Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 3
  • Print publication year: 2007
  • Online publication date: March 2008

14 - Warfare and the state

from Part II - The Hellenistic World and the Roman Republic


The defining element of the Hellenistic world is most certainly warfare. With his newfound sources of wealth Philip was able to bolster his already large native force with troops of every kind. Siege trains were relatively new in Greek warfare, and had previously only been employed with any effect by Dionysius I of Sicily; afterwards, Syracuse continued to be a centre of the study of siege technology, and this process culminated with the machines of Archimedes in the third century. One of the main characteristics of warfare among the Diadochoi was the fact they were not yet tied to states and were largely fighting over the empire that had been left by Alexander. The economic and administrative forms of Roman imperialism that were now taking place in the provinces could prove more lucrative and less dangerous for the ruling classes than military campaigning.
Alcock, S. E. (1993) Graecia Capta: The Landscapes of Roman Greece. Cambridge.
Alföldi, A. (1964) Early Rome and the Latins. Ann Arbor.
Allen, R. E. (1983) The Attalid Kingdom: A Constitutional History. Oxford.
Aperghis, M. (2001) ‘Production-population-taxation-coinage: a model for the Seleukid economy’, in , Archibald et al. (2001).
Austin, M. M. (1981) The Hellenistic World from Alexander to the Roman Conquest. Cambridge.
Austin, M. M. (1986) ‘Hellenistic kings, war and the economy’, Classical Quarterly 36:.
Badian, E. (1958) Foreign Clientelae bc. Oxford.
Badian, E. (1968) Roman Imperialism in the Late Republic. Oxford.
Badian, E. (1972) Publicans and Sinners: Private Enterprise in the Service of the Roman Republic. Oxford.
Bagnall, R. S. (1976) The Administration of the Ptolemaic Possessions Outside Egypt. Leiden.
Bagnall, R. S. (1984) ‘The origins of Ptolemaic cleruchs’, Bulletin of the American Society of Papyrologists 21:.
Bar-Kochva, B. (1976) The Seleucid Army: Organization and Tactics in Great Campaigns. Cambridge.
Bellinger, A. R. (1963) Essays on the Coinage of Alexander the Great. New York.
Beston, P. (2000) ‘Hellenistic military leadership’, in van Wees, (2000b).
Bikerman, E. J. (1938) Institutions des Séleucides. Paris.
Billows, R. A. (1990) Antigonos the One-Eyed and the Creation of the Hellenistic State. Berkeley and Los Angeles.
Billows, R. A. (1995a) Kings and Colonists: Aspects of Macedonian Imperialism. Leiden.
Bosworth, A. B. (1980–95) A Historical Commentary on Arrian’s History of Alexander. Vol. I (1980). Vol. II (1995). Oxford.
Bosworth, A. B. (1988a) Conquest and Empire: The Reign of Alexander the Great. Cambridge.
Bosworth, A. B. (1994) ‘Alexander the Great, Part 2: Greece and the conquered territories’, Cambridge Ancient History VI.
Bosworth, A. B. (2002) The Legacy of Alexander: Politics, Warfare and Propaganda under the Successors. Oxford.
Bowman, A. K. (1996) Egypt After the Pharaohs, 332 BC–AD 642: From Alexander to the Arab Conquest, 2nd edn. Oxford.
Bringmann, K. (1993) ‘The king as benefactor: some remarks on ideal kingship in the age of Hellenism’, in , Bulloch et al. (1993).
Brunt, P. A. (1962) ‘The equites in the late Republic’, in , Seager (1962).
Brunt, P. A. (1971) Italian Manpower, 225 BC–ad 14. Oxford.
Brunt, P. A. (1988) The Fall of the Roman Republic and Related Essays. Oxford.
Cawkwell, G. L. (1994) ‘The deification of Alexander the Great: a note’, in Worthington, I. (ed.), Ventures into Greek History (Oxford).
Cornell, T. J. (1989a) ‘The conquest of Italy’, Cambridge Ancient History VII2.2.
Cornell, T. J. (1995) The Beginnings of Rome: Italy and Rome from the Bronze Age to the Punic Wars, c. 1000–264 BC. London and New York.
Cornell, T. J. (1996) ‘Hannibal’s legacy: the effects of the Hannibalic War on Italy’, in Cornell, et al. (1996).
Crawford, D. J. (1971) Kerkeosiris: An Egyptian Village in the Ptolemaic Period. Cambridge.
David, J.-M. (1996) The Roman Conquest of Italy. Oxford.
Davies, J. K. (2001a) ‘Hellenistic economics in the post-Finley era’, in Archibald, et al. (2001).
Droysen, J. G. (1836–78) Geschichte des Hellenismus (6 vols.). Hamburg.
Dyson, S. L. (1992) Community and Society in Roman Italy. Baltimore.
Eckstein, A. M. (2006) Mediterranean Anarchy, Interstate War and the Rise of Rome (Berkeley and Los Angeles)
Erdkamp, P. (1998) Hunger and the Sword: Warfare and Food Supply in Roman Republican Wars, 264–30 BC. Amsterdam.
Errington, R. M. (1990) A History of Macedonia. Berkeley.
Finley, M. I. (1999) The Ancient Economy, 3rd edn. Berkeley.
Frank, T. (1914) Roman Imperialism. New York.
Fraser, P. M. (1972) Ptolemaic Alexandria (3 vols.). Oxford.
Frézouls, E. (1983) ‘Sur l’historiographie de l’impérialisme romain’, Ktema 8:.
Gabba, E. (ed.) (1976) Republican Rome: The Army and the Allies. Oxford.
Garlan, Y. (1994) ‘Warfare’, Cambridge Ancient History VI.
Griffith, G. T. (1935) The Mercenaries of the Hellenistic World. Cambridge.
Gruen, E. S. (1984) The Hellenistic World and the Coming of Rome (2 vols.). Berkeley and Los Angeles.
Gruen, E. S. (1985) ‘The coronation of the Diadochoi’, in Eadie, and Ober, (1985).
Hammond, N. G. L., Griffith, G. T. and Walbank, F. W. (1972–88) A History of Macedonia. Vol. I: Historical Geography and Pre-History (1972). Vol. II: bc (1979). Vol. III: BC (1988). Oxford.
Harris, W. V. (1979) War and Imperialism in Republican Rome, 327–70 BC. Oxford.
Harris, W. V. (1984a) ‘Current directions in the study of imperialism’, in Harris, (1984b).
Harris, W. V. (ed.) (1984b) The Imperialism of Mid-Republican Rome (Papers and Monographs of the American Academy in Rome 29). Rome.
Heinen, H. (1984) ‘The Syrian-Egyptian wars and the new kingdoms of Asia Minor’, Cambridge Ancient History VII. g1.
Herman, E. (1989) ‘L’impérialisme Romain republicain: approches historiographiques et approches d’analyse’, Athenaeum 67:.
Herman, G. (1980) ‘The “friends” of the early Hellenistic rulers: servants or officials?’, Talanta 12:.
Herman, G. (1997) ‘The court society in the Hellenistic age’, in , Cartledge et al. (1997).
Hermon, E. (1983) ‘Concept de pouvoir et concept d’empire à l’époque républicaine à Rome: pour une analyse linguistique et historique’, Ktema 8:.
Hopkins, K. (2002) ‘Rome, taxes, rents and trade’, in , Scheidel and , von Reden (2002).
Hoyos, B. D. (1998) Unplanned Wars: The Origins of the First and Second Punic Wars. Berlin.
Karlsson, L. (1993) ‘Did the Romans allow the Sicilian Greeks to fortify their cities in the third century BC?’, Acta Hyperborea 5:.
Klose, P. (1972) Die Völkerrechtliche Ordnung der Hellenistischen Staatenwelt in der Zeit von 280 bis 168 v. Chr. Munich.
Krasilnikoff, J. A. (1996) ‘Mercenary soldiering in the west and the development of the army of Rome’, Analecta Romana Instituti Danici 13:.
Larsen, J. A. O. (1935) ‘Was Greece free between 196–146 BC?’, Classical Philology 30:.
Launey, M. (1949–50) Recherches sur les armées hellénistiques (2 vols.). Paris.
Lesquier, J. (1911) Les institutions militaires de l’Égypte sous les Lagides. Paris.
Lintott, A. W. (1993) Imperium Romanum: Politics and Administration. London.
Lintott, A. W. (1994) ‘The Roman empire and its problems in the late second century’, Cambridge Ancient History IX2.
Lloyd, A. B. (1975–88) Herodotus Book II. Introduction (1975); Commentary 1–98 (1976); Commentary 99–182 (1988). Leiden.
Mattha, G. (ed.) (1975) The Demotic Legal Code of Hermopolis West. Cairo.
Millar, F. G. B. (1984a) ‘The Mediterranean and the Roman revolution: politics, war and the economy’, Past and Present 102:.
Millett, P. (1993) ‘Warfare, economy and democracy in classical Athens’, in , Rich and , Shipley (1993a).
Momigliano, A. (1986) ‘The rise of the plebs in archaic Rome’, in , Raaflaub (1986).
Morley, N. (1996) Metropolis and Hinterland: The City of Rome and the Italian Economy, 200 BC to AD 200. Cambridge.
Musti, D. (1984) ‘Syria and the East’, Cambridge Ancient History VII. 1.
Nicolet, C. (1960) ‘Consul togatus: remarques sur le vocabulaire politique de Cicéron et de Tite-Live’, Revue des études latines 38:.
Nicolet, C. (1969) ‘Armée et société à Rome sous la république: à propos de l’ ordre équestre’, in Brisson, (1969b).
North, J. A. (1981) ‘The development of Roman imperialism’, Journal of Roman Studies 71:.
Panagopoulou, K. (2001) ‘The Antigonids: patterns of a royal economy’, in Archibald, et al. (2001).
Parke, H. W. (1933) Greek Mercenary Soldiers: From the Earliest Times to the Battle of Ipsus. Oxford.
Pédech, P. (1964). La méthode historique de Polybe. Paris.
Préaux, C. (1939) L’économie royale des Lagides. Brussels.
Préaux, C. (1989) Le monde hellénistiquee: la Grèce et l’Orient de la mort d’Alexandre à la conquête romaine de la Grèce, 323–146 av J-C., 2nd edn (2 vols.). Paris.
Prichard, R. T. (1970) ‘Cicero and the Lex Hieronica’, Historia 19:.
Raaflaub, K. A. (1986a) ‘From protection and defense to offense and participation: stages in the conflict of the orders’, in Raaflaub, (1986b).
Rankov, N. B. (1996) ‘The Second Punic War at sea’, in Cornell, et al. (1996).
Rathbone, D. W. (1981) ‘The development of agriculture in the “Ager Cosanus” during the Roman Republic: problems of evidence and interpretation’, Journal of Roman Studies 71:.
Rathbone, D. W. (2002) ‘The ancient economy and Graeco-Roman Egypt’, in Scheidel, and Reden, (2002).
Reger, G. (2002) ‘The price histories of some imported goods on independent Delos’, in Scheidel, and Reden, (2002).
Rich, J. W. (1993) ‘Fear, greed and glory: the causes of Roman war-making in the middle Republic’, in Rich, and Shipley, (1993b).
Rich, J. W. (1996) ‘The origins of the Second Punic War’, in Cornell, et al. (1996).
Richter, R. O. (1884) ‘Mittheilungen aus Cypern’, Mitteilungen des deutschen archäologischen Instituts (Athen. Abt.) 9:.
Robert, J, . and Robert, L. (1977) ‘Egypte et Nubie: no. 566’, Bulletin épigraphique 8 (1974–7).
Rosenstein, N. (1999) ‘Republican Rome’, in Raaflaub, and Rosenstein, (1999).
Rostovtzeff, M. I. (1941) The Social and Economic History of the Hellenistic World (3 vols.). Oxford.
Roy, J. (1998a) ‘The masculinity of the Hellenistic king’, in Foxhall, and Salmon, (1998).
Serrati, J. (2000) ‘Garrisons and grain: Sicily between the Punic Wars’, in Smith, and Serrati, (2000).
Sherwin-White, A. N. (1980) ‘Rome the Aggressor?’, Journal of Roman Studies 70:.
Shipley, G. (2000) The Greek World after Alexander, 323–30 BC. London.
Tagliamonte, G. (1994) I figli di Marte: mobilità, mercenari e mercenariato Italici in Magna Grecia e Sicilia. Rome.
Tarn, W. W. (1985) The Greeks of Bactria and India, 3rd edn. Chicago.
Thiel, J. H. (1946) Studies on the History of Roman Sea-Power in Republican Times. Amsterdam.
Thiel, J. H. (1954) A History of Roman Sea Power before the Second Punic War. Amsterdam.
Thompson (Crawford), D. J. (1983) ‘Nile grain transport under the Ptolemies’, in Garnsey, et al. (1983).
Thompson (Crawford), D. J. (2000) ‘The Greek frontier: settlers in the south Fayum’, lecture delivered at the University of California, Berkeley, published at <>, September 2000.
Toynbee, A. J. (1965) Hannibal’s Legacy (2 vols.). Oxford.
Turner, E. G. (1984) ‘Ptolemaic Egypt’, Cambridge Ancient History VII2.I.
Uebel, F. (1968) Die Kleruchen Ägyptens unter den Ersten sechs Ptolemäern. Berlin.
van Groningen, B. A. (1933) Aristote. Le second livre de l’Economique. Leiden.
van Wees, H. (1998b) ‘The law of gratitude: reciprocity in anthropological theory’, in Gill, et al. (1998).
Versnel, H. S. (1970) Triumphus: An Inquiry into the Origin, Development and Meaning of the Roman Triumph. Leiden.
Walbank, F. W. (1984) ‘Monarchies and monarchic ideas’, Cambridge Ancient History VII2.1.
Will, É. (1979–82) Histoire politique du monde hellénistique, 323–30 av. J-C., 2nd edn (2 vols.). Nancy.