1.American Thoracic Society, Infectious Diseases Society of America. Guidelines for the management of adults with hospital-acquired, ventilator-associated, and healthcare-associated pneumonia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2005;171:388–416.
2.Vincent, JL, Bihari, DJ, Suter, PM, et al. The prevalence of nosocomial infection in intensive care units in Europe. JAMA 1995;274:639–44.
3.Melsen, WG, Rovers, MM, Koeman, M, et al. Estimating the attributable mortality of ventilator-associated pneumonia from randomized prevention studies. Crit Care Med 2011;39:1–7.
4.Johanson, WG, Pierce, AK, Sandford, JP, et al. Nosocomial respiratory infections with gram-negative bacilli. The significance of colonization of the respiratory tract. Ann Intern Med 1972;77:701–6.
5.Fabregas, N, Ewig, S, Torres, A, et al. Clinical diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia revisited: comparative validation using immediate post-mortem lung biopsies. Thorax 1999;54:867–73.
6.Shan, J, Chen, HL, Zhu, JH. Diagnostic accuracy of clinical pulmonary infection score for ventilator-associated pneumonia: a meta-analysis. Respir Care 2011;56:1087–94.
7.Horan, T, Gaynes, R. Surveillance of nosocomial infections. In: Mayhall, C, ed. Hospital Epidemiology and Infection Control, 3rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2004:1659–1702.
8.Berton, DC, Kalil, AC, Cavalcanti, M, et al. Quantitative versus qualitative cultures of respiratory secretions for clinical outcomes in patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012;CD006482.
9.Masterton, RG, Galloway, A, French, G, et al. Guidelines for the management of hospital-acquired pneumonia in the UK: report of the working party of hospital-acquired pneumonia of the British Society of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. J Antimicrob Chemother 2008;62:5–34.
10.Liberati, A, D’Amico, R, Pifferi, S, et al. Antibiotic prophylaxis to reduce respiratory tract infections and mortality in adults receiving intensive care. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009;CD000022.
12.Klompas, M, Speck, K, Howell, D, et al. Reappraisal of routine oral care with chlorhexidine gluconate for patients receiving mechanical ventilation. JAMA Intern Med 2014;174:751–61.
13.Kollef, MH, Afessa, B, Anzueto, A, et al. Silver-coated endotracheal tubes and incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia: the NASCENT randomized trial. JAMA 2008;300:805–13.
14.Muscedere, J, Rewa, O, McKechnie, K, et al. Subglottic secretion drainage for the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Crit Care Med 2011;39:1985–91.