Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2006
  • Online publication date: December 2009

20 - USPIO – enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of carotid atheroma

from Functional plaque imaging

Summary

Ultrasmall paramagnetic iron oxide (USPIO)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) imaging is a promising noninvasive method to identify high-risk atheromatous plaques. Iron oxide particles function as contrast-enhancing agents by creating a large dipolar magnetic field gradient that acts on the water molecules that diffuse close to the particles. Howarth reported that USPIO appeared to show a dual contrast effect with signal enhancement being seen in plaques with little inflammation and large fibrous caps. The contralateral side of symptomatic patients given USPIO were also analyzed. It was found that 95% patients showed bilateral USPIO uptake suggesting an inflammatory burden within their carotid atheroma bilaterally. Three different approaches have been adopted to make the seemly impossible task a reality: ultrashort echo times (uTE), inversion recovery on-resonance water suppression (IRON) imaging, and Gradient echo acquisition for superparamagnetic particles with positive contrast (GRASP).
References
Billotey, C., Wilhelm, C., Devaud, M., et al. (2003). Cell internalization of anionic maghemite nanoparticles: Quantitative effect on magnetic resonance imaging. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 49, 646–54.
Bond, R., Narayan, S. K., Rothwell, P. M. and Warlow, C. P. (2002). Clinical and radiographic risk factors for operative stroke and death in the European carotid surgery trial. European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, 23, 108–16.
Browatzki, M., Larsen, D., Pfeiffer, C. A., et al. (2005). Angiotensin II stimulates matrix metalloproteinase secretion in human vascular smooth muscle cells via nuclear factor-kappaB and activator protein 1 in a redox-sensitive manner. Journal of Vascular Research, 42, 415–23.
Bulte, J. W., Brooks, R. A., Moskowitz, B. M., Bryant, L. H. Jr. and Frank, J. A. (1998). T1 and T2 relaxometry of monocrystalline iron oxide nanoparticles (MION-46L): theory and experiment. Academic Radiology, 5 (Suppl. 1), S137–40; discussion S145–6.
Bulte, J. W., Brooks, R. A., Moskowitz, B. M., Bryant, L. H. Jr. and Frank, J. A. (1999). Relaxometry and magnetometry of the Magnetic resonance contrast agent MION-46L. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 42, 379–84.
Bulte, J. W., Jonge, M. W., Kamman, R. L., et al. (1992). Dextran-magnetite particles: contrast-enhanced Magnetic resonance imaging of blood-brain barrier disruption in a rat model. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 23, 215–23.
Bulte, J. W., Douglas, T., Mann, S., et al. (1995). Initial assessment of magnetoferritin biokinetics and proton relaxation enhancement in rats. Academic Radiology, 2, 871–8.
Bulte, J. W., Douglas, T., Witwer, B., et al. (2001). Magnetodendrimers allow endosomal magnetic labeling and in vivo tracking of stem cells. Nature Biotechnology, 19, 1141–7.
Bulte, J. W., Duncan, I. D. and Frank, J. A. (2002). In vivo magnetic resonance tracking of magnetically labeled cells after transplantation. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, 22, 899–907.
Chambon, C., Clement, O., Blanche, A., Schouman-Claeys, E. and Frija, G. (1993). Superparamagnetic iron oxides as positive Magnetic resonance contrast agents: in vitro and in vivo evidence. Magnetic Resonance in Imaging, 11, 509–19.
Chen, F., Eriksson, P., Hansson, G. K., et al. (2005). Expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 and its regulators in the unstable coronary atherosclerotic plaque. International Journal of Molecular Medicine, 15, 57–65.
Corot, C., Petry, K. G., Trivedi, R., et al. (2004). Macrophage imaging in central nervous system and in carotid atherosclerotic plaque using ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide in magnetic resonance imaging. Investigative Radiology, 39, 619–25.
Corot, C., Violas, X., Robert, P., Gagneur, G. and Port, M. (2003). Comparison of different types of blood pool agents (P792, MS325, UltrasoundPIO) in a rabbit Magnetic resonance angiography-like protocol. Investigative Radiology, 38, 311–19.
Crowe, L. (2005). Ex vivo Magnetic resonance imaging of atherosclerotic rabbit aorta labelled with UltrasoundPIO – Enhancement of iron loaded regions in UTE imaging. Proceedings of the International Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 13, 115.
Cunningham, E. J., Bond, R., Mehta, Z., et al. (2002). Long-term durability of carotid endarterectomy for symptomatic stenosis and risk factors for late postoperative stroke. Stroke, 33, 2658–63.
Dahnke, H. and Schaeffter, T. (2005). Limits of detection of SPIO at 3.0 T using T2 relaxometry. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 53, 1202–6.
Foster-Gareau, P., Heyn, C., Alejski, A. and Rutt, B. K. (2003). Imaging single mammalian cells with a 1.5 T clinical Magnetic resonance imaging scanner. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 49, 968–71.
Gaigalaite, V. (2002). Atherosclerosis-related stroke: risk factors, location, outcome. Medicina (Kaunas), 38, 617–23.
Halliday, A. W., Thomas, D. J. and Mansfield, A. O. (1995). The asymptomatic carotid surgery trial (Asymptomatic carotid surgery trial). International Angiology, 14, 18–20.
Henderson, R. D., Eliasziw, M., Fox, A. J., Rothwell, P. M. and Barnett, H. J. (2000). Angiographically defined collateral circulation and risk of stroke in patients with severe carotid artery stenosis. North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial (North American symptomatic carotid endarterectomy trial) Group. Stroke, 31, 128–32.
Hollander, M., Bots, M. L., Del Sol, A. I., et al. (2002). Carotid plaques increase the risk of stroke and subtypes of cerebral infarction in asymptomatic elderly: the Rotterdam study. Circulation, 105, 2872–7.
Kiechl, S. and Willeit, J. (1999). The natural course of atherosclerosis. Part II: vascular remodeling. Bruneck Study Group. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology, 19, 1491–8.
Kong, Y. Z., Huang, X. R., Ouyang, X., et al. (2005). Evidence for vascular macrophage migration inhibitory factor in destabilization of human atherosclerotic plaques. Cardiovascular Research, 65, 272–82.
Kooi, M. E., Cappendijk, V. C., Cleutjens, K. B., et al. (2003). Accumulation of ultrasmall superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide in human atherosclerotic plaques can be detected by in vivo magnetic resonance imaging. Circulation, 107, 2453–8.
Littlewood, T. D. and Bennett, M. R. (2003). Apoptotic cell death in atherosclerosis. Current Opinion in Lipidology, 14, 469–75.
Mani, V., Briley-Saebo, K. C., Itskovich, V. V., Samber, D. D. and Fayad, Z. A. (2006). Gradient echo acquisition for superparamagnetic particles with positive contrast (GRASP): sequence characterization in membrane and glass superparamagnetic iron oxide phantoms at 1.5T and 3T. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 55, 126–35.
May, A. E., Schmidt, R., Bulbul, B. O., et al. (2005). Plasminogen and matrix metalloproteinase activation by enzymatically modified low density lipoproteins in monocytes and smooth muscle cells. Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 93, 710–15.
Naylor, A. R. (2004). The Asymptomatic Carotid Surgery Trial: bigger study, better evidence. British Journal of Surgery, 91, 787–9.
Naylor, A. R., Rothwell, P. M. and Bell, P. R. (2003). Overview of the principal results and secondary analyses from the European and North American randomised trials of endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid stenosis. European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, 26, 115–29.
Newby, A. C. (2005). Dual role of matrix metalloproteinases (matrixins) in intimal thickening and atherosclerotic plaque rupture. Physiological Reviews, 85, 1–31.
Ono, K., Watanabe, S., Daimon, Y., et al. (2001). Diagnosis of carotid artery atheroma by magnetic resonance imaging. Japanese Circulation Journal, 65, 139–44.
Pasterkamp, G., Schoneveld, A. H., Hillen, B., et al. (1998). Is plaque formation in the common carotid artery representative for plaque formation and luminal stenosis in other atherosclerotic peripheral arteries? A post mortem study. Atherosclerosis, 137, 205–10.
Pulvirenti, T. J., Yin, J. L. and Chaufour, X. (2000). P2X (purinergic) receptor redistribution in rabbit aorta following injury to endothelial cells and cholesterol feeding. Journal of Neurocytology, 29, 623–31.
Robless, P., Emson, M., Thomas, D., Mansfield, A. and Halliday, A. (1998). Are we detecting and operating on high risk patients in the asymptomatic carotid surgery trial? The Asymptomatic Carotid Surgery Trial Collaborators. European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, 16, 59–64.
Ross, R. (1999). Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease. American Heart Journal, 138, S419–20.
Rothwell, P. M. and Warlow, C. P. (1999). Prediction of benefit from carotid endarterectomy in individual patients: a risk-modelling study. European Carotid Surgery Trialists' Collaborative Group. Lancet, 353, 2105–10.
Rothwell, P. M., Eliasziw, M., Gutnikov, S. A., et al. (2003a). Analysis of pooled data from the randomised controlled trials of endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid stenosis. Lancet, 361, 107–16.
Rothwell, P. M., Gutnikov, S. A. and Warlow, C. P. (2003b). Reanalysis of the final results of the European Carotid Surgery Trial. Stroke, 34, 514–23.
Rothwell, P. M. and Goldstein, L. B. (2004). Carotid endarterectomy for asymptomatic carotid stenosis: asymptomatic carotid surgery trial. Stroke, 35, 2425–7.
Schmitz, S. A. (2003). Iron-oxide-enhanced Magnetic resonance imaging of inflammatory atherosclerotic lesions: overview of experimental and initial clinical results. Rofo, 175, 469–76.
Schmitz, S. A., Taupitz, M., Wagner, S., et al. (2002). Iron-oxide-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of atherosclerotic plaques: postmortem analysis of accuracy, inter-observer agreement, and pitfalls. Investigation Radiology, 37, 405–11.
Schmitz, S. A., Taupitz, M., Wagner, S., et al. (2001). Magnetic resonance imaging of atherosclerotic plaques using superparamagnetic iron oxide particles. Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 14, 355–61.
Solini, A., Santini, E. and Ferrannini, E. (2005). Enhanced angiotensin II-mediated effects in fibroblasts of patients with familial hypercholesterolemia. Journal of Hypertension, 23, 367–74.
Stary, H. C. (1994). Changes in components and structure of atherosclerotic lesions developing from childhood to middle age in coronary arteries. Basic Research in Cardiology, 89 (Suppl. 1), 17–32.
Stary, H. C. (2000a). Lipid and macrophage accumulations in arteries of children and the development of atherosclerosis. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 72, 1297S–1306S.
Stary, H. C. (2000b). Natural history and histological classification of atherosclerotic lesions: an update. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology, 20, 1177–8.
Stary, H. C. (2001). The development of calcium deposits in atherosclerotic lesions and their persistence after lipid regression. American Journal of Cardiology, 88, 16E–19E.
Stary, H. C., Chandler, A. B., Dinsmore, R. E., et al. (1995). A definition of advanced types of atherosclerotic lesions and a histological classification of atherosclerosis. A report from the Committee on Vascular Lesions of the Council on Arteriosclerosis, American Heart Association. Circulation, 92, 1355–74.
Stary, H. C., Chandler, A. B., Glagov, S., et al. (1994). A definition of initial, fatty streak, and intermediate lesions of atherosclerosis. A report from the Committee on Vascular Lesions of the Council on Arteriosclerosis, American Heart Association. Arteriosclerosis and Thrombosis, 14, 840–56.
Stehbens, W. E. (2002). The fatigue hypothesis of plaque rupture and atherosclerosis. Medical Hypotheses, 58, 359–60.
Stoneman, V. E. and Bennett, M. R. (2004). Role of apoptosis in atherosclerosis and its therapeutic implications. Clinical Science (London), 107, 343–54.
Stuber, M. (2005). Shedding light on the dark spot with IRON – a method that generates positive contrast in the presence of superparamagnetic nanoparticles. Proceedings of the International Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 13, 2608.
Tang, D., Yang, C., Kobayashi, S. and Ku, D. N. (2001). Steady flow and wall compression in stenotic arteries: a three-dimensional thick-wall model with fluid-wall interactions. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, 123, 548–57.
Tang, D., Yang, C., Zheng, J., et al. (2004). 3D Magnetic resonance imaging-based multicomponent FSI models for atherosclerotic plaques. Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 32, 947–60.
Trivedi, R., U-King-Im, J. and Gillard, J. (2003). Accumulation of ultrasmall superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide in human atherosclerotic plaque. Circulation, 108, e140; author reply e140.
Trivedi, R. A., Im, U. K., Graves, M. J., et al. (2004a). In vivo detection of macrophages in human carotid atheroma: temporal dependence of ultrasmall superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide-enhanced Magnetic resonance imaging. Stroke, 35, 1631–5.
Trivedi, R. A., Im, U. K., Graves, M. J., Kirkpatrick, P. J. and Gillard, J. H. (2004b). Noninvasive imaging of carotid plaque inflammation. Neurology, 63, 187–8.
Wu, H. C., Chen, S. Y., Shroff, S. G. and Carroll, J. D. (2003). Stress analysis using anatomically realistic coronary tree. Medical Physics, 30, 2927–36.
Yarnykh, V. L. and Yuan, C. (2002). T1-insensitive flow suppression using quadruple inversion-recovery. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 48, 899–905.
Zhang, S., Hatsukami, T. S., Polissar, N. L., Han, C. and Yuan, C. (2001). Comparison of carotid vessel wall area measurements using three different contrast-weighted black blood Magnetic resonance imaging techniques. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 19, 795–802.