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Children, Adults, and Shared Responsibilities
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Book description

This collection of essays by Jewish, Christian, and Muslim scholars underscores the significance of sustained and serious ethical, inter-religious, and interdisciplinary reflection on children. Essays in the first half of the volume discuss fundamental beliefs and practices within the religious traditions of Judaism, Christianity and Islam regarding children, adult obligations to them, and a child's own obligations to others. The second half of the volume focuses on selected contemporary challenges regarding children and faithful responses to them. Marcia J. Bunge brings together scholars from various disciplines and diverse strands within these three religious traditions, representing several views on essential questions about the nature and status of children and adult-child relationships and responsibilities. The volume not only contributes to intellectual inquiry regarding children in the specific areas of ethics, religious studies, children's rights, and childhood studies, but also provides resources for child advocates, religious leaders, educators, and those engaged in inter-religious dialogue.

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'… the book brings the three traditions into conjunction with one another, with the aim of drawing upon the wisdom of each tradition - and one another's traditions as well … Highly recommended …'

L. J. Alderink Source: Choice

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Contents

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I General Resources

Browning, Don S., and Marcia J. Bunge, eds. Children and Childhood in World Religions: Primary Sources and Texts. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2009.
Browning, Don S., and Bonnie J. Miller-McLemore, eds. Children and Childhood in American Religions. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2009.
Browning, Don S., M. Christian Green, and John Witte Jr., eds. Sex, Marriage, and Family in World Religions. New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 2006.
Bunge, Marcia J.The Child, Religion, and the Academy: Developing Robust Theological and Religious Understandings of Children and Childhood.” Journal of Religion 86, no. 4 (October 2006): 549–579.
Bunge, Marcia J.Jewish and Christian Views of Childhood.” In Oxford Bibliographies Online: Childhood Studies, edited by Heather Montgomery. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012.
Coward, Harold, and Philip Cook, eds. Religious Dimensions of Child and Family Life: Reflections on the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. University of Victoria, Centre for Studies in Religion and Society, 1996.
Hawes, Joseph M., and N. Ray Hiner, eds. Children in Historical and Comparative Perspective: An International Handbook and Research Guide. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1991.
Hay, David, with Rebecca Nye. The Spirit of the Child. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers; revised edition, 2006.
Morgan, Peggy, and Clive A. Lawton, eds. Ethical Issues in Six Religious Traditions. 2nd edn. Edinburgh University Press, 2007.
Ridgely, Susan B., ed. The Study of Children in Religion: A Methods Handbook. New York University Press, 2011.
Roehlkepartain, E. C., P. E. King, L. M. Wagener, and P. L. Benson, eds. The Handbook of Spiritual Development in Childhood and Adolescence. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2006.
Schweiker, William, ed. The Blackwell Companion to Religious Ethics. Oxford: Blackwell, 2008.
Shweder, Richard A., ed. The Child: An Encyclopedic Companion. University of Chicago Press, 2009.
Smith, Christian, with Melinda Lundquist Denton. Soul Searching: The Religious and Spiritual Lives of American Teenagers. Oxford University Press, 2005.
United Nations General Assembly. Convention on the Rights of the Child, November 20, 1989.
Wyller, Trygve, and Usha S. Nayar, eds. The Given Child: The Religions’ Contribution to Children's Citizenship. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2007.
Yust, K.-M., A. N. Johnson, S. E. Sasso, and E. C. Roehlkepartain, eds. Nurturing Child and Adolescent Spirituality: Perspectives from the World's Religious Traditions. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2006.

II Judaism, Christianity, and Islam

Judaism

Abrams, Judith Z., and Steven A. Abrams. Jewish Parenting: Rabbinic Insights. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson, 1994.
Baumgarten, Elisheva. Mothers and Children: Jewish Family Life in Medieval Europe. Princeton University Press, 2004.
Blidstein, Gerald. Honor Thy Father and Mother: Filial Responsibility in Jewish Law and Ethics. New York, NY: KTAV Publishing House, 1975.
Broyde, Michael J.Child Custody in Jewish Law: A Pure Law Analysis.” In Jewish Law Association Studies vii: The Paris Conference Volume, edited by S. M. Passamaneck and M. Finley, pp. 1–20. Atlanta, GA: Scholars Press, 1994.
Broyde, Michael J., and Michael Ausubel, eds. Marriage, Sex, and Family in Judaism. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2005.
Broyde, Michael J., and John Witte, Jr., eds. Human Rights in Judaism: Cultural, Religious, and Political Perspectives. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson, 1998.
Cardin, Nina Beth. Tears of Sorrow, Seeds of Hope: A Jewish Spiritual Companion for Infertility and Pregnancy Loss. Woodstock, VT: Jewish Lights, 1999.
Cohen, Shaye J. D., ed. The Jewish Family in Antiquity. Atlanta, GA: Scholars Press, 1993.
Cooper, John. The Child in Jewish History. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson, 1996.
Dorff, Elliot N.Love Your Neighbor and Yourself: A Jewish Approach to Modern Personal Ethics. Philadelphia, PA: Jewish Publication Society, 2003.
Dorff, Elliot N.. Matters of Life and Death: A Jewish Approach to Modern Medical Ethics. Philadelphia, PA: Jewish Publication Society, 1998.
Dorff, Elliot N.. The Way into Tikkun Olam (Repairing the World). Woodstock, VT: Jewish Lights, 2005.
Dorff, Elliot N.. To Do the Right and the Good: A Jewish Approach to Modern Social Ethics. Philadelphia, PA: Jewish Publication Society, 2002.
Fishman, Sylvia Barack. Double or Nothing? Jewish Families and Mixed Marriage. Lebanon, NH: Brandeis University Press, 2004.
Fishman, Sylvia Barack. Jewish Life and American Culture. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 2000.
Freeze, ChaeRan Y.Jewish Marriage and Divorce in Imperial Russia. Hanover, NH: Brandeis University Press, 2002.
Hartman, Harriet, and Moshe Hartman. Gender and American Jews: Patterns in Work, Education, and Family in Contemporary Life. Lebanon, NH: Brandeis University Press, 2009.
Kraemer, David. “What Does Bar/Bat Mitzvah Really Signify?Conservative Judaism 53, no. 4 (summer 2001): 3–8.
Kraemer, David, ed. The Jewish Family: Metaphor and Memory. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1989.
Lieberman, Julia R., ed. Sephardi Family Life in the Early Modern Diaspora. Waltham, MA: Brandeis University Press, 2011.
Linzer, Norman. The Jewish Family: Authority and Tradition in Modern Perspective. New York, NY: Human Sciences Press, 1984.
Marcus, Ivan G.Rituals of Childhood: Jewish Acculturation in Medieval Europe. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1996.
Matzner-Bekerman, Shoshana. The Jewish Child: Halakhic Perspectives. New York, NY: KTAV Publishing House, 1984.
Rosenberg, Shelley Kapnek. Adoption and the Jewish Family: Contemporary Perspectives. Philadelphia, PA: Jewish Publication Society, 1998.
Sasso, Sandy Eisenberg. God's Echo: Exploring Scripture with Midrash. Brewster, MA: Paraclete Press, 2007.
Sasso, Sandy Eisenberg. “When Your Children Ask: A Jewish Theology of Childhood.” Conservative Judaism 53, no. 4 (summer 2001): 9–18.
Schochetman, Eliav. “On the Nature of the Rules Governing Custody of Children in Jewish Law.” In The Jewish Law Annual. Vol. x: 115–157. Edited by Bernard S. Jackson. Chur: Harwood Academic, 1992.
Wertheimer, Jack, ed. Family Matters: Jewish Education in an Age of Choice. Waltham, MA: Brandeis University Press, 2007.

CHRISTIANITY

Aasgaard, Reidar. The Childhood of Jesus: Decoding the Apocryphal Infancy Gospel of Thomas. Eugene, OR: Cascade, 2009.
Aasgaard, Reidar. “Children in Antiquity and Early Christianity: Research History and Central Issues.” Familia (UPSA, Spain) 33 (2006): 23–46.
Adolphe, Jane. “A Light to the Nations: The Holy See and the Convention on the Rights of the Child.” Doctoral thesis. Rome: Pontificia Universitas Sanctae Crucis, 2003.
Anderson, Herbert, and Susan B. W. Johnson. Regarding Children: A New Respect for Childhood and Families. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 1994.
Bakke, O. M.When Children Became People: The Birth of Childhood in Early Christianity. Translated by Brian McNeil. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress, 2005.
Berryman, Jerome W.Children and the Theologians: Clearing the Way for Grace. New York, NY: Morehouse, 2009.
Brennan, Patrick McKinley. “The ‘Right’ of Religious Liberty of the Child: Its Meaning, Measure, and Justification.” Emory International Law Review 20, no. 1 (spring 2006): 129–155.
Brennan, Patrick McKinley, ed. The Vocation of the Child. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2008.
Browning, Don S.Equality and the Family: A Fundamental Practical Theology of Children, Mothers, and Fathers in Modern Societies. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2007.
Browning, Don S.Marriage and Modernization: How Globalization Threatens Marriage and What to Do about It. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2003.
Browning, Don S.The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child: Should it be Ratified and Why?Emory International Law Review 20, no. 1 (spring 2006): 157–183.
Bunge, Marcia J., ed. The Child in Christian Thought. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2001.
Bunge, Marcia J., Terence E. Fretheim, and Beverly Roberts Gaventa, eds. The Child in the Bible. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2008.
Cahill, Lisa Sowle. Family: A Christian Social Perspective. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress, 2000.
Capps, Donald. The Child's Song: The Religious Abuse of Children. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 1995.
Couture, Pamela. Child Poverty: Love, Justice, and Social Responsibility. St. Louis, MO: Chalice, 2007.
D’Angelo, Mary Rose. “Feminist Ethics and the Sexual Abuse of Children: Reading Christian Origins.” In A Just and True Love, edited by Maura A. Ryan and Brian F. Linnane, pp. 234–272. University of Notre Dame Press, 2007.
DeVries, Dawn. “Toward a Theology of Childhood.” Interpretation: A Journal of Bible and Theology 55, no. 2 (April 2001): 161–173.
Dillen, Annemie. “Children between Liberation and Care: Ethical Perspectives on the Rights of Children and Parent--Child Relationships.” International Journal of Children's Spirituality 11, no. 2 (August 2006): 237–250.
Dillen, Annemie, ed. When “Love” Strikes: Social Sciences, Ethics and Theology on Family Violence. Leuven: Peeters, 2009.
Dillen, Annemie, and Didier Pollefeyt, eds. Children's Voices: Children's Perspectives in Ethics, Theology and Religious Education. Leuven: Peeters, 2010.
Greven, Philip. The Protestant Temperament: Patterns of Child-Rearing, Religious Experience, and the Self in Early America. New York, NY: Meridian, 1977.
Greven, Philip. Spare the Child: The Religious Roots of Punishment and the Psychological Impact of Physical Abuse. New York, NY: Vintage, 1990.
Gudorf, Christine E.Parenting, Mutual Love, and Sacrifice.” In Women's Consciousness, Women's Conscience: A Reader in Feminist Ethics, edited by Barbara Hilkert Andolsen, Christine E. Gudorf, and Mary D. Pellauer, pp. 175–191. Minneapolis, MN: Winston, 1985.
Gundry-Volf, Judith. “To Such as These Belongs the Reign of God: Jesus and Children.” Theology Today 56, no. 4 (January 2000): 469–480.
Gunn, T. Jeremy. “The Religious Right and the Opposition to US Ratification of the Convention on the Rights of the Child.” Emory International Law Review 20, no. 1 (spring 2006): 111–128.
Herzog, Kristin. Children and our Global Future: Theological and Social Challenges. Cleveland, OH: Pilgrim Press, 2005.
Horn, Cornelia B., and John W. Martens. “Let the Little Children Come to Me”: Childhood and Children in Early Christianity. Washington, DC: Catholic University of America Press, 2009.
Jackson, Timothy P., ed. The Best Love of the Child: Being Loved and Being Taught to Love as the First Human Right. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2011.
Jackson, Timothy P.The Morality of Adoption: Social-Psychological, Theological, and Legal Perspectives. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2005.
Jensen, David H.Graced Vulnerability: A Theology of Childhood. Cleveland, OH: Pilgrim Press, 2005.
Lutterbach, Hubertus. Gotteskindschaft: Kultur- und Sozialgeschichte eines christlichen Ideals. Freiburg: Herder, 2003.
Marshall, Kathleen, and Paul Parvis. Honouring Children: The Human Rights of the Child in Christian Perspective. Edinburgh: Saint Andrew, 2004.
Marty, Martin E.The Mystery of the Child. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2007.
May, Scottie, Beth Posterski, Catherine Stonehouse, and Linda Cannell. Children Matter: Celebrating Their Place in the Church, Family, and Community. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2005.
McConnell, Douglas, Jennifer Orona, and Paul Stockley, eds. Understanding God's Heart for Children: Toward a Biblical Framework. Colorado Springs, CO: Authentic, 2007.
Meilaender, Gilbert. Neither Beast nor God: The Dignity of the Human Person. New York, NY: Encounter Books, 2009.
Mercer, Joyce Ann. Welcoming Children: A Practical Theology of Childhood. St. Louis, MO: Chalice, 2005.
Miller, Richard B.Children, Ethics, and Modern Medicine. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 2003.
Miller-McLemore, Bonnie J.Also a Mother: Work and Family as Theological Dilemma. Nashville, TN: Abingdon, 1994.
Miller-McLemore, Bonnie J.. In the Midst of Chaos: Caring for Children as Spiritual Practice. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 2007.
Miller-McLemore, Bonnie J.. Let the Children Come: Reimagining Childhood from a Christian Perspective. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 2003.
Moltmann, Jürgen. “Child and Childhood as Metaphors of Hope.” Theology Today 56, no. 4 (2000): 592–603.
Moore, Mary Elizabeth, and Almeda M. Wright, eds. Children, Youth, and Spirituality in a Troubling World. St. Louis, MO: Chalice, 2008.
Orsi, Robert A.A Crisis about the Theology of Children.” Harvard Divinity Bulletin 30, no. 4 (spring 2002): 27–30.
Osiek, Carolyn, and David L. Balch. Families in the New Testament World: Households and House Churches. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 1997.
Pais, Janet. Suffer the Children: A Theology of Liberation by a Victim of Child Abuse. Mahwah, NJ: Paulist Press, 1991.
Parker, Evelyn L., ed. The Sacred Selves of Adolescent Girls: Hard Stories of Race, Class, and Gender. Cleveland, OH: Pilgrim Press, 2006.
Pitkin, Barbara. “Are Children Human?” Louisville, KY: Presbyterian Church, 2000.
Post, Stephen G.More Lasting Unions: Christianity, the Family, and Society. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2000.
Post, Stephen G.Spheres of Love: Toward a New Ethics of the Family. Dallas, TX: Southern Methodist University Press, 1994.
Rahner, Karl. “Ideas for a Theology of Childhood.” In Theological Investigations. Vol. viii, pp. 33–50. Translated by David Bourke. New York, NY: Seabury, 1971.
Ridgely, Susan B.When I Was a Child: Children's Interpretations of First Communion. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2005.
Roche, Mary M. Doyle. Children, Consumerism, and the Common Good. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2009.
Rubio, Julie Hanlon. A Christian Theology of Marriage and Family. Mahwah, NJ: Paulist Press, 2003.
Rubio, Julie Hanlon. Family Ethics: Practices for Christians. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 2010.
Rubio, Julie Hanlon. “Towards a Theology of Children: Questions from an Emerging Field of Inquiry.” Intams Review 9, no. 2 (2003): 188–202.
Shier-Jones, Angela, ed. Children of God: Towards a Theology of Childhood. Werrington: Epworth, 2007.
Smolin, David M.Overcoming Religious Objections to the Convention on the Rights of the Child.” Emory International Law Review 20, no. 1 (spring 2006): 81–110.
Städtler-Mach, Barbara. Kinderseelsorge: Seelsorge mit Kindern und ihre pastoralpsychologische Bedeutung. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2004.
Stonehouse, Catherine, and Scottie May. Listening to Children on the Spiritual Journey: Guidance for Those Who Teach and Nurture. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2010.
Sturm, Douglas. “On the Suffering and Rights of Children: Toward a Theology of Childhood Liberation.” Cross Currents (summer 1992): 149–173.
Surall, Frank. Ethik des Kindes: Kinderrechte und ihre theologisch-ethische Rezeption. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 2009.
Thatcher, Adrian. Theology and Families. Oxford: Blackwell, 2007.
Wall, John. Ethics in Light of Childhood. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 2010.
Werpehowski, William. “What Shall Parents Teach Their Children?” In Why Are We Here? Everyday Questions and the Christian Life, edited by Ronald F.Thiemann and William C. Placher, pp. 112–129. Harrisburg, PA: Trinity Press International, 1998.
Whitmore, Todd David, with Tobias Winright. “Children: An Undeveloped Theme in Catholic Teaching.” In The Challenge of Global Stewardship: Roman Catholic Responses, edited by Maura A. Ryan and Todd David Whitmore, pp. 161–185. University of Notre Dame Press, 1997.
Witte, Jr., John. From Sacrament to Contract: Marriage, Religion, and Law in the Western Tradition. 2nd edn. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 2012.
Witte, Jr., John. The Sins of the Fathers: The Law and Theology of Illegitimacy Reconsidered. Cambridge University Press, 2009.
Witte, Jr., John and Frank S. Alexander, eds. Christianity and Human Rights: An Introduction. Cambridge University Press, 2010.
Yust, Karen Marie. Real Kids, Real Faith: Practices for Nurturing Children's Spiritual Lives. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 2004.
Zuck, Roy B.Precious in His Sight: Childhood and Children in the Bible. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 1996.

ISLAM

Al-Attas, Syed Muhammad al-Naquib, ed. Aims and Objectives of Islamic Education. Jeddah: King Abdulaziz University, 1979.
Ali, Kecia. Sexual Ethics and Islam: Feminist Reflections on Qur’ān, Hadith, and Jurisprudence. Oxford: Oneworld, 2006.
Ali, Shaheen Sardar, and Baela Jamil. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, Islamic Law and Pakistan Legislation: A Comparative Study. Peshawar: Educational Computing Services, 1994.
Bargach, Jamila. Orphans of Islam: Family, Abandonment, and Secret Adoption in Morocco. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2002.
Ebadi, Shirin. The Rights of the Child: A Study on Legal Aspects of Children's Rights in Iran. Translated by M. Zaimaran. Tehran: UNICEF, 1994.
Esack, Farid. Qur’ān, Liberation and Pluralism: An Islamic Perspective of Inter-religious Solidarity against Oppression. Oxford: Oneworld, 1997.
Fernea, Elizabeth Warnock, ed. Children in the Muslim Middle East. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 1995.
Fernea, Elizabeth Warnock. Remembering Childhood in the Middle East: Memoirs from a Century of Change. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 2002.
Gil‛adi, Avner. Children of Islam: Concepts of Childhood in Medieval Muslim Society. New York, NY: St. Martin's, 1992.
Gil‛adi, Avner. Infants, Parents and Wet Nurses: Medieval Islamic Views on Breastfeeding and Their Social Implications. Leiden: Brill, 1999.
Gwynne, Rosalind. “Youth and Old Age.” In Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān. Vol. v. Edited by Jane Dammen McAuliffe. Leiden: Brill, 2005.
Hermansen, Marcia. “How to Put the Genie back in the Bottle? ‘Identity’ Islam and Muslim Youth Cultures in America.” In Progressive Muslims: On Justice, Gender and Pluralism, edited by Omid Safi, pp. 306–319. Oxford: Oneworld, 2003.
Mattson, Ingrid. “Adoption and Fostering: Overview.” In Encyclopedia of Women and Islamic Cultures. Vol. ii: Family, Law and Politics. Edited by Suad Joseph, et al. Leiden: Brill, 2005.
McBride, James. “‘To Make Martyrs of Their Children’: ‘Female Genital Mutilation,’ Religious Legitimation, and the Constitution.” In God Forbid: Religion and Sex in American Public Life, edited by Kathleen M. Sands, pp. 219–244. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2000.
Meriwether, Margaret L.The Rights of Children and the Responsibilities of Women: Women as Wasis in Ottoman Aleppo, 1770–1840.” In Women, the Family, and Divorce Laws in Islamic History, edited by Amira al-Azhary Sonbol, pp. 219–235. Syracuse University Press, 1996.
Moosa, Ebrahim. “ ‘The Child Belongs to the Bed’: Illegitimacy and Islamic Law.” In Questionable Issue: Illegitimacy in South Africa, edited by Sandra Burman and Eleanor Preston-Whyte, pp. 171–184. Cape Town: Oxford University Press, 1992.
Moosa, Ebrahim. “The Dilemma of Islamic Rights Schemes.” Journal of Law and Religion 15, nos. 1–2 (2000–2001): 185–215.
Moosa, Ebrahim. Ghazālī and the Poetics of Imagination. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2005.
Motzki, Harald. “Child Marriage in Seventeenth-Century Palestine.” In Islamic Legal Interpretation: Muftis and Their Fatwas, edited by Muhammad Khalid Masud, Brinkley Messick, and David S. Powers, pp. 129–140. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1996.
Nanji, Azim A.Islam.” In Ethical Issues in Six Religious Traditions. 2nd edn. Edited by Peggy Morgan and Clive A. Lawton, pp. 283–342. Edinburgh University Press, 2007.
Nanji, Azim A., ed. The Muslim Almanac: A Reference Work on the History, Faith, Culture, and Peoples of Islam. Detroit, MI: Gale Research, Inc., 1996.
Nasr, Seyyed Hossein. Traditional Islam in the Modern World. London: KPI, 1987.
Oh, Irene. The Rights of God: Islam, Human Rights, and Comparative Ethics. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 2007.
O’Shaughnessy, Thomas J.The Qur'anic View of Youth and Old Age.” Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenländischen Gesellschaft 141 (1991): 33–51.
Pohl, Florian. Islamic Education and the Public Sphere: Today's Pesantren in Indonesia. Münster: Waxmann, 2009.
Shell-Duncan, Bettina, and Ylva Hernlund, eds. Female “Circumcision” in Africa: Culture, Controversy, and Change. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2000.
Siddiqui, Kamal. Better Days, Better Lives: Towards a Strategy for Implementing the Convention on the Rights of the Child in Bangladesh. Dhaka: The University Press Limited, 2001.
Sonbol, Amira al-Azhary. “Adults and Minors in Ottoman Sharīʿa Courts and Modern Law.” In Women, the Family, and Divorce Laws in Islamic History, edited by Amira al-Azhary Sonbol, pp. 236–256. Syracuse University Press, 1996.
Tibawi, A. L.Islamic Education: Its Traditions and Modernization into the Arab National Systems. London: Luzac, 1972.
Yazbak, Mahmoud. “Muslim Orphans and the Sharīʿa in Ottoman Palestine According to Sijill Records.” Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 44, no. 2 (2001): 123–140.