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  • Challenges to Tackling Antimicrobial Resistance
  • Economic and Policy Responses
  • Online publication date: March 2020
  • pp xv-xviii
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press

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Abbreviations

ABS

Antibiotic stewardship

AGP

Antimicrobial growth promoters

AMR

Antimicrobial resistance

AMS

Antimicrobial stewardship

AMU

Antimicrobial use

ARB

Antibiotic-resistant bacteria

ARC

Antibiotic Resistance Coalition

ASP

Antibiotic stewardship programme

BARDA

Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority

BSI

Bloodstream infection

CARB

X Combating Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria Biopharmaceutical Accelerator

CCCAS

Clinician Champions in Comprehensive Antibiotic Stewardship

CDC

Centers for Disease Control

CEWG

Consultative Expert Working Group

CRE

Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae

CRP

C-reactive Protein

CSE

Centre for Science and Environment

CSF

Cerebrospinal fluid

DALY

Disbility-adjusted life-year

DDD

Defined Daily Dose

DG

-RTD Directorate-General for Research and Innovation

DP

Delayed prescribing

DRG

Diagnosis-related group

EARSS

European Antibiotic Resistance Surveillance System

EARS

-NET European Antibiotic Resistance Surveillance Network

EC

Environmental cleaning

ECDC

European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control

EDCTP

European and Developing Countries Clinical Trial Partnership

EEA

European Economic Area

EFPIA

European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations

EFSA

European Food Safety Authority

EIB

European Investment Bank

EMA

European Medicines Agency

EPOC

Effective Practice and Organisation of Care

ESBL

Extended spectrum beta-lactamase

ETEC

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

EU

European Union

FAO

Food and Agricultural Organization

FDA

Food and Drug Administration

G3REC

Third-generation cephalosporin

GAMRIF

Global Antimicrobial Resistance Innovation Fund

GARDP

Global Antibiotic Research and Development Partnership

GBS

Group B Streptococcus

GDP

Gross Domestic Product

GLASS

Global Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System

GP

General practitioner

GRACE INTRO

Genomics to combat Resistance against Antibiotics for Community-acquired LRTI in Europe/INternet Training for Reducing antibiOtic use

HAI

Health care-associated infection/hospital-acquired infection

HIV

Human immunodeficiency virus

HTA

Health technology assessment

ICU

Intensive-care units

ID

Infectious diseases

IMI

Innovative Medicine’s Initiative

IPC

Infection prevention and control

JPIAMR

Joint Programming Initiative on Antimicrobial Resistance

KISS

Krankenhaus-Infektions-Surveillance-System

LMIC

Low- and middle-income country

LOS

Length of stay

LPAD

Limited Population Antibacterial Drug

mAb

Monoclonal antibody

MER

Market entry rewards

MRSA

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

MSF

Médecins sans Frontières

NHS

National Health Service

NIAID

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

NIH

National Institutes for Health

NIHR

National Institute for Health Research

NRDC

Natural Resources Defense Council

OECD

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

OIE

World Organisation for Animal Health

PCR

Polymerase chain reaction

PDP

Product development partnerships

PIRG

Public Interest Research Group

PMDA

Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency

POC

Point of care

POCT

Point-of-care tests

PPL

Priority Pathogens List

PPS

Point prevalence surveys

PRV

Priority review vouchers

QALY

Quality-adjusted life-years

QIDP

Qualified Infectious Diseases Products

R&D

Research and development

RCDC

Research, condition, and disease categories

RCT

Randomized controlled trial

RSV

Respiratory syncytial virus

RTI

Respiratory tract infections

SDM

Shared decision-making

SME

Small and medium enterprises

STEC

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli

SWAB

Working Party on Antibiotic Policy

TATFAR

Transatlantic Task Force on Antimicrobial Resistance

TIPR

Transferable intellectual property rights

TPP

Target Product Profile

UNICEF

United Nations Children’s Fund

UI

uncertainty interval

UPEC

Uropathogenic Escherichia coli

USDA

US Department of Agriculture

UTI

Urinary tract infections

VRE

Vancomycin-resistant enterococci

VTEC

Verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli

WHO

World Health Organization

WTO

World Trade Organization