As policy makers weigh cost-benefit and risk-risk tradeoffs in their responses to climate change, they should factor public health impacts into their calculations. This chapter discusses how and where public health can be made a prominent criterion for decision making about climate change mitigation and adaptation. It describes the types of health-related considerations that would be relevant in the context of actions that are expressly intended as a response to climate change as well as actions that have unintended consequences related to climate change. It then identifies specific laws that require consideration of health impacts in the planning and decision-making processes for these types of actions. Finally, it identifies key gaps in the legal mandates for and institutional capacity to conduct climate change-related health assessments and presents recommendations on how to fill those gaps.