial cancers. Obstet Gynecol 1993;82:931–936.
16. CirisanoFD II, RobboySJ, DodgeRK, et al. Epidemiologic and surgicopathologic findings of papillary serous and clear cell endometrial cancers when compared to endometrioid carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 1999;74:385–394.
17. DuntonC, BalsaraG, McFarlandM, et al. Uterine papillary serous carcinoma: a review. Obstet Gynecol Surv 1991;46:97–102.
18. ReddingtonL, HernandezE, BalsaraG, et al. The effectiveness of the Masterson curette in sampling the endometrial cavity. J Natl Med Assoc 1995;87:877–880.
19. Suh-BurgmanE, HungY-Y, ArmstrongMA. Complex atypical endometrial hyperplasia: the risk of unrecognized adenocarcinoma and value of preoperative dilation and curettage. Obstet Gynecol 2009;114:523–529.
20. GimpelsonRJ, RappoldHO. A comparative study between panoramic hysteroscopy with directed biopsies and dilatation and curettage: a review of 276 cases. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1988;158:489–492.
21. BaiocchiG, ManciN, PazzagliaM, et al. Malignancy in endometrial polyps: a 12-year experience. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2009;201:462.e1–4.
22. RosePG. Endometrial carcinoma. N Engl J Med 1996;335:640–649.
23. WeberAM, BelinsonJL, PiedmonteMR. Risk factors for endometrial hyperplasia and cancer among women with abnormal bleeding. Obstet Gynecol 1999;93:594–598.
24. LangerRD, PierceJJ, O'HanlanKA, et al. Transvaginal ultrasonography compared with endometrial biopsy for the detection of endometrial disease. N Engl J Med 1997;337:1792–1798.
25. WangS, PudneyJ, SongJ, et al. Mechanisms involved in the evolution of progestin resistance in human endometrial hyperplasia: precursor of endometrial cancer. Gynecol Oncol 2003;88:108–117.
26. WildemeerschD, DhontM. Treatment of nonatypical endometrial hyperplasia with levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2003;188:1297–1299.
27. LindellLK, AndersonB. Routine pretreatment evaluation of patients with gynecologic cancer. Obstet Gynecol 1987;69:242–246.
28. ConnorJP, AndrewsJI, AndersonB, et al. Computed tomography in endometrial carcinoma. Obstet Gynecol 2000;95:692–696.
29. NakaoY, YokoyamaM, HaraK, et al. MR imaging in endometrial carcinoma as a diagnostic tool for the absence of myometrial invasion. Gynecol Oncol 2006;102:343–347.
30. SoodAK, BullerRE, BurgerRA, et al. Value of preoperative CA125 level in the management of uterine cancer and prediction of clinical outcome. Obstet Gynecol 1997;90:441–447.
31. MutchDG. The new FIGO staging system for cancers of the vulva, cervix, endometrium and sarcomas. Gynecol Oncol 2009;115:325–328.
32. CreasmanWT, MorrowCP, BundyBN, et al. Surgical pathologic spread patterns of endometrial cancer. Cancer 1987;60:2035–2041.
33. ChiangA-J, YuK-J, ChaoK-C, et al. The incidence of isolated para-aortic nodal metastasis in completely staged endometrial cancer patients. Gynecol Oncol 2011;121:122–125.
34. FerrissJS, BrixW, TambouretR, et al. Cervical stromal invasion predicting survival in endometrial cancer. Obstet Gynecol 2010;116:1035–1041.
35. CreasmanWT, DiSaiaPJ, BlessingJ, et al. Prognostic significance of peritoneal cytology in patients with endometrial cancer and preliminary data concerning therapy with intraperitoneal radiopharmaceuticals. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1981;141:921–929.
36. YazigiR, PiverMS, BlumensonL. Malignant peritoneal cytology as a prognostic indicator in stage I endometrial cancer. Obstet Gynecol 1983;62:359–362.
37. KadarN, HomesleyHD, MalfetanoJH. Positive peritoneal cytology is an adverse factor in endometrial carcinoma only if there is other evidence of extrauterine disease. Gynecol Oncol 1992;46:145–149.
38. MorrowCP, BundyBN, KurmanRJ, et al. Relationship between surgical–pathological risk factors and outcome in clinical stage I and II carcinoma of the endometrium: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study. Gynecol Oncol 1991;40:55–65.
39. MarinoBD, BurkeTW, TornosC, et al. Staging laparotomy for endometrial carcinoma: assessment of peritoneal spread. Gynecol Oncol 1995;56:34–38.
40. GrigsbyPW. Update on radiation therapy for endometrial cancer. Oncology 2002;16:777–786.
41. UshijimaK, YahataH, YoshikawaH, et al. Multicenter phase II study of fertility-sparing treatment with medroxyprogesterone acetate for endometrial carcinoma and atypical hyperplasia in young women. J Clin Oncol 2007;25:2798–2803.
42. MontzFJ, BristowRE, BovicelliA, et al. Intrauterine progesterone treatment of early endometrial cancer. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2002;186:651–657.
43. WalkerJL, PiedmonteMR, SpirtosNM, et al. Laparoscopy compared with laparotomy for comprehensive surgical staging of uterine cancer: Gynecologic Oncology Group Study LAP2. J Clin Oncol 2009;27:5331–5336.
44. WalkerJL, PiedmonteMR, SpirtosNM, et al. Recurrence and survival after random assignment to laparoscopy versus laparotomy for comprehensive surgical staging of uterine cancer: Gynecologic Oncology Group LAP2 Study. J Clin Oncol 2012;80:695–700.
45. SeamonLG, BryanySA, RheaumePS, et al. Comprehensive surgical staging for endometrial cancer in obese patients. Obstet Gynecol 2009;114:16–21.
46. American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. ACOG Practice Bulletin: clinical management guidelines for obstetrician-gynecologists – management of endometrial cancer. Obstet Gynecol 2005;106:413–424.
47. OrrJW, Jr., HolimonJL, OrrPF. Stage I corpus cancer: is teletherapy necessary?Am J Obstet Gynecol 1997;176:777–789.
48. LewandowskiG, TorrisiJ, PoktulRK, et al. Hysterectomy with extended surgical staging and radiotherapy versus hysterectomy alone and radiotherapy in stage I endometrial cancer: a comparison of complication rates. Gynecol Oncol 1990;36:401–404.
49. PaniciPB, BasileS, ManeschiF, et al. Systematic pelvic lymphadenectomy vs no lymphadenectomy in early-stage endometrial carcinoma. Randomized clinical trial. JNCI 2008;100:1707–1716.
50. KitchenerH, SwartAM, QianW, et al. Efficacy of systematic pelvic lymphadenectomy in endometrial cancer (MRC ASTEC trial): a randomised study. Lancet 2009;373:125–136.
51. TodoY, KatoH, KaneuchiM, et al. Survival effect of para-aortic lymphadenectomy in endometrial cancer (SEPAL study): a retrospective cohort analysis. Lancet 2010;375:1165–1172.
52. ClibyWA, Clarke-PearsonDL, DodgeR, et al. Acute morbidity and mortality associated with selective pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy in the surgical staging of endometrial carcinoma. J Gynecol Tech 1995;1:19–26.
53. EgleD, GrissemannB, ZeimetAG, et al. Validation of intraoperative risk assessment on frozen section for surgical management of endometrial carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 2008;110:286–292.
54. FotioliS, VlahosN, Kondi-PafitiA, et al. Intraoperative gross assessment of myometrial invasion and cervical involvement in endometrial cancer: role of tumor grade and size. Gynecol Oncol 2009;112:517–520.
55. HernandezE. A prospective blinded evaluation of the accuracy of frozen section for the surgical management of endometrial cancer. Obstet Gynecol 2007;109:785–786.
56. BelinsonJL, LeeKR, BadgerGJ, et al. Clinical stage I adenocarcinoma of the endometrium: analysis of recurrence and the potential benefit of staging lymphadenectomy. Gynecol Oncol 1992;44:17–23.
57. KuceraH, VavraN, WeghauptK. Benefits of external irradiation in pathologic stage I endometrial carcinoma: a prospective clinical trial of 605 patients who received postoperative vaginal irradiation and additional pelvic irradiation in the presence of unfavorable prognostic factors. Gynecol Oncol 1990;38:99–104.
58. AckermanI, MaloneS, ThomasG, et al. Endometrial carcinoma: relative effectiveness of adjuvant irradiation vs. therapy reserved for relapse. Gynecol Oncol 1996;60:177–183.
59. CreutzbergCL, van PuttenWLJ, KeperPC, et al. Survival after relapse in patients with endometrial cancer: results from a randomized trial. Gynecol Oncol 2003;89:201–209.
60. KeysHM, RobertsJA, BrunettoVL, et al. A phase III trial of surgery with or without adjunctive external pelvic radiation therapy in intermediate risk endometrial adenocarcinoma: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study. Gynecol Oncol 2004;92:744–751.
61. MarianiA, KeenyG, WebbMJ, PodratzKC. Stage I endometrial cancer: assessment of vaginal failure. Gynecol Oncol 2003;88:184.
62. NoutRA, SmitVTHBM, PutterH, et al. Vaginal brachytherapy versus pelvic external beam radiotherapy for patients with endometrial cancer of high-intermediate risk (PORTEC-2): an open-label, non-inferiority, randomised trial. Lancet 2010;375:816–823.
63. RandallME, BrunettoG, MussH, et al. Whole abdominal radiotherapy versus combination doxorubicin-cisplatin chemotherapy in advanced endometrial carcinoma: a randomized phase III trial of the Gynecologic Oncology Group. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 2003;22:2.
64. IrwinC, LevinW, FylesA, et al. The role of adjuvant radiotherapy in carcinoma of the endometrium: results of 550 patients with pathologic stage I disease. Gynecol Oncol 1998;70:247–254.
65. DizonDS. Treatment options for advanced endometrial carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 2010;117:373–381.
66. Bancher-TodescaD, NeunteufelW, WilliamsKE, et al. Influence of postoperative treatment on survival in patients with uterine papillary serous carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 1998;71:344–347.
67. HoskinsPJ, SwenertonKD, PikeJA, et al. Paclitaxel and carboplatin, alone or with irradiation, in advanced or recurrent endometrial cancer: a phase II study. J Clin Oncol 2001;19:4048–4053.
68. MarianiA, WebbMJ, KeeneyGL, et al. Role of wide/radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection in endometrial cancer with cervical involvement. Gynecol Oncol 2001;83:72–80.
69. NgTY, NicklinJL, PerrinLC, et al. Postoperative vaginal vault brachytherapy for node-negative stage II (occult) endometrial carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 2001;81:193–195.
70. HogbergT, SignorelliM, Freire de OliveiraC, et al. Sequential adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy in endometrial cancer: results from two randomized studies. Eur J Cancer 2010;46:2422–2431.
71. WhitneyCN, BrunettoVL, ZainoRJ, et al. Phase II study of medroxyprogesterone acetate plus tamoxifen in advanced endometrial carcinoma: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study. Gynecol Oncol 2004;92:4–9.
72. FioricaJV, BrunettoVL, HanjaniP, et al. A phase II trial of alternating courses of megestrol acetate and tamoxifen in advanced endometrial carcinoma: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study. Gynecol Oncol 2004;92:10–14.
73. BristowR, ZerbeMJ, RosensheinNB, et al. Stage IVB endometrial carcinoma: the role of cytoreductive surgery and determinants of survival. Gynecol Oncol 2000;78:85–91.
74. WadlerS, LevyDE, LincolnST, et al. Topotecan is an active agent in the first-line treatment of metastatic or recurrent endometrial carcinoma: Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group study E3E93. J Clin Oncol 2003;21:2110–2114.
75. BrownJ, SmithJA, RamondettaLM, et al. Combination of gemcitabine and cisplatin is highly active in women with endometrial carcinoma: results of a prospective phase 2 trial. Cancer 2010;116:4973–4979.
76. ReddochJM, BurkeTW, MorrisM, et al. Surveillance for recurrent endometrial carcinoma: development of a follow-up scheme. Gynecol Oncol 1995;59:221–225.
77. RosePG, SommersRM, RealeFR, et al. Serial serum CA125 measurements for evaluation of recurrence in patients with endometrial carcinoma. Obstet Gynecol 1994;84:12–16.
78. BarakatRR, BundyBN, SpirtosNM, et al. A randomized double-blind trial of estrogen replacement therapy versus placebo in women with stage I or II endometrial cancer: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study. J Clin Oncol 2006;24:587–592.
79. CreasmanW, OdicinoF, MaisonneuveP, et al. Carcinoma of the corpus uteri. Int J Gynecol Obstet 2006;95(Suppl 1):S105–S143.
80. LewinSN, HertzogTJ, Barrena MedelNI, et al. Comparative performance of the 2009 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics staging system for uterine corpus cancer. Obstet Gynecol 2010;116:1141–1149.

References

1. ClementP, ScullyRE. Pathology of uterine sarcomas. In CopplesonM (ed.) Gynecologic Oncology. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1981, p. 591.
2. Hajnal-PappR, SzilagyiI. Malignant mullerian tumors of the uterus. Arch Gynecol Obstet 1988;241:209–219.
3. KvaleG, HeuchI, UrsinG. Reproductive factors and the risk of cancers of the uterine corpus: a prospective study. Cancer Res 1988;48:6217–6221.
4. HarlowBL, WeissNS, LoftonS. The epidemiology of sarcomas of the uterus. JNCI 1986;76:399–402.
5. DinhTV, SlavinRE, BhagavanBS, et al. Mixed mullerian tumors of the uterus: a clinicopathologic study. Obstet Gynecol 1989;74:388–392.
6. DossLL, LlorensAS, HernandezEM. Carcinosarcoma of the uterus: a 40-year experience from the state of Missouri. Gynecol Oncol 1984;18:43–53.
7. GeorgeM, PejovicMH, KramerA. Gynecologic Cooperating Group of French Oncology Centers. Uterine sarcomas: prognostic factors and treatment modalities study on 209 patients. Gynecol Oncol 1986;24:58–67.
8. MarcheseMJ, LiskowAS, CrumCP, et al. Uterine sarcomas: a clinicopathologic study, 1965–1981. Gynecol Oncol 1984;18:299–312.
9. NielsenSC, PodratzKC, ScheithauerBW, O'BrienPC. Clinicopathologic analysis of uterine malignant mixed mullerian tumors. Gynecol Oncol 1989;34:372–378.
10. NorrisHJ, TaylorHB. Mesenchymal tumors of the uterus. III. A clinical and pathologic study of 31 carcinosarcomas. Cancer 1966;19:1459–1465.
11. PetersWA, KumarNB, FlemingWP, MorleyGW. Prognostic features of sarcomas and mixed tumors of the endometrium. Obstet Gynecol 1984;63:550–556.
12. WickermanDL, FisherB, Wolmark, N, et al. Association of tamoxifen and uterine sarcoma. J Clin Oncol 2002;20:2758–2760.
13. WysowskiDK, HonigSF, BeitzJ. Uterine sarcoma associated with tamoxifen use. N Eng J Med 2002;346:1832–1833.
14. KahanpaaKV, WahlstromT, GrohnP, et al. Sarcomas of the uterus: a clinicopathologic study of 119 patients. Obstet Gynecol 1986;67:417–424.
15. DreislerA, LykkesfeldtG. Sarcoma of the uterus: a retrospective clinical study of 56 cases. UgeskrLaeger 1985;147:3698–3701.
16. GeraciP, MaggioS, AdragnaF, et al. Uterine sarcomas: a retrospective study of 17 cases. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol 1988;9:497–501.
17. LarsonB, SilverwareC, NilssonB, PetterssonF. Mixed mullerian tumors of the uterus – prognostic factors: a clinical and histopathologic study of 147 cases. Radiother Oncol 1990;17:123–132.
18. FlemingWP, PetersWA, KumarNB, et al. Autopsy findings in patients with uterine sarcoma. Gynecol Oncol 1984;19:168–172.
19. NorrisHJ, RothE, TaylorHB. Mesenchymal tumors of the uterus. II. A clinical and pathologic study of 31 mixed mesodermal tumors. Obstet Gynecol 1966;28:57–63.
20. RosePG, PiverMS, TsukadaY, LauT. Patterns of metastasis in uterine sarcoma. Cancer 1989;63:935–938.
21. DinhTY, WoodruffJD. Leiomyosarcoma of the uterus. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1982;144:817–823.
22. O'ConnorDM, NorrisHJ. Mitotically active leiomyomas of the uterus. Hum Pathol 1990;21:223–227.
23. HendricksonMR, KempsonRL. Pure mesenchymal tumours of the uterine corpus. In FoxH (ed.) Haines and Taylor Textbook of Obstetrical and Gynecological Pathology, 4th edn. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 1995, p. 519.
24. ParkerWH, FuYS, BerekJS. Uterine sarcoma in patients operated on for presumed leiomyoma and rapidly growing leiomyoma. Obstet Gynecol 1994;83:414–418.
25. GiuntoliRL II, MetzingerDS, DiMarcoCS, et al. Retrospective review of 208 patients with leiomyosarcoma of the uterus: prognostic indicators, surgical management and adjuvant therapy. Gynecol Oncol 2003;89:460–469.
26. HendricksonMR, TavassoliFA, KempsonRL, et al. Mesenchymal tumours and related lesions. In TavassoliFA, DevileeP, eds. WHO Classification of Tumours, Pathology and Genetics of Tumours of the Breast and Female Genital Organs. Lyons, France: IARC Press, 2003:pp. 233–244.
27. BartoschC, ExpositoMI, LopesJM. Low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma and undifferentiated endometrial sarcoma: a comparative analysis emphasizing the importance of distinguishing between the groups. Int J Surg Path 2010;18:286–291.
28. AmantF, MoermanP, CadronI, et al. The diagnostic problem of endometrial stromal sarcoma: report on 6 cases. Gynecol Oncol 2003;90:37–43.
29. SpanoJP, SoviaJC, KambouchnerM, et al. Long-term survival of patients given hormonal therapy for metastatic endometrial stromal sarcoma. Med Oncol 2003;20:87–93.
30. SchwartzSM, ThomasDB. The World Health Organization: collaborative study of neoplasia and steroid contraceptives. Cancer 1989;64:2487–2492.
31. ThomasMB, KeeneyGL, PodratzKC, et al. Endometrial stromal sarcoma: treatment and patterns of recurrence. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2009;19:253–256.
32. SignorelliM, FruscioR, Dell'AnnaT, et al. Lymphadenectomy in uterine low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma: an analysis of 19 cases and literature review. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2010;20:1363–1366.
33. LeibsohnS, d'AblaingG, MishellDR, SchlaerthJB. Leiomyosarcoma in a series of hysterectomies performed for presumed uterine leiomyomas. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1990;162:968–976.
34. ShapiroLG, HricakH. Mixed mullerian sarcoma of the uterus: MR imaging findings. Am J Roentgenol 1989;153:317–319.
35. PunnonenR, LauslahtiK, PystynenP, KauppilaO. Uterine sarcomas. Ann Chir Gynaecol Suppl 1985;197:11–14.
36. MountainCF, McMurtreyMJ, HermesRE. Surgery for pulmonary metastasis: 20-year experience. Ann Thorac Surg 1984;38:323–330.
37. LevenbackC, RubinSC, McCormackPM, et al. Resection of pulmonary metastases from uterine sarcomas. Gynecol Oncol 1992;45:202–205.
38. SchwarzbachMH, Dimitrakopoulou-StraussA, WillekeF, et al. Clinical value of (18F) fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography imaging in soft tissue sarcoma. Ann Surg 2000;231:380–386.
39. Israel-MardirosianN, AdlerLP. Positron emission tomography of soft tissue sarcomas. Curr Opin Oncol 2003;15:327–330.
40. MutchDG. The new FIGO staging system for cancers of the vulga, cervix, endometrium and sarcomas. Gynecol Oncol 2009;115(3):326–328.
41. PratJ. FIGO staging for uterine sarcomas. Int J Gynecol Obstet 2009;104(3):177–178.
42. SilverbergSG, MajorFJ, BlessingJUA, et al. Carcinosarcoma (malignant mixed mesodermal tumor) of the uterus: a Gynecologic Oncology Group pathologic study of 203 cases. Int J Gynecol Pathol 1990;9:1–19.
43. PodczaskiES, WoomertCA, StevenCH III, et al. Management of malignant, mixed mesodermal tumors of the uterus. Gynecol Oncol 1989;32:240–244.
44. MajorFJ, BlessingJA, SilverbergSG, et al. Prognostic factors in early-stage uterine sarcoma: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study. Cancer 1993;71:1702–1709.
45. BerchuckA, RubinSC, HoskinsWJ, et al. Treatment of uterine leiomyosarcoma. Obstet Gynecol 1988;71:845–850.
46. LissoniA, CormioG, BonazziC, et al. Fertility sparing surgery in uterine leiomyosarcoma. Gynecol Oncol 1998;70:348–350.
47. ReedNS, MangioniC, MalmstromH, et al. Phase III randomized study to evaluate the role of adjuvant pelvic radiotherapy in the treatment of uterine sarcomas stages I and II: EORTC Gynaecological Cancer Group study (protocol 55874). Int J Gynecol Cancer 2003;13(Suppl 1):4.
48. WolfsonAH, BradyMF, RoceretoTF, et al. Gynecologic Oncology Group randomized trial of whole abdominal irradiation (WAI) vs cisplatin-ifosfamide+mesna (CIM) in optimally debulked stage I-IV carcinosarcoma (CS) of the uterus. J Clin Oncol 2007;107:1777–1785.
49. SuttonGP, BlessingJA, RosenheinN, et al. Phase II trial of ifosfamide and mesna in mixed mesodermal tumors of the uterus (a Gynecologic Oncology Group study). Am J Obstet Gynecol 1989;161:309–312.
50. ThigpenJT, BlessingJA, BeechamJ, et al. Phase II trial for cisplatin as first-line chemotherapy in patients with advanced or recurrent uterine sarcomas (a Gynecologic Oncology Group study). J Clin Oncol 1991;9:962–966.
51. CurtinJP, BlessingJA, SoperJT, et al. Paclitaxel in the treatment of carcinosarcoma of the uterus: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study. Gynecol Oncol 2001;83:268–270.
52. HanniganEV, FreedmanRS, ElderKW, et al. Treatment of advanced uterine sarcoma with adriamycin. Gynecol Oncol 1983;16:101–104.
53. SuttonG, BrunettoVL, KilgoreL, et al. A phase III trial of Ifosfamide with or without cisplatin in carcinosarcoma of the uterus: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study. Gynecol Oncol 2000;79:147.
54. HomeslyHD, FiliaciV, MarkmanM, et al. Gynecologic Oncology Group: Phase III trial of ifosfamide vs ifosfamide plus paclitaxel as first line treatment of advanced or recurrent uterine carcinosarcoma (mixed mesodermal tumors): A Gynecologic Oncology Group study. J Clin Oncol 2007;25:526–531.
55. OmuraGA, MajorFJ, BlessingJA, et al. A randomized study of adriamycin with and without dimethyl triazinoimidazole carboxamide in advanced uterine sarcomas. Cancer 1983;52:626–632.
56. HensleyML, MakiR, VenkatramanE, et al. Gemcitabine and docetaxel in patients with unresectable leiomyosarcoma: results of a phase three trial. J Clin Oncol 2002;20:2824–2831.
57. NordalRR, ThoprensenSO. Uterine sarcomas in Norway 1956–1991: incidence, survival and mortality. Eur J Cancer 1997;33:907–911.

References

1. PectasidesD, PectasidesE, EconomopoulosT. Fallopian tube carcinoma: a review. Oncologist 2006;11:902–912.
2. RosenblattKA, WeissNS, SchwartzSM. Incidence of malignant fallopian tube tumors. Gynecol Oncol 1989;35:236–239.
3. StewartSL, WikeJM, FosterSL, et al. The incidence of primary fallopian tube cancer in the United States. Gynecol Oncol 2007;107:392–397.
4. RiskaA, LeminenA, PukkalaE. Sociodemographic determinants of incidence of primary fallopian tube carcinoma, Finland 1953–97. Int J Cancer 2003;104:643–645.
5. Association of the Nordic Cancer RegistriesNORDCAN: Cancer Incidence, Mortality, Prevalence and Prediction in the Nordic Countries, version 3.6. 2010. Copenhagen: Association of the Nordic Cancer Registries (http://www.ancr.nu/survey.asp, accessed 3 March 2014).
6. ClaytonNL, JaabackKS, HirschowitzL. Primary fallopian tube carcinoma- the experience of a UK cancer centre and a review of the literature. J Obstet Gynaecol 2005;25:694–702.
7. PfeifferP, MogensenH, AmtrupF, et al. Primary carcinoma of the fallopian tube. A retrospective study of patients reported to the Danish Cancer Registry in a five-year period. Acta Oncol 1989;28:7–11.
8. HellstromAC, SilfverswardC, NilssonB, et al. Carcinoma of the fallopian tube. A clinical and histopathologic review. The Radiumhemmet series. Int J Gynecol Cancer 1994;4:395–400.
9. RiskaA, MartinsenJ, KjaerheimK, et al. Occupation and risk of primary fallopian tube carcinoma in Nordic countries. Int J Cancer 2012;131:186–192.
10. RiskaA, SundR, PukkalaE, et al. Parity, tubal sterilization, hysterectomy and risk of primary fallopian tube carcinoma in Finland, 1975–2004. Int J Cancer 2007;120:1351–1354.
11. InalMM, HanhanM, PllanciB, et al. Fallopian tube malignancies: experience of Social Security Agency Aegean Maternity Hospital. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2004;14:595–599.
12. RiskaA, FinneP, AlfthanT, et al. Past chlamydial infection is not associated with primary fallopian tube carcinoma. Eur J Cancer 2006;42:1835–1838.
13. RiskaA, FinneP, KoskelaP, et al. Human papillomavirus infection and primary fallopian tube carcinoma: a seroepidemiological study. BJOG 2007;114:425–429.
14. KhooUS, ShenDH, WongRC, et al. Gynaecological cancers in genetically susceptible women: New thoughts on tubal pathology. Diagnostic Histopathology 2009;15:545–553.
15. KhooUS, ChanKYS, CheungAN, et al. Recurrent BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutations in ovarian cancer: a founder mutation of BRCA1 identified in the Chinese population. Human Mutation 2002;19:307–308.
16. AzizS, KupersteinG, RosenB, et al. A genetic epidemiological study of carcinoma of the fallopian tube. Gynecol Oncol 2001;80:341–345.
17. LevineDA, ArgentaPA, YeeCJ, et al. Fallopian tube and primary peritoneal carcinomas associated with BRCA mutations. J Clin Oncol 2003;21:4222–4227.
18. VicusD, FinchA, CassI, et al. Prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 germ line mutations among women with carcinoma of the fallopian tube. Gynecol Oncol 2010;118:299–302.
19. CassI, HolschneiderC, DattaN, et al. BRCA-mutation-associated fallopian tube carcinoma: a distinct clinical phenotype?Obstet Gynecol 2005;106:1327–1334.
20. PaleyPJ, SwisherEM, GarciaRL, et al. Occult cancer of the fallopian tube in BRCA1 germline mutation carriers at prophylactic oophorectomy: a case for recommending hysterectomy at surgical prophylaxis. Gynecol Oncol 2001;80:176–180.
21. BaekelandtM, KockxM, WeslingF, et al. Primary adenocarcinoma of the fallopian tube. Review of the literature. Int J Gynecol Cancer 1993;3:65–71.
22. ZhengW, SungCJ, CaoP, et al. Early occurrence and prognostic significance of p53 alteration in primary carcinoma of the fallopian tube. Gynecol Oncol 1997;64:38–48.
23. ChungTK, CheungTH, ToKF, et al. Overexpression of p53 and HER-2/neu and c-MYC in primary fallopian tube carcinoma. Gynecol Obstet Invest 2000;49:47–51.
24. NoweeME, SnijdersAM, RockxDA, et al. DNA profiling of primary serous ovarian and fallopian tube carcinomas with array comparative genomic hybridization and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. J Pathol 2007;213:46–55.
25. RiskaA, LeminenA. Updating on primary fallopian tube carcinoma. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2007;86:1419–1426.
26. NordinAJ. Primary carcinoma of the fallopian tube: a 20-year literature review. Obstet Gynecol Surv 1994;49:349–361.
27. ObermairA, TaylorKH, JandaM. Primary fallopian tube carcinoma: the Queensland experience. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2001;11:69–72.
28. BenoitMF, HanniganEV. A 10-year review of primary fallopian tube cancer at a community hospital: a high association of synchronous and metachronous cancers. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2006;16:29–35.
29. BaekelandtM, Jorunn NesbakkanA, KristensenGB, et al. Carcinoma of the fallopian tube. Cancer 2000;89:2076–2084.
30. LeviteR, FishmanA, KeslerA. Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration heralding fallopian tube adenocarcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2001;11:169–171.
31. YoonessiM. Carcinoma of the fallopian tube. Obstet Gynecol Surv 1979;34:257–270.
32. KosaryC, TrimbleEL. Treatment and survival for women with Fallopian tube carcinoma: a population-based study. Gynecol Oncol 2002;86:190–191.
33. HeintzAP, OdicinoF, MaisonneuveP. Carcinoma of the fallopian tube. J Epidemiol Biostat 2001;6:89–103.
34. TamimiHK, FiggeDC. Adenocarcinoma of the uterine tube: potential for lymph node metastases. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1981;141:132–137.
35. GadducciA, LandoniF, SartoriE, et al. Analysis of treatment failures and survival of patients with fallopian tube carcinoma: a cooperation task force (CTF) study. Gynecol Oncol 2001;81:150–159.
36. BenedetJL, BenderH, JonesH III, et al. FIGO staging classifications and clinical practice guidelines in the management of gynecologic cancers. FIGO Committee on Gynecologic Oncology. Int J Gynecol Obstet 2000;70:209–262.
37. FIGO Committee on Gynecologic Oncology. Current FIGO staging for cancer of the vagina, fallopian tube, ovary, and gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. Int J Gynecol Obstet 2009;105:3–4.
38. PratJ. Oncology FCoG. Staging classification for cancer of the ovary, fallopian tube, and peritoneum. Int J Gynecol Obstet 2014;124(1):1–5.
39. KietpeerakoolC, SuprasertC, SrisomboonJ, et al. Primary carcinoma of the fallopian tube-A clinicopathological analysis of 27 patients. J Med Assoc Thai 2005;88:1338–1343.
40. CheungAN, SoKF, NganHY, et al. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of fallopian tube. Int J Gynecol Pathol 1994;13:92–95.
41. HuCY, TaymorML, HertigAT. Primary carcinoma of the fallopian tube. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1950;59:58–67.
42. SedlisA. Carcinoma of the fallopian tube. Surg Clin North Am 1978;58:121–129.
43. MedeirosF, MutoMG, LeeY, et al. The tubal fimbria is a preferred site for early adenocarcinoma in women with familial ovarian cancer syndrome. Am J Surg Pathol 2006;30:230–236.
44. PowellCB, KenleyE, ChenLM, et al. Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy in BRCA mutation carriers: role of serial sectioning in the detection of occult malignancy. J Clin Oncol 2005;23:127–132.
45. KindelbergerDW, LeeY, MironA, et al. Intraepithelial carcinoma of the fimbria and pelvic serous carcinoma: evidence for a causal relationship. Am J Surg Pathol 2007;31:161–169.
46. CarcangiuML, PeisselB, PasiniB, et al. Incidental carcinomas in prophylactic specimens in BRCA1 and BRCA2 germ-line mutation carriers, with emphasis on fallopian tube lesions: report of 6 cases and review of the literature. Am J Surg Pathol 2006;30:1222–1230.
47. CarlsonJW, MironA, JarboeEA, et al. Serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma: its potential role in primary peritoneal serous carcinoma and serous cancer prevention. J Clin Oncol 2008;26:4160–4165.
48. AjithkumarTV, MinimoleAL, JohnMM, et al. Primary fallopian tube carcinoma. Obstet Gynecol Surv 2005;60:247–252.
49. CheungAN, NganHY, ChengD, et al. Clinicopathologic study of 16 cases of primary tubal malignancy. Int J Gynecol Cancer 1994;4:111–118.
50. CheungAN, YoungRH, ScullyRE. Pseudocarcinomatous hyperplasia of the fallopian tube associated with salpingitis. A report of 14 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 1994;18:1125–1130.
51. YuenJH, WongGC, LamCH. Preoperative sonographic diagnosis of primary fallopian tube carcinoma. J Ultrasound Med 2002;21:1171–1173.
52. KurjakJ, KupesicS, IlijasM, et al. Preoperative diagnosis of primary fallopian tube carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 1998;68:29–34.
53. KurjakA, KupesicS, SparacV, et al. Preoperative evaluation of pelvic tumors by Doppler and three-dimensional sonography. J Ultrasound Med 2001;20:829–840.
54. SantanaP, DesserTS, TengN. Preoperative CT diagnosis of primary fallopian tube carcinoma in a patient with a history of total abdominal hysterectomy. J Comput Assist Tomogr 2003;27:361–363.
55. KurachiH, MaedaT, MurakamiT, et al. A case of fallopian tube carcinoma: successful preoperative diagnosis with MR imaging. Radiat Med 1999;17:63–66.
56. NiloffJM, KnappRC, SchaetzlE, et al. CA 125 antigen levels in obstetric and gynecologic patients. Obstet Gynecol 1984;64:703–707.
57. RosenAC, KleinM, HafnerE, et al. Management and prognosis of primary fallopian tube carcinoma. Austrian Cooperative Study Group for Fallopian Tube Carcinoma. Obstet Gynecol Invest 1999;47:45–51.
58. HeflerLA, RosenAC, GrafAH, et al. The clinical value of serum concentrations of cancer antigen 125 in patients with primary fallopian tube carcinoma: a multicenter study. Cancer 2000;89:1555–1560.
59. Lootsma-MiklosovaE, AaldersJG, WillemsePH, et al. Levels of CA 125 in patients with recurrent carcinoma of the fallopian tube: two case histories. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 1987;24:231–235.
60. RiskaA, AlfthanH, FinneP, et al. Preoperative serum hCGbeta as a prognostic marker in primary fallopian tube carcinoma. Tumour Biol 2006;27:43–49.
61. KimYM, JungMH, KimDY, et al. Systematic lymphadenectomy improves survival in patients with advanced-stage primary fallopian tube cancer. Tohoku J Exp Med 2009;218:5–9.
62. AdolphA, LeT, KhanK, et al. Recurrent metastatic fallopian tube carcinoma in pregnancy. Gynecol Oncol 2001;81:110–112.
63. ColganTJ. Challenges in the early diagnosis and staging of Fallopian-tube carcinomas associated with BRCA mutations. Int J Gynecol Oncol 2003;22:109–120.
64. BarakatRR, RubinSC, SaigoPE, et al. Second-look laparotomy in carcinoma of the fallopian tube. Obstet Gynecol 1993;82:748–751.
65. KojsZ, UrbanskiK, ReinfussM, et al. Whole abdominal external beam radiation in the treatment of primary carcinoma of the fallopian tube. Gynecol Oncol 1997;65:473–477.
66. TrimbosJB, ParmarM, VergoteI, et al. International Collaborative Ovarian Neoplasm trial 1 and Adjuvant Chemo Therapy in Ovarian Neoplasm trial: two parallel randomized phase III trials of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with early-stage ovarian carcinoma. JNCI 2003;95:105–112.
67. PetersWA III, AndersonWA, HopkinsMP, et al. Prognostic features of carcinoma of the fallopian tube. Obstet Gynecol 1988;71:757–762.
68. PectasidesD, BarbounisB, SintilaA, et al. Treatment of primary fallopian tube carcinoma with cisplatin-containing chemotherapy. Am J Clin Oncol 1994;17:68–71.
69. GemignaniML, HensleyML, CohenR, et al. Paclitaxel-based chemotherapy in carcinoma of the fallopian tube. Gynecol Oncol 2001;80:16–20.
70. PectasidesD, PectasidesE, PapaxoinisG, et al. Primary fallopian tube carcinoma: results of a retrospective analysis of 64 patients. Gynecol Oncol 2009;115:97–101.
71. MarkmanM, ZanottiK, WebsterK, et al. Phase 2 trial of single agent docetaxel in platinum and paclitaxel-refractory ovarian cancer, fallopian tube cancer, and primary carcinoma of the peritoneum. Gynecol Oncol 2003;91:573–576.
72. ArimotoT, NakagawaS, OdaK, et al. Second-line chemotherapy with docetaxel and carboplatin in paclitaxel and platinum-pretreated ovarian, fallopian tube, and peritoneal cancer. Med Oncol 2012;29:1253–1254.
73. HoskinsP, EisenhauerE, BeareS, et al. Randomized phase II study of two schedules of topotecan in previously treated patients with ovarian cancer: a National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group study. J Clin Oncol 1998;16:2233–2237.
74. DuntonCJ, NeufeldJ. Complete response to topotecan of recurrent fallopian tube carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 2000;(76)1:128–129.
75. MarkmanM, KennedyA, WebsterK, et al. Phase 2 trial of liposomal doxorubicin (40 mg/m(2)) in platinum/paclitaxel-refractory ovarian and fallopian tube cancers and primary carcinoma of the peritoneum. Gynecol Oncol 2000;78: 369–372.
76. RosePG, MaxsonJH, FuscoN, et al. Liposomal doxorubicin in ovarian, peritoneal, and tubal carcinoma: a retrospective comparative study of single-agent dosages. Gynecol Oncol 2001;82:323–328.
77. National Cancer Institute. Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results SEER Program. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute (http://seer.cancer.gov, accessed 30 November 2013).
78. WethingtonSL, HerzoqTJ, SeshanVE, et al. Improved survival for fallopian tube cancer: a comparison of clinical characteristics and outcome for primary fallopian tube and ovarian cancer. Cancer 2008;113:3298–3306.
79. MooreKN, MoxleyKM, FaderAN, et al. Serous fallopian tube carcinoma: a retrospective, multi-institutional case control comparison to serous adenocarcinoma of the ovary. Gynecol Oncol 2007;107:398–403.
80. HeintzAP, OdicinoF, MaisonneuveP, et al. Carcinoma of the fallopian tube. FIGO 26th Annual Report on the results of treatment in gynecological cancer. Int J Gynecol Obstet 2006;95(Suppl 1):S145–S160.
81. Alvarado-CabreroI, YoungRH, VamvakasEC, et al. Carcinoma of the fallopian tube: a clinicopathological study of 105 cases with observations on staging and prognostic factors. Gynecol Oncol 1999;72:367–379.
82. VaughanMM, EvansBD, BaranyaiJ, et al. Survival of patients with primary fallopian tube carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer 1998;8:16–22.
83. KleinM, RosenA, LahousenM, et al. Lymphogenous metastasis in the primary carcinoma of the fallopian tube. Gynecol Oncol 1994;55:336–338.

References

1. JemalA, BrayF, CenterMM, et al. Global cancer statistics. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians 2011;61:69–90.
2. World Health Organization. World Health Statistics Annuals 1987–1992. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1992.
3. McGuireWP, BradyMF, OzolsRF. The Gynecologic Oncology Group experience in ovarian cancer. Ann Oncol 1999;10(Suppl 1):29–34.
4. LandisSH, MurrayT, BoldenS, WingoPA. Cancer statistics, 1999. CA Cancer J Clin 1999;49:8–31.
5. SeidmanJD, KurmanRJ. Pathology of ovarian carcinoma. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 2003;17:909–925.
6. WhittemoreAS, HarrisR, ItnyreJ. Characteristics relating to ovarian cancer risk: collaborative analysis of 12 US case–control studies. IV. The pathogenesis of epithelial ovarian cancer. Collaborative Ovarian Cancer Group. Am J Epidemiol 1992;136:1212–1220.
7. AarnioM, SankilaR, PukkalaE, et al. Cancer risk in mutation carriers of DNA-mismatch-repair genes. Int J Cancer 1999;81:214–218.
8. NarodSA, FoulkesWD. BRCA1 and BRCA2: 1994 and beyond. Nat Rev Cancer 2004;4:665–676.
9. PruthiS, GostoutBS, LindorNM. Identification and management of women with BRCA mutations or hereditary predisposition for breast and ovarian cancer. Mayo Clin Proc 2010;85:1111–1120.
10. CramerDW, HarlowBL, WillettWC, et al. Galactose consumption and metabolism in relation to the risk of ovarian cancer. Lancet 1989;2:66–71.
11. MettlinCJ, PiverMS. A case–control study of milk-drinking and ovarian cancer risk. Am J Epidemiol 1990;132:871–876.
12. CramerDW, GreenbergER, Titus-ErnstoffL, et al. A case–control study of galactose consumption and metabolism in relation to ovarian cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2000;9:95–101.
13. FathallaMF. Factors in the causation and incidence of ovarian cancer. Obstet Gynecol Surv 1972;27:751–768.
14. VennA, WatsonL, BruinsmaF, GilesG, HealyD. Risk of cancer after use of fertility drugs with in-vitro fertilisation. Lancet 1999;354:1586–1590.
15. NessRB, CramerDW, GoodmanMT, et al. Infertility, fertility drugs, and ovarian cancer: a pooled analysis of case–control studies. Am J Epidemiol 2002;155:217–224.
16. HankinsonSE, ColditzGA, HunterDJ, et al. A prospective study of reproductive factors and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. Cancer 1995;76:284–290.
17. VachonCM, MinkPJ, JanneyCA, et al. Association of parity and ovarian cancer risk by family history of breast or ovarian cancer in a population-based study of postmenopausal women. Epidemiology 2002;13:66–71.
18.[No authors listed]. The reduction in risk of ovarian cancer associated with oral-contraceptive use. The Cancer and Steroid Hormone Study of the Centers for Disease Control and the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. N Engl J Med 1987;316:650–655.
19. NarodSA, DubeMP, KlijnJ, et al. Oral contraceptives and the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. JNCI 2002;94:1773–1779.
20. BastRC, Jr., FeeneyM, LazarusH, et al. Reactivity of a monoclonal antibody with human ovarian carcinoma. J Clin Invest 1981;68:1331–1337.
21. MannWJ, PatsnerB, CohenH, LoeschM. Preoperative serum CA-125 levels in patients with surgical stage I invasive ovarian adenocarcinoma. JNCI 1988;80:208–209.
22. SkatesSJ, XuFJ, YuYH, et al. Toward an optimal algorithm for ovarian cancer screening with longitudinal tumor markers. Cancer 1995;76(Suppl):2004–2010.
23. JacobsIJ, SkatesSJ, MacDonaldN, et al. Screening for ovarian cancer: a pilot randomised controlled trial. Lancet 1999;353:1207–1210.
24. CarterJR, LauM, FowlerJM, et al. Blood flow characteristics of ovarian tumors: implications for ovarian cancer screening. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1995;172:901–907.
25. PartridgeE, KreimerAR, GreenleeRT, et al. Results from four rounds of ovarian cancer screening in a randomized trial. Obstet Gynecol 2009;113:775–782.
26. BuysSS, PartridgeE, BlackA, et al. Effect of screening on ovarian cancer mortality: the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Randomized Controlled Trial. JAMA 2011;305:2295–2303.
27. MenonU, Gentry-MaharajA, HallettR, et al. Sensitivity and specificity of multimodal and ultrasound screening for ovarian cancer, and stage distribution of detected cancers: results of the prevalence screen of the UK Collaborative Trial of Ovarian Cancer Screening (UKCTOCS). Lancet Oncol 2009;10:327–340.
28. National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Panel on Ovarian Cancer. Ovarian cancer: screening, treatment and follow up. JAMA 1997;277:491–497.
29. FishmanDA, CohenL, BlankSV, et al. The role of ultrasound evaluation in the detection of early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2005;192:1214–1221; discussion 1221–1222.
30. LurainJR, PiverMS. Familial ovarian cancer. Gynecol Oncol 1979;8:185–192.
31. KauffND, SatagopanJM, RobsonME, et al. Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy in women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. N Engl J Med 2002;346:1609–1615.
32. RebbeckTR, LynchHT, NeuhausenSL, et al. Prophylactic oophorectomy in carriers of BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. N Engl J Med 2002;346:1616–1622.
33. LevineDA, ArgentaPA, YeeCJ, et al. Fallopian tube and primary peritoneal carcinomas associated with BRCA mutations. J Clin Oncol 2003;21:4222–4227.
34. FinchA, BeinerM, LubinskiJ, et al. Salpingo-oophorectomy and the risk of ovarian, fallopian tube, and peritoneal cancers in women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. JAMA 2006;296:185–192.
35. ColganTJ, MurphyJ, ColeDE, NarodS, RosenB. Occult carcinoma in prophylactic oophorectomy specimens: prevalence and association with BRCA germline mutation status. Am J Surg Pathol 2001;25:1283–1289.
36. CrumCP, DrapkinR, MironA, et al. The distal fallopian tube: a new model for pelvic serous carcinogenesis. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 2007;19:3–9.
37. GreeneMH, MaiPL, SchwartzPE. Does bilateral salpingectomy with ovarian retention warrant consideration as a temporary bridge to risk-reducing bilateral oophorectomy in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers?Am J Obstet Gynecol 2011;204:19.e1–19.e6.
38. GrannVR, JacobsonJS, ThomasonD, et al. Effect of prevention strategies on survival and quality-adjusted survival of women with BRCA1/2 mutations: an updated decision analysis. J Clin Oncol 2002;20:2520–2529.
39. AndersonK, JacobsonJS, HeitjanDF, et al. Cost-effectiveness of preventive strategies for women with a BRCA1 or a BRCA2 mutation. Ann Intern Med 2006;144:397–406.
40. RodriguezC, PatelAV, CalleEE, JacobEJ, ThunMJ. Estrogen replacement therapy and ovarian cancer mortality in a large prospective study of US women. JAMA 2001;285:1460–1465.
41. American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 280: the role of the generalist obstetrician-gynecologist in the early detection of ovarian cancer. Obstet Gynecol 2002;100:1413–1416.
42. ImSS, GordonAN, ButtinBM, et al. Validation of referral guidelines for women with pelvic masses. Obstet Gynecol 2005;105:35–41.
43. GoffBA, MandelLS, MelanconCH, MuntzHG. Frequency of symptoms of ovarian cancer in women presenting to primary care clinics. JAMA 2004;291:2705–2712.
44. GoffBA, MandelLS, DrescherCW, et al. Development of an ovarian cancer symptom index: possibilities for earlier detection. Cancer 2007;109:221–227.
45. MalkasianGD, Jr., KnappRC, LavinPT, et al. Preoperative evaluation of serum CA 125 levels in premenopausal and postmenopausal patients with pelvic masses: discrimination of benign from malignant disease. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1988;159:341–346.
46. MooreRG, BrownAK, MillerMC, et al. The use of multiple novel tumor biomarkers for the detection of ovarian carcinoma in patients with a pelvic mass. Gynecol Oncol 2008;108:402–408.
47. UelandFR, DesimoneCP, SeamonLG, et al. Effectiveness of a multivariate index assay in the preoperative assessment of ovarian tumors. Obstet Gynecol 2011;117:1289–1297.
48. PratJ. Staging classification for cancer of the ovary, fallopian tube, and peritoneum. Int J Gynecol Obstet 2014;124:1–5.
49. ChiDS, Abu-RustumNR, SonodaY, et al. The safety and efficacy of laparoscopic surgical staging of apparent stage I ovarian and fallopian tube cancers. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2005;192:1614–1619.
50. PiverMS, BarlowJJ, LeleSB. Incidence of subclinical metastasis in stage I and II ovarian carcinoma. Obstet Gynecol 1978;52:100–104.
51. YoungRC, DeckerDG, WhartonJT, et al. Staging laparotomy in early ovarian cancer. JAMA 1983;250:3072–3076.
52. KosaryC. Cancer of the corpus uteri. In Ries LAG, YoungJL, KeelGE, et al. (eds.) SEER Survival Monograph: Cancer Survival Among Adults: US SEER Program, 1988–2001. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute, 2007; pp. 133–144.
53. HoskinsWJ, McGuireWP, BradyMF, et al. The effect of diameter of largest residual disease on survival after primary cytoreductive surgery in patients with suboptimal residual epithelial ovarian carcinoma. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1994;170:974–979; discussion 979–980.
54. VergoteI, De WeverI, TjalmaW, et al. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy or primary debulking surgery in advanced ovarian carcinoma: a retrospective analysis of 285 patients. Gynecol Oncol 1998;71:431–436.
55. StoeckleE, ParavisP, FloquetA, et al. Number of residual nodules, better than size, defines optimal surgery in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2004;14:779–787.
56. HoskinsWJ, BundyBN, ThigpenJT, OmuraGA. The influence of cytoreductive surgery on recurrence-free interval and survival in small-volume stage III epithelial ovarian cancer: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study. Gynecol Oncol 1992;47:159–166.
57. BristowRE, TomacruzRS, ArmstrongDK, TrimbleEL, MontzFJ. Survival effect of maximal cytoreductive surgery for advanced ovarian carcinoma during the platinum era: a meta-analysis. J Clin Oncol 2002;20:1248–1259.
58. FaderAN, RosePG. Role of surgery in ovarian carcinoma. J Clin Oncol 2007;25:2873–2883.
59. HoffmanMS, GriffinD, TebesS, et al. Sites of bowel resected to achieve optimal ovarian cancer cytoreduction: implications regarding surgical management. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2005;193:582–586; discussion 586–588.
60. PaniciPB, MaggioniA, HackerN, et al. Systematic aortic and pelvic lymphadenectomy versus resection of bulky nodes only in optimally debulked advanced ovarian cancer: a randomized clinical trial. JNCI 2005;97:560–566.
61. RungruangB, MillerA, RichardSD, et al. Should stage IIIC ovarian cancer be further stratified by intraperitoneal vs. retroperitoneal only disease? A Gynecologic Oncology Group study. Gynecol Oncol 2012;124:53–58.
62. HamiltonCA, MillerA, MillerC, et al. The impact of disease distribution on survival in patients with stage III epithelial ovarian cancer cytoreduced to microscopic residual: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study. Gynecol Oncol 2011;122:521–526.
63. MunkarahAR, HallumAV, III, MorrisM, et al. Prognostic significance of residual disease in patients with stage IV epithelial ovarian cancer. Gynecol Oncol 1997;64:13–17.
64. CurtinJP, MalikR, VenkatramanES, BarakatRR, HoskinsWJ. Stage IV ovarian cancer: impact of surgical debulking. Gynecol Oncol 1997;64:9–12.
65. LiuPC, BenjaminI, MorganMA, et al. Effect of surgical debulking on survival in stage IV ovarian cancer. Gynecol Oncol 1997;64:4–8.
66. BristowRE, MontzFJ, LagasseLD, LeuchterRS, KarlanBY. Survival impact of surgical cytoreduction in stage IV epithelial ovarian cancer. Gynecol Oncol 1999;72:278–287.
67. BristowRE, PalisBE, ChiDS, ClibyWA. The National Cancer Database report on advanced-stage epithelial ovarian cancer: impact of hospital surgical case volume on overall survival and surgical treatment paradigm. Gynecol Oncol 2010;118:262–267.
68. ChiDS, EisenhauerEL, ZivanovicO, et al. Improved progression-free and overall survival in advanced ovarian cancer as a result of a change in surgical paradigm. Gynecol Oncol 2009;114:26–31.
69. MemarzadehS, LeeSB, BerekJS, Farias-EisnerR. CA125 levels are a weak predictor of optimal cytoreductive surgery in patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2003;13:120–124.
70. BristowRE, DuskaLR, LambrouNC, et al. A model for predicting surgical outcome in patients with advanced ovarian carcinoma using computed tomography. Cancer 2000;89:1532–1540.
71. BristowRE, EisenhauerEL, SantillanA, ChiDS. Delaying the primary surgical effort for advanced ovarian cancer: a systematic review of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and interval cytoreduction. Gynecol Oncol 2007;104:480–490.
72. AxtellAE, LeeMH, BristowRE, et al. Multi-institutional reciprocal validation study of computed tomography predictors of suboptimal primary cytoreduction in patients with advanced ovarian cancer. J Clin Oncol 2007;25:384–389.
73. MooreKN, MoxleyKM, FaderAN, et al. Serous fallopian tube carcinoma: a retrospective, multi-institutional case–control comparison to serous adenocarcinoma of the ovary. Gynecol Oncol 2007;107:398–403.
74. van der BurgME, van LentM, BuyseM, et al. The effect of debulking surgery after induction chemotherapy on the prognosis in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Gynecological Cancer Cooperative Group of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer. N Engl J Med 1995;332:629–634.
75. RosePG, NerenstoneS, BradyM. A phase III randomized study of interval secondary cytoreduction in patients with advanced stage ovarian carcinoma with suboptimal residual disease. A Gynecologic Oncology Group study. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 2002;21:201a.
76. VergoteI, TropeCG, AmantF, et al. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy or primary surgery in stage IIIC or IV ovarian cancer. N Engl J Med 2010;363:943–953.
77. WinterWE, III, MaxwellGL, TianC, et al. Prognostic factors for stage III epithelial ovarian cancer: a Gynecologic Oncology Group Study. J Clin Oncol 2007;25:3621–3627.
78. JazaeriAA, LuK, SchmandtR, et al. Molecular determinants of tumor differentiation in papillary serous ovarian carcinoma. Mol Carcinog 2003;36:53–59.
79. GershensonDM, SunCC, LuKH, et al. Clinical behavior of stage II–IV low-grade serous carcinoma of the ovary. Obstet Gynecol 2006;108:361–368.
80. Winter-RoachB, HooperL, KitchenerH. Systematic review of adjuvant therapy for early stage (epithelial) ovarian cancer. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2003;13:395–404.
81. FriedlanderML, HedleyDW, SwansonC, RussellP. Prediction of long-term survival by flow cytometric analysis of cellular DNA content in patients with advanced ovarian cancer. J Clin Oncol 1988;6:282–290.
82. VergoteIB, KaernJ, AbelerVM, et al. Analysis of prognostic factors in stage I epithelial ovarian carcinoma: importance of degree of differentiation and deoxyribonucleic acid ploidy in predicting relapse. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1993;169:40–52.
83. RubinSC, BenjaminI, BehbakhtK, et al. Clinical and pathological features of ovarian cancer in women with germ-line mutations of BRCA1. N Engl J Med 1996;335:1413–1416.
84. ChetritA, Hirsh-YechezkelG, Ben-DavidY, et al. Effect of BRCA1/2 mutations on long-term survival of patients with invasive ovarian cancer: the national Israeli study of ovarian cancer. J Clin Oncol 2008;26:20–25.
85. LacourRA, WestinSN, MeyerLA, et al. Improved survival in non-Ashkenazi Jewish ovarian cancer patients with BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations. Gynecol Oncol 2011;121:358–363.
86. RichardsonGS, ScullyRE, NikruiN, NelsonJH, Jr. Common epithelial cancer of the ovary (2). N Engl J Med 1985;312:474–483.
87. YoungRC, WaltonLA, EllenbergSS, et al. Adjuvant therapy in stage I and stage II epithelial ovarian cancer. Results of two prospective randomized trials. N Engl J Med 1990;322:1021–1027.
88. BolisG, ColomboN, PecorelliS, et al. Adjuvant treatment for early epithelial ovarian cancer: results of two randomised clinical trials comparing cisplatin to no further treatment or chromic phosphate (32P). G.I.C.O.G.: Gruppo Interregionale Collaborativo in Ginecologia Oncologica. Ann Oncol 1995;6:887–893.
89. TropeC, KaernJ, HogbergT, et al. Randomized study on adjuvant chemotherapy in stage I high-risk ovarian cancer with evaluation of DNA-ploidy as prognostic instrument. Ann Oncol 2000;11:281–288.
90. ColomboN, GuthrieD, ChiariS, et al. International Collaborative Ovarian Neoplasm Trial 1: a randomized trial of adjuvant chemotherapy in women with early-stage ovarian cancer. JNCI 2003;95:125–132.
91. TrimbosJB, VergoteI, BolisG, et al. Impact of adjuvant chemotherapy and surgical staging in early-stage ovarian carcinoma: European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer-Adjuvant ChemoTherapy in Ovarian Neoplasm trial. JNCI 2003;95:113–125.
92. YoungRC, BradyMF, NiebergRK, et al. Adjuvant treatment for early ovarian cancer: a randomized phase III trial of intraperitoneal 32P or intravenous cyclophosphamide and cisplatin: a gynecologic oncology group study. J Clin Oncol 2003;21:4350–4355.
93. KojsZ, GlinskiB, ReinfussM, et al. Results of a randomized prospective trial comparing postoperative abdominopelvic radiotherapy with postoperative chemotherapy in early ovarian cancer. Cancer Radiother 2001;5:5–11.
94. ChiaraS, ConteP, FranzoneP, et al. High-risk early-stage ovarian cancer. Randomized clinical trial comparing cisplatin plus cyclophosphamide versus whole abdominal radiotherapy. Am J Clin Oncol 1994;17:72–76.
95. SellA, BertelsenK, AndersenJE, StroyerI, PanduroJ. Randomized study of whole-abdomen irradiation versus pelvic irradiation plus cyclophosphamide in treatment of early ovarian cancer. Gynecol Oncol 1990;37:367–373.
96. BellJ, BradyMF, YoungRC, et al. Randomized phase III trial of three versus six cycles of adjuvant carboplatin and paclitaxel in early stage epithelial ovarian carcinoma: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study. Gynecol Oncol 2006;102:432–439.
97. ChanJK, TianC, FlemingGF, et al. The potential benefit of 6 vs. 3 cycles of chemotherapy in subsets of women with early-stage high-risk epithelial ovarian cancer: an exploratory analysis of a Gynecologic Oncology Group study. Gynecol Oncol 2010;116:301–306.
98. MannelRS, BradyMF, KohnEC, et al. A randomized phase III trial of IV carboplatin and paclitaxel x 3 courses followed by observation versus weekly maintenance low-dose paclitaxel in patients with early-stage ovarian carcinoma: a Gynecologic Oncology Group Study. Gynecol Oncol 2011;122:89–94.
99. CannistraSA. Cancer of the ovary. N Engl J Med 1993;329:1550–1559.
100. McGuireWP, HoskinsWJ, BradyMF, et al. Cyclophosphamide and cisplatin compared with paclitaxel and cisplatin in patients with stage III and stage IV ovarian cancer. N Engl J Med 1996;334:1–6.
101. PiccartMJ, BertelsenK, JamesK, et al. Randomized intergroup trial of cisplatin-paclitaxel versus cisplatin-cyclophosphamide in women with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer: three-year results. JNCI 2000;92:699–708.
102. MuggiaFM, BralyPS, BradyMF, et al. Phase III randomized study of cisplatin versus paclitaxel versus cisplatin and paclitaxel in patients with suboptimal stage III or IV ovarian cancer: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study. J Clin Oncol 2000;18:106–115.
103. International Collaborative Ovarian Neoplasm Group. Paclitaxel plus carboplatin versus standard chemotherapy with either single-agent carboplatin or cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and cisplatin in women with ovarian cancer: the ICON3 randomised trial. Lancet 2002;360:505–515.
104. OzolsRF, BundyBN, GreerBE, et al. Phase III trial of carboplatin and paclitaxel compared with cisplatin and paclitaxel in patients with optimally resected stage III ovarian cancer: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study. J Clin Oncol 2003;21:3194–3200.
105. du BoisA, LuckHJ, MeierW, et al. A randomized clinical trial of cisplatin/paclitaxel versus carboplatin/paclitaxel as first-line treatment of ovarian cancer. JNCI 2003;95:1320–1329.
106. VaseyPA, JaysonGC, GordonA, et al. Phase III randomized trial of docetaxel-carboplatin versus paclitaxel-carboplatin as first-line chemotherapy for ovarian carcinoma. JNCI 2004;96:1682–1691.
107. International Collaborative Ovarian Neoplasm Group. ICON2: randomised trial of single-agent carboplatin against three-drug combination of CAP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and cisplatin) in women with ovarian cancer. ICON Collaborators. Lancet 1998;352:1571–1576.
108. BookmanMA, BradyMF, McGuireWP, et al. Evaluation of new platinum-based treatment regimens in advanced-stage ovarian cancer: a phase III trial of the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup. J Clin Oncol 2009;27:1419–1425.
109. KatsumataN, YasudaM, TakahashiF, et al. Dose-dense paclitaxel once a week in combination with carboplatin every 3 weeks for advanced ovarian cancer: a phase 3, open-label, randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2009;374:1331–1338.
110. AlbertsDS, LiuPY, HanniganEV, et al. Intraperitoneal cisplatin plus intravenous cyclophosphamide versus intravenous cisplatin plus intravenous cyclophosphamide for stage III ovarian cancer. N Engl J Med 1996;335:1950–1955.
111. MarkmanM, BundyBN, AlbertsDS, et al. Phase III trial of standard-dose intravenous cisplatin plus paclitaxel versus moderately high-dose carboplatin followed by intravenous paclitaxel and intraperitoneal cisplatin in small-volume stage III ovarian carcinoma: an intergroup study of the Gynecologic Oncology Group, Southwestern Oncology Group, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. J Clin Oncol 2001;19:1001–1007.
112. ArmstrongDK, BundyB, WenzelL, et al. Intraperitoneal cisplatin and paclitaxel in ovarian cancer. N Engl J Med 2006;354:34–43.
113. SpriggsDR, BradyMF, VaccarelloL, et al. Phase III randomized trial of intravenous cisplatin plus a 24- or 96-hour infusion of paclitaxel in epithelial ovarian cancer: a Gynecologic Oncology Group Study. J Clin Oncol 2007;25:4466–4471.
114. GreerBE, BundyBN, OzolsRF, et al. Implications of second-look laparotomy in the context of optimally resected stage III ovarian cancer: a non-randomized comparison using an explanatory analysis: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study. Gynecol Oncol 2005;99:71–79.
115. MarkmanM, LiuPY, WilczynskiS, et al. Phase III randomized trial of 12 versus 3 months of maintenance paclitaxel in patients with advanced ovarian cancer after complete response to platinum and paclitaxel-based chemotherapy: a Southwest Oncology Group and Gynecologic Oncology Group trial. J Clin Oncol 2003;21:2460–2465.
116. BookmanMA, DarcyKM, Clarke-PearsonD, BoothbyRA, HorowitzIR. Evaluation of monoclonal humanized anti-HER2 antibody, trastuzumab, in patients with recurrent or refractory ovarian or primary peritoneal carcinoma with overexpression of HER2: a phase II trial of the Gynecologic Oncology Group. J Clin Oncol 2003;21:283–290.
117. HurteauJA, BlessingJA, DeCesareSL, CreasmanWT. Evaluation of recombinant human interleukin-12 in patients with recurrent or refractory ovarian cancer: a gynecologic oncology group study. Gynecol Oncol 2001;82:7–10.
118. SchilderRJ, SillMW, ChenX, et al. Phase II study of gefitinib in patients with relapsed or persistent ovarian or primary peritoneal carcinoma and evaluation of epidermal growth factor receptor mutations and immunohistochemical expression: a Gynecologic Oncology Group Study. Clin Cancer Res 2005;11:5539–5548.
119. BurgerRA, SillMW, MonkBJ, GreerBE, SoroskyJI. Phase II trial of bevacizumab in persistent or recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer or primary peritoneal cancer: a Gynecologic Oncology Group Study. J Clin Oncol 2007;25:5165–5171.
120. SchilderRJ, SillMW, LeeRB, et al. Phase II evaluation of imatinib mesylate in the treatment of recurrent or persistent epithelial ovarian or primary peritoneal carcinoma: a Gynecologic Oncology Group Study. J Clin Oncol 2008;26:3418–3425.
121. MateiD, SillMW, LankesHA, et al. Activity of sorafenib in recurrent ovarian cancer and primary peritoneal carcinomatosis: a Gynecologic Oncology Group trial. J Clin Oncol 2011;29:69–75.
122. GarciaAA, SillMW, LankesHA, et al. A phase II evaluation of lapatinib in the treatment of persistent or recurrent epithelial ovarian or primary peritoneal carcinoma: A Gynecologic Oncology Group study. Gynecol Oncol 2011;124:569–574.
123. ModesittSC, SillM, HoffmanJS, for the Gynecologic Oncology Group. A phase II study of vorinostat in the treatment of persistent or recurrent epithelial ovarian or primary peritoneal carcinoma: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study. Gynecol Oncol 2008;109:182–186.
124. BehbakhtK, SillMW, DarcyKM, et al. Phase II trial of the mTOR inhibitor, temsirolimus and evaluation of circulating tumor cells and tumor biomarkers in persistent and recurrent epithelial ovarian and primary peritoneal malignancies: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study. Gynecol Oncol 2011;123:19–26.
125. UshaL, SillMW, DarcyKM, et al. A Gynecologic Oncology Group phase II trial of the protein kinase C-beta inhibitor, enzastaurin and evaluation of markers with potential predictive and prognostic value in persistent or recurrent epithelial ovarian and primary peritoneal malignancies. Gynecol Oncol 2011;121:455–461.
126. FriedlanderM, HancockKC, RischinD, et al. A phase II, open-label study evaluating pazopanib in patients with recurrent ovarian cancer. Gynecol Oncol 2010;119:32–37.
127. MatulonisUA, BerlinS, IvyP, et al. Cediranib, an oral inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor kinases, is an active drug in recurrent epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, and peritoneal cancer. J Clin Oncol 2009;27:5601–5606.
128. BiagiJJ, OzaAM, ChalchalHI, et al. A phase II study of sunitinib in patients with recurrent epithelial ovarian and primary peritoneal carcinoma: an NCIC Clinical Trials Group Study. Ann Oncol 2011;22:335–340.
129. BurgerRA. Phase III trial of bevacizumab (BEV) in the primary treatment of advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), primary peritoneal cancer (PPC) or fallopian tube cancer (FTC): a Gynecologic Oncology Group Study. In 46th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. Chicago, June, 2010.
130. PerrenT. ICON7: A phase III randomized gynecologic cancer intergroup trial of concurrent bevacizumab and chemotherapy followed by maintenance bevacizumab, versus chemotherapy alone in women with newly diagnosed epithelial ovarian (EOC), primary peritoneal (PPC), or fallopian tube cancer (FTC). In ESMO Congress, 2010 (http://www.ctu.mrc.ac.uk/icon7/content_pages/documents/ICON7_%20ESMO%20Presidential%20Presentation.pdf, accessed 1 February 2014).
131. KristensenG. Result of interim analysis of overall survival in the GCIG ICON7 phase III randomized trial of bevacizumab in women with newly diagnosed ovarian cancer. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 2011;29(Suppl):333S.
132. LambertHE, RustinGJ, GregoryWM, NelstropAE. A randomized trial comparing single-agent carboplatin with carboplatin followed by radiotherapy for advanced ovarian cancer: a North Thames Ovary Group study. J Clin Oncol 1993;11:440–448.
133. Sorbe B for the Swedish-Norwegian Ovarian Cancer Study Group. Consolidation treatment of advanced (FIGO stage III) ovarian carcinoma in complete surgical remission after induction chemotherapy: a randomized controlled, clinical trial comparing whole abdominal radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and no further treatment. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2003;13:278–286.
134. GadducciA, ZolaP, LandoniF, et al. Serum half-life of CA 125 during early chemotherapy as an independent prognostic variable for patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer: results of a multicentric Italian study. Gynecol Oncol 1995;58:42–47.
135. RustinGJ, van der BurgME, GriffinCL, et al. Early versus delayed treatment of relapsed ovarian cancer (MRC OV05/EORTC 55955): a randomised trial. Lancet 2010;376:1155–1163.
136. ZangRY, HarterP, ChiDS, et al. Predictors of survival in patients with recurrent ovarian cancer undergoing secondary cytoreductive surgery based on the pooled analysis of an international collaborative cohort. Br J Cancer 2011;105:890–896.
137. MarkmanM, HoskinsW. Responses to salvage chemotherapy in ovarian cancer: a critical need for precise definitions of the treated population. J Clin Oncol 1992;10:513–514.
138. CantuMG, BudaA, ParmaG, et al. Randomized controlled trial of single-agent paclitaxel versus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and cisplatin in patients with recurrent ovarian cancer who responded to first-line platinum-based regimens. J Clin Oncol 2002;20:1232–1237.
139. MonkBJ, HerzogTJ, KayeSB, et al. Trabectedin plus pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in recurrent ovarian cancer. J Clin Oncol 2010;28:3107–3114.
140. ParmarMK, LedermannJA, ColomboN, et al. Paclitaxel plus platinum-based chemotherapy versus conventional platinum-based chemotherapy in women with relapsed ovarian cancer: the ICON4/AGO-OVAR-2.2 trial. Lancet 2003;361:2099–2106.
141. Pujade-LauraineE, WagnerU, Aavall-LundqvistE, et al. Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin and carboplatin compared with paclitaxel and carboplatin for patients with platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer in late relapse. J Clin Oncol 2010;28:3323–3329.
142. PfistererJ, PlanteM, VergoteI, et al. Gemcitabine plus carboplatin compared with carboplatin in patients with platinum-sensitive recurrent ovarian cancer: an intergroup trial of the AGO-OVAR, the NCIC CTG, and the EORTC GCG. J Clin Oncol 2006;24:4699–4707.
143. AghajanianC, BlankSV, GoffBA, et al. OCEANS: A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled phase III trial of chemotherapy with or without bevacizumab in patients with platinum-sensitive recurrent epithelial ovarian, primary peritoneal, or fallopian tube cancer. J Clin Oncol 2012;30:2039–2045.
144. MarkmanM, BookmanMA. Second-line treatment of ovarian cancer. Oncologist 2000;5:26–35.
145. VergoteI, FinklerN, del CampoJ, et al. Phase 3 randomised study of canfosfamide (Telcyta, TLK286) versus pegylated liposomal doxorubicin or topotecan as third-line therapy in patients with platinum-refractory or -resistant ovarian cancer. Eur J Cancer 2009;45:2324–2332.
146. RosePG, TianC, BookmanMA. Assessment of tumor response as a surrogate endpoint of survival in recurrent/platinum-resistant ovarian carcinoma: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study. Gynecol Oncol 2010;117:324–329.
147. StocklerMR, HilpertF, FriedlanderM, for the AURELIA Investigators. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) results from the AURELIA trial evaluating bevacizumab (BEV) plus chemotherapy (CT) for platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian cancer (OC). J Clin Oncol 2013;31(Suppl): Abstr 5542.
148. CardenCP, YapTA, KayeSB. PARP inhibition: targeting the Achilles' heel of DNA repair to treat germline and sporadic ovarian cancers. Curr Opin Oncol 2010;22:473–480.
149. KonstantinopoulosPA, SpentzosD, KarlanBY, et al. Gene expression profile of BRCAness that correlates with responsiveness to chemotherapy and with outcome in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer. J Clin Oncol 2010;28:3555–3561.
150. Abu-RustumNR, AghajanianC. Management of malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary. Semin Oncol 1998;25:235–242.
151. SchumerST, CannistraSA. Granulosa cell tumor of the ovary. J Clin Oncol 2003;21:1180–1189.
152. HomesleyHD, BundyBN, HurteauJA, RothLM. Bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin combination therapy of ovarian granulosa cell tumors and other stromal malignancies: A Gynecologic Oncology Group study. Gynecol Oncol 1999;72:131–137.
153. KiyokawaT, YoungRH, ScullyRE. Krukenberg tumors of the ovary: a clinicopathologic analysis of 120 cases with emphasis on their variable pathologic manifestations. Am J Surg Pathol 2006;30:277–299.

References

1. MatsuuraJ, ChiuD, JacobsPA, SzulmanAE. Complete hydatidiform mole in Hawaii: an epidemiological study. Genet Epidemiol 1984;1:271–284.
2. AltmanAD, BentleyB, MurrayS, BentleyJR. Maternal age-related rates of gestational trophoblastic disease. Obstet Gynecol 2008;112:244.
3. SmithHO. Gestational trophoblastic disease epidemiology and trends. Clin Obstet Gynecol 2003;46:541–556.
4. KovacsBW, ShahbahramiB, TastDE, CurtinJP. Molecular genetic analysis of complete hydatidiform moles. Cancer Genet Cytogenet 1991;54:143–152.
5. FisherRA, HodgesMD. Genomic imprinting in gestational trophoblastic disease – a review. Placenta 2003;24(Suppl A):S111–S118.
6. LageJM, WolfNG. Gestational trophoblastic disease. New approaches to diagnosis. Clin Lab Med 1995;15:631–664.
7. BerkowitzRS, GoldsteinDP. Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. In BerekJS, HackerNF (eds.) Practical Gynecologic Oncology. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000, p. 617.
8. Soto-WrightV, BernsteinM, GoldsteinDP, BerkowitzRS. The changing clinical presentation of complete molar pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 1995;86:775–779.
9. GoldsteinDP, BerkowitzRS, BernsteinMR. Management of molar pregnancy. J Reprod Med 1981;26:208–212.
10. StellerMA, GenestDR, BernsteinMR, et al. Natural history of twin pregnancy with complete hydatidiform mole and coexisting fetus. Obstet Gynecol 1994;83:35–42.
11. CheungAN, KhooUS, LaiCY, et al. Metastatic trophoblastic disease after an initial diagnosis of partial hydatidiform mole: genotyping and chromosome in situ hybridization analysis. Cancer 2004;100:1411–1417.
12. GoldsteinDP, BerkowitzRS. Prophylactic chemotherapy of complete molar pregnancy. Semin Oncol 1995;22:157–160.
13. KimDS, MoonH, KimKT, et al. Effects of prophylactic chemotherapy for persistent trophoblastic disease in patients with complete hydatidiform mole. Obstet Gynecol 1986;67:690–694.
14.