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The date of publication of Cael. has been controversial since Norden argued that it remained unpublished during C.’s lifetime because the Council of Luca of mid-April interfered with any plans for publication; hence it was edited posthumously from his papers with “doublets” remaining in the text as traces of C.’s improvisation during delivery. But the “doublets,” i.e. reprise of topics previously mooted (§28 ∼ §§41–3 and §38 and §§48–50), can be otherwise explained; and C. heard of the Council of Luca only ca. 25 April; even if he drew immediate conclusions from that information, in view of the speed with which he could work, the prior writing up and circulation of the speech is not excluded. As a general rule it is probably true that C. wrote up and circulated quickly the forensic speeches that he meant to publish. Crawford points out that a desire to memorialize “the devastating attack on the Clodii” would have argued for immediate publication; indeed the speech shows the wounds of the exile still raw (§§32, 50).