Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Print publication year: 2014
  • Online publication date: October 2014

Chapter 44 - Pain management in trigeminal neuralgia: clinical case illustrations

from Section 5 - Headaches and Facial Pain


1. Stookey B, Ransohoff J. Trigeminal Neuralgia: Its History and Treatment. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas. 1959.
2. Eboli P, Stone JL, Audin S, Slavin KV. Historical characterization of Trigeminal Neuralgia. Neurosurgery. 2009;64:1183–1187.
3. Tenser R. Trigeminal Neuralgia: mechanisms of treatment. Neurology. 1998;51:17–19.
4. Gronseth G, Cruccu G, Alksne J, et al. Practice parameter: the diagnostic evaluation and treatment of trigeminal neuralgia (an evidence-based review). Neurology. 2008;71:1183–1190.
5. Zakrzewska JM. Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of trigeminal neuralgia. Clin J Pain. 2002;18:14–21.
6. Devor M, Amir R, Rappaport H. Pathophysiology of Trigeminal Neuralgia: The Ignition Hypothesis. Clin J Pain. 2002; 18:4–13.
7. DeSouza DD, Hodaie M, Davis K. Abnormal trigeminal nerve microstructure and brain white matter in idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia. Pain. 2013. Available from:
8. Lacerda Leal PR, Amedee Roch J, Hermier M, et al. Structural abnormalities of the trigeminal root revealed by diffusion tensor imaging in patients with trigeminal neuralgia caused by neurovascular compression: a prospective, double-blind, controlled study. Pain. 2011;152:2357–2364.
9. Anderson VC, Berryhill PC, Sanquist MA, et al. Height resolution three-dimensional magnetic resonance angiography and three-dimensional spoiled gradient-recalled imaging in the evaluation of neurovascular compression in patients with trigeminal neuralgia; a double-blind pilot study. Neurosurgery. 2006;58:666–673.
10. Leonard G, Goffaux P, Mathieu D, et al. Evidence of descending inhibition deficits in atypical but not classical trigeminal neuralgia. Pain. 2009;147:217–223.
11. Prasad S, Galetta S. Trigeminal neuralgia: historical notes and current concepts. The Neurologist. 2006;15:87–94.
12. Sindrup S, Jensen T. Pharmacotherapy of trigeminal neuralgia. Clin J Pain. 2002;18:22–27.
13. Gould HJ III. Management of painful neuropathies. Curr Treat Opt Neurol. 2007;9:75–84.
14. Piovesan EJ, Randunz V, Utiumi M, et al. Influence of NMDA and non-NMDA antagonists on acute and inflammatory pain in the trigeminal territory: a placebo control study. Arq Neuro-Psiquiatria. 2008;66:837–843.
15. Fabregat G, De Andres J, Villanueva-Perez, VL, Asensio-Samper JM. Subcutaneous and perineural botulinum Toxin Type A for neuropathic pain. Clin J Pain. 2013;29:1006–1012.
16. Allam N, Brasil-Neto J, Brown G, Tomaz C. Injections of Botulinum toxin Type A produce pain alleviation in intractable trigeminal neuralgia: case report. Clin J Pain. 2005;21:182–184.
17. Amirnovin R, Neinat JS, Roberts JA, Eskandar EN. Multimodality treatment of trigeminal neuralgia. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 2005;83:197–201.
18. Gary P, Nurmikko T. Peripheral and Gasserian ganglion level procedures for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia. Clin J Pain. 2002;18:28–34.
19. Kanpolat Y, Savas A, Bekar A Berk C. Percutaneous controlled radiofrequency trigeminal rhyzotomy for the treatment of idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia: 25 years experience with 1600 patients. Neurosurgery. 2001;48:524–534.
20. Zundert JV, Brabant S, Van de Kelft E, Vercruyssen A, Van Buyten JP. Pulsed radiofrequency treatment of the Gasserian ganglion in patients with idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia. Pain. 2003;104:449–452.
21. Zakrzewska J, Coakham HB. Microvascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia. Curr Opin Neurol. 2012;25:296–301.
22. Jannetta PJ, McLaughlin MR, Casey KF. Technique of microvascular decompression. Neurosurg Focus. 2005;18:1–5.
23. Koopman J, De Vries LM, Dieleman JP, et al. A nationwide study of three invasive treatments for trigeminal neuralgia. Pain. 2011;152:507–513.
24. Cole CD, Liu JK, Apfelbaum RI. Historical perspectives on the diagnosis and treatment of trigeminal neuralgia. Neurosurg Focus. 2005;18:1–10.
25. Ma Z, Li M. Nerve combing for trigeminal neuralgia without vascular compression. Clin J Pain. 2009;25:44–47.
26. Sekula RF Jr, Frederickson AM, Jannetta PJ, et al. Microvascular decompression for elderly patients with trigeminal neuralgia: a prospective study and systematic review with meta-analysis. J Neurosurg. 2011;114(1):172–179.
27. Zakrzewska J, Lopez BC. New techniques for surgical management of trigeminal neuralgia. Letter to the editor. Pain. 2004;109:520–529.
28. Shetter AG, Rogers CL, Ponce F, et al. Gamma knife radiosurgery for recurrent trigeminal neuralgia. J Neurosurgery. 2002;97(5):536–538.
29. Maesawa S, Salame C, Flickinger JC, et al. Clinical outcomes after stereotactic radiosurgery for idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia. J Neurosurg. 2001;94;14–20.
30. Chang, JW, Chang JH, Park YG, Chung SS. Gamma knife radiosurgery for idiopathic and secondary trigeminal neuralgia. J Neurosurg. 2000;93(Suppl 3):147–151.
31. Dhople AA, Adams JR, Maggio WW, et al. Long-term outcomes of gamma knife radiosurgery for classic trigeminal neuralgia: implications of treatment and critical review of the literature. J Neurosurg. 2009;111:351–358.
32. Marques A, Chassin O, Morand D, et al. Central pain modulation after sub-thalamic nucleus stimulation: a crossover randomized trial. Neurology. 2013;81:633–640.
33. Machado A, Ogrin M, Rosenow JM, Henderson JM. A 12-months prospective study of gasserian stimulation for trigeminal neuropathic pain. Stereotac Funct Neurosurg. 2007;85(5):216–224.