Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 2
  • Cited by
    This chapter has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Heide, Mats von Platen, Sara Simonsson, Charlotte and Falkheimer, Jesper 2018. Expanding the Scope of Strategic Communication: Towards a Holistic Understanding of Organizational Complexity. International Journal of Strategic Communication, Vol. 12, Issue. 4, p. 452.

    Bromiley, Philip and Rau, Devaki 2016. Missing the point of the practice-based view. Strategic Organization, Vol. 14, Issue. 3, p. 260.

  • Print publication year: 2015
  • Online publication date: October 2015

Introduction: what is strategy as practice?


Strategy as practice as a research approach

Since early 2000 strategy as practice (SAP) has emerged as a distinctive approach for studying strategic management, strategic decision-making, strategizing, strategy-making and strategy work (Whittington 1996; Johnson, Melin and Whittington 2003; Jarzabkowski, Balogun and Seidl 2007). In recent years SAP research has confirmed its vitality and fulfilled its promise by being more lively than ever (Golsorkhi et al. 2010; Vaara and Whittington 2012; Balogun et al. 2014; Seidl and Whittington 2014). This second edition of the handbook confirms the strong enthusiasm for the generation of new ideas about the way practitioners are doing their strategy work. Strategy-as-practice research focuses on the micro-level social activities, processes and practices that characterize organizational strategy and strategizing. This provides not only an organizational perspective into strategic decision-making but also a strategic angle for examining the process of organizing, and thereby serves as a useful research programme and social movement for connecting contemporary strategic management research with practice-oriented organizational studies.

Strategy as practice can be regarded as an alternative to the mainstream strategy research via its attempt to shift attention away from a ‘mere’ focus on the effects of strategies on performance alone to a more comprehensive, in-depth analysis of what actually takes place in strategy formulation, planning and implementation and other activities that deal with the thinking and doing of strategy. In other words, SAP research is interested in the ‘black box’ of strategy work that once led the research agenda in strategic management research (Mintzberg 1973; Mintzberg and Waters 1985; Pettigrew 1973), but has thereafter been replaced by other issues, not least because of the increasing dominance of the micro-economic approach and a methodological preoccupation with statistical analysis. Because of its micro-level focus, studies following the strategy-as-practice agenda tend to draw on theories and apply methods that differ from the common practices of strategy scholars. In this way, SAP research can contribute to the evolution of strategic management as a discipline and body of knowledge with new theories and methodological choices.

Recommend this book

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

Cambridge Handbook of Strategy as Practice
  • Online ISBN: 9781139681032
  • Book DOI:
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to *
Ambrosini, V., Bowman, C., and Burton-Taylor, S. (2007), ‘Inter-team coordination activities as a source of customer satisfaction’, Human Relations, 60/1: 59–98.
Asmuß, B., and Oshima, S. (2012), ‘Negotiation of entitlement in proposal sequences’, Discourse Studies, 14/1: 67–86.
Balogun, J., Huff, A. S., and Johnson, P. (2003), ‘Three responses to the methodological challenges of studying strategizing’, Journal of Management Studies, 40/1: 197–224.
Balogun, J., Jacobs, C. D., Jarzabkowski, P., Mantere, S., and Vaara, E. (2014), ‘Placing strategy discourse in context: sociomateriality, sensemaking, and power’, Journal of Management Studies, 51/2: 175–201.
Balogun, J., and Johnson, G. (2004), ‘Organizational restructuring and middle manager sensemaking’, Academy of Management Journal, 47/4: 523–49.
Balogun, J. (2005), ‘From intended strategies to unintended outcomes: the impact of change recipient sensemaking’, Organization Studies, 26/11: 1573–601.
Barry, D., and Elmes, M. (1997), ‘Strategy retold: toward a narrative view of strategic discourse’, Academy of Management Review, 22/2: 429–52.
Beech, N., and Johnson, P. (2005), ‘Discourses of disrupted identities in the practice of strategic change’, Journal of Organizational Change Management, 18/1: 31–47.
Bourdieu, P. (1990), The Logic of Practice. Cambridge: Polity.
Bourdieu, P. (1994), Raisons pratiques: Sur la théorie de l'action. Paris: Éditions du Seuil.
Bourque, N., and Johnson, G. (2008), ‘Strategy workshops and “away-days” as ritual’, in Hodgkinson, G. P., and Starbuck, W. (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Organizational Decision Making: 552–64. Oxford University Press.
Brown, J. S., and Duguid, P. (1991), ‘Organizational learning and communities of practice: toward a unified view of working, learning and innovation’, Organization Science, 2/1: 40–57.
Brown, A. D., and Thompson, E. R. (2013), ‘A narrative approach to strategy-as-practice’, Business History, 55/7: 1143–67.
Brundin, E., and Melin, L. (2006), ‘Unfolding the dynamics of emotions: how emotion drives or counteracts strategizing’, International Journal of Work Organization and Emotion, 1/3: 277–302.
Brundin, E., and Nordqvist, M. (2008), ‘Beyond facts and figures: the role of emotions in boardroom dynamics’, Corporate Governance, 16/4: 326–41.
Burgelman, R. A. (1983), ‘A process model of internal corporate venturing in the diversified major firm’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 28/2: 223–44.
Campbell-Hunt, C. (2007), ‘Complexity in practice’, Human Relations, 60/1: 793–823.
Carter, C. (2013), ‘The age of strategy: strategy, organizations and society’, Business History, 55/7: 1047–57.
Carter, C., Clegg, S., and Kornberger, M. (2008), ‘Strategy as practice?’, Strategic Organization, 6/1: 83–99.
Carter, C. (2010), ‘Re-framing strategy: power, politics and accounting’, Accounting, Auditing and Accountability Journal, 23/5: 573–94.
Chia, R., and Holt, R. (2006), ‘Strategy as practical coping: a Heideggerian perspective’, Organization Studies, 27/5: 635–55.
Chia, R. (2009), Strategy without Design: The Silent Efficacy of Indirect Action. Cambridge University Press.
Chia, R., and MacKay, B. (2007), ‘Post-processual challenges for the emerging strategy-as-practice perspective: discovering strategy in the logic of practice’, Human Relations, 60/1: 217–42.
Clarke, I., Kwon, W., and Wodak, R. (2012), ‘A context-sensitive approach to analysing talk in strategy meetings’, British Journal of Management, 23/4: 455–73.
Clegg, S., Carter, C., and Kornberger, M. (2004), ‘Get up, I feel like being a strategy machine’, European Management Review, 1/1: 21–8.
De Certeau, M. (1984), The Practice of Everyday Life. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Cornut, F., Giroux, H., and Langley, A. (2012), ‘The strategic plan as a genre’, Discourse and Communication, 6/1: 21–54.
Daigle, P., and Rouleau, L. (2010), ‘Strategic plans in arts organizations: a compromising tool between artistic and managerial values’, International Journal of Arts Management, 12/3: 13–30.
Dameron, S., and Torset, C. (2014), ‘The discursive construction of strategists’ subjectivities: towards a paradox lens on strategy’, Journal of Management Studies, 51/2: 291–319.
Denis, J.-L., Dompierre, G., Langley, A., and Rouleau, L. (2011), ‘Escalating indecision: between reification and strategic ambiguity’, Organization Science, 22/1: 225–44.
Denis, J.-L., Langley, A., and Rouleau, L. (2007), ‘Strategizing in pluralistic contexts: rethinking theoretical frames’, Human Relations, 60/1: 179–215.
Dick, P., and Collings, D. G. (2014), ‘Discipline and punish? Strategy discourse, senior manager subjectivity and contradictory power effects’, Human Relations, 67/12: 1513–36.
Dewey, J. (1938), Experience and Education. New York: Touchstone.
Dreyfus, H. (1991), Being-in-the-World: A Commentary on Heidegger's Being and Time, Division 1. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Eisenhardt, K. (1989), ‘Making fast strategic decisions in high-velocity environments’, Academy of Management Journal, 32/3: 543–76.
Engeström, Y., Miettinen, R., and Punamäki, R.-L. (eds.) (1999), Perspectives on Activity Theory. Cambridge University Press.
Ezzamel, M., and Willmott, H. (2008), ‘Strategy as discourse in a global retailer: a supplement to rationalist and interpretive accounts’, Organization Studies, 29/2: 191–217.
Ezzamel, M. (2010), ‘Strategy and strategizing: a poststructuralist perspective’, in Baum, J. A. C., and Lampel, J. (eds.), Advances in Strategic Management, vol. XXVII, The Globalization of Strategy Research: 75–109. Bingley, UK: Emerald.
Fairclough, N. (2003), Analyzing Discourse: Textual Analysis for Social Research. London: Routledge.
Fauré, B., and Rouleau, L. (2011), ‘The strategic competence of accountants and middle managers in budget making’, Accounting, Organizations and Society, 36/3: 167–82.
Feldman, M. S., and Orlikowski, W. J. (2011), ‘Theorizing practice and practicing theory’, Organization Science, 22/5: 1240–53.
Fenton, C., and Langley, A. (2011), ‘Strategy as practice and the narrative turn’, Organization Studies, 32/9: 1171–96.
Floyd, S., Cornelissen, J., Wright, M., and Delios, A. (2011), ‘Processes and practices of strategizing and organizing: review, development, and the role of bridging and umbrella constructs’, Journal of Management Studies, 48/5: 933–52.
Foucault, M. (1977), Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. New York: Pantheon Books.
Foucault, M. (1980), Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings 1972–1977, ed. Gordon, C.New York: Pantheon Books.
Giddens, A. (1984), The Constitution of Society. Cambridge: Polity.
Gioia, D. A., and Chittipeddi, K. (1991), ‘Sensemaking and sensegiving in strategic change initiation’, Strategic Management Journal, 12/6: 433–48.
Giraudeau, M. (2008), ‘The drafts of strategy: opening up plans and their uses’, Long Range Planning, 41/3: 291–308.
Golsorkhi, D., Rouleau, L., Seidl, D., and Vaara, E. (eds.) (2010), Cambridge Handbook of Strategy as Practice. Cambridge University Press.
Guérard, S., Langley, A., and Seidl, D. (2013), ‘Rethinking the concept of performance in strategy research: towards a performativity perspective’, M@n@gement, 16/5: 566–78.
Hardy, C., and Thomas, R. (2014), ‘Strategy, discourse and practice: the intensification of power’, Journal of Management Studies, 51/2: 320–48.
Healey, M. P., Hodgkinson, G. P., Whittington, R., and Johnson, G. (forthcoming), ‘Off to plan or out to lunch? Relationships between design characteristics and outcomes of strategy workshops’, British Journal of Management.
Hendry, J. (2000), ‘Strategic decision making, discourse and strategy as social practice’, Journal of Management Studies, 37/7: 955–77.
Hendry, J., and Seidl, D. (2003), ‘The structure and significance of strategic episodes: social systems theory and the routine practices of strategic change’, Journal of Management Studies, 40/1: 175–96.
Hendry, K. P., Kiel, G. C., and Nicholson, G. (2010), ‘How boards strategise: a strategy as practice view’, Long Range Planning, 43/1: 33–56.
Heracleous, L., and Jacobs, C. D. (2008), ‘Understanding organizations through embodied metaphors’, Organizations Studies, 29/1: 45–78.
Herepath, A. (2014), ‘In the loop: a realist approach to structure and agency in the practice of strategy’, Organization Studies, 35/6: 857–79.
Hodgkinson, G. P., and Clarke, I. (2007), ‘Conceptual note: exploring the cognitive significance of organizational strategizing: a dual-process framework and research agenda’, Human Relations, 60/1: 243–55.
Hodgkinson, G. P., Whittington, R., Johnson, G., and Schwarz, M. (2006), ‘The role of strategy workshops in strategy development processes: formality, communication, co-ordination and inclusion’, Long Range Planning, 39/5: 479–96.
Hoon, C. (2007), ‘Committees as strategic practice: the role of strategic conversation in a public administration’, Human Relations, 60/6: 921–52.
Huff, A. S., Neyer, A.-K., and Möslein, K. (2010), ‘Broader methods to support new insights into strategizing’, in Golsorkhi, D., Rouleau, L., Seidl, D., and Vaara, E. (eds.), Cambridge Handbook of Strategy as Practice: 201–16. Cambridge University Press.
Hydle, K. (forthcoming), ‘Temporal and spatial dimensions of strategizing’, Organization Studies.
Jarzabkowski, P. (2003), ‘Strategic practices: an activity theory perspective on continuity and change’, Journal of Management Studies, 40/1: 23–55.
Jarzabkowski, P. (2004), ‘Strategy as practice: recursive, adaptive and practices-in-use’, Organization Studies, 25/4: 529–60.
Jarzabkowski, P. (2005), Strategy as Practice: An Activity-Based Approach. London: Sage.
Jarzabkowski, P. (2008), ‘Shaping strategy as a structuration process’, Academy of Management Journal, 51/4: 621–50.
Jarzabkowski, P., and Balogun, J. (2009), ‘The practice and process of delivering integration through strategic planning’, Journal of Management Studies, 46/8: 1255–88.
Jarzabkowski, P., Balogun, J., and Seidl, D. (2007), ‘Strategizing: the challenges of a practice perspective’, Human Relations, 60/1: 5–27.
Jarzabkowski, P., and Kaplan, S. (2015), ‘Strategy tools-in-use: a framework for understanding “technologies of rationality” in practice’, Strategic Management Journal, 36/4: 537–58.
Jarzabkowski, P., Matthiesen, J., and Van de Ven, A. H. (2009), ‘Doing which work? A practice approach to institutional pluralism’, in Lawrence, T., Leca, B., and Suddaby, R. (eds.), Institutional Work: Actors and Agency in Institutional Studies of Organizations: 284–316. Cambridge University Press.
Jarzabkowski, P., and Seidl, D. (2008), ‘The role of meetings in the social practice of strategy’, Organization Studies, 29/11: 1391–426.
Jarzabkowski, P., and Spee, P. (2009), ‘Strategy-as-practice: a review and future directions for the field’, International Journal of Management Reviews, 11/1: 69–95.
Jarzabkowski, P., Spee, P., and Smets, M. (2013), ‘Material artifacts: practices for doing strategy with “stuff”’, European Management Journal, 31/1: 41–54.
Jarzabkowski, P., and Wilson, D. C. (2002), ‘Top teams and strategy in a UK university’, Journal of Management Studies, 39/3: 355–81.
Jarzabkowski, P. (2006), ‘Actionable strategy knowledge: a practice perspective’, European Management Journal, 24/3: 348–67.
Johnson, G., and Huff, A. S. (1998), ‘Everyday innovation and everyday strategy’, in Hamel, G., Prahalad, C. K., Thomas, H., and O'Neal, D. (eds.), Strategic Flexibility: Managing in a Turbulent Environment: 3–27. Chichester, UK: John Wiley.
Johnson, G., Langley, A., Melin, L., and Whittington, R. (2007), Strategy as Practice: Research Directions and Resources. Cambridge University Press.
Johnson, G., Melin, L., and Whittington, R. (2003), ‘Guest editors’ introduction: micro strategy and strategizing: towards an activity-based view’, Journal of Management Studies, 40/1: 3–22.
Johnson, G., Prashantham, S., Floyd, S., and Bourque, N. (2010), ‘The ritualization of strategy workshops’, Organization Studies, 31/12: 1589–618.
Jørgensen, B., and Messner, M. (2010), ‘Accounting and strategising: a case study from new product development’, Accounting, Organizations and Society, 35/2: 184–204.
Kaplan, S. (2008), ‘Framing contests: strategy making under uncertainty’, Organization Science, 19/5: 729–52.
Kaplan, S. (2011), ‘Strategy and PowerPoint: an inquiry into the epistemic culture and machinery of strategy making’, Organization Science, 22/2: 320–46.
Kaplan, S., and Orlikowski, W. J. (2013), ‘Temporal work in strategy making’, Organization Science, 24/4: 965–95.
Katzberg, G. (2013), ‘Separation and reconnection: episodic organizational arenas in the strategic process’, Journal of Strategy and Management, 6/3: 212–28.
King, B. (2008), ‘Strategizing at leading venture capital firms: of planning, opportunism and deliberate emergence’, Long Range Planning, 41/3: 345–66.
Knights, D., and Morgan, G. (1991), ‘Corporate strategy, organizations, and subjectivity: a critique’, Organization Studies, 12/2: 251–73.
Kornberger, M., and Clegg, S. (2011), ‘Strategy as performative practice: the case of Sydney 2030’, Strategic Organization, 9/2: 136–62.
Kwon, W., Clarke, I., and Wodak, R. (2014), ‘Micro-level discursive strategies for constructing shared views around strategic issues in team meetings’, Journal of Management Studies, 51/2: 265–90.
Laine, P.-M., and Vaara, E. (2007), ‘Struggling over subjectivity: a discursive analysis of strategic development in an engineering group’, Human Relations, 60/1: 29–58.
Langley, A. (1989), ‘In search of rationality: the purposes behind the use of formal analysis in organizations’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 34/4: 598–631.
Liu, F., and Maitlis, S. (2014), ‘Emotional dynamics and strategizing processes: a study of strategic conversations in top team meetings’, Journal of Management Studies, 51/2: 202–34.
Locke, K., and Golden-Biddle, K. (1997), ‘Constructing opportunities for contribution: structuring intertextual coherence and “problematizing” in organizational studies’, Academy of Management Journal, 40/5: 1023–62.
Lounsbury, M., and Crumley, E. (2007), ‘New practice creation: an institutional perspective on innovation’, Organization Studies, 28/7: 993–1012.
MacIntosh, R., MacLean, D., and Seidl, D. (2010), ‘Unpacking the effectivity paradox of strategy workshops: do strategy workshops produce strategic change?’, in Golsorkhi, D., Rouleau, L., Seidl, D., and Vaara, E. (eds.), Cambridge Handbook of Strategy as Practice: 291–309. Cambridge University Press.
Maitlis, S., and Lawrence, T. B. (2003), ‘Orchestral manoeuvres in the dark: understanding failure in organizational strategizing’, Journal of Management Studies, 40/1: 109–39.
Mantere, S. (2005), ‘Strategic practices as enablers and disablers of championing activity’, Strategic Organization, 3/2: 157–84.
Mantere, S. (2008), ‘Role expectations and middle manager strategic agency’, Journal of Management Studies, 45/2: 294–316.
Mantere, S. (2013), ‘What is organizational strategy? A language-based view’, Journal of Management Studies, 50/8: 1408–26.
Mantere, S., and Vaara, E. (2008), ‘On the problem of participation in strategy: a critical discursive perspective’, Organization Science, 19/2: 341–58.
McCabe, D. (2010), ‘Strategy-as-power: ambiguity, contradiction and the exercise of power in a UK building society’, Organization, 17/2: 151–75.
Martin, P. Y. (2003), ‘“Said and done” versus “saying and doing”: gendering practices, practicing gender at work’, Gender and Society, 17/3: 342–66.
Mintzberg, H. (1973), The Nature of Managerial Work. New York: Harper & Row.
Mintzberg, H., Raisinghani, D., and Théoret, A. (1976), ‘The structure of “unstructured” decision processes’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 21/2: 246–75.
Mintzberg, H., and Waters, J. A. (1985), ‘Of strategies, deliberate and emergent’, Strategic Management Journal, 6/3: 257–72.
Mirabeau, L., and Maguire, S. (2014), ‘From autonomous strategic behavior to emergent strategy’, Strategic Management Journal, 35/8: 1202–29.
Molloy, E., and Whittington, R. (2005), ‘Practices of organizing: inside and outside the processes of change’, in Szulanski, G., Porac, J., and Doz, Y. (eds.), Advances in Strategic Management, vol. XXII, Strategy Process: 491–515. Bingley, UK: Emerald.
Mueller, F., Whittle, A., Gilchrist, A., and Lenney, P. (2013), ‘Politics and strategy practice: an ethnomethodologically-informed discourse analysis perspective’, Business History, 55/7: 1168–99.
Nicolini, D. (2012), Practice Theory, Work, and Organization: An Introduction. Oxford University Press.
Nicolini, D., Gherardi, S., and Yanow, D. (2003), Knowing in Organizations: A Practice-Based Approach. Armonk, NY: M E Sharpe.
Nordqvist, M., and Melin, L. (2008), ‘Strategic planning champions: social craftspersons, artful interpreters and known strangers’, Long Range Planning, 41/3: 326–44.
Oakes, L. S., Townley, B., and Cooper, D. J. (1998), ‘Business planning as pedagogy: language and control in a changing institutional field’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 43/2: 257–92.
Orlikowski, W. J. (2000), ‘Using technology and constituting structures’, Organization Science, 11/4: 404–28.
Ortner, S. B. (2006), Anthropology and Social Theory: Culture, Power and the Acting Subject. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Pälli, P., Vaara, E., and Sorsa, V. (2009), ‘Strategy as text and discursive practice: a genre-based approach to strategizing in city administration’, Discourse and Communication, 3/3: 303–18.
Paroutis, S., and Heracleous, L. (2013), ‘Discourse revisited: dimensions and employment of first-order strategy discourse during institutional adoption’, Strategic Management Journal, 34/8: 935–56.
Paroutis, S., and Pettigrew, A. M. (2007), ‘Strategizing in the multi-business firm: strategy teams at multiple levels and over time’, Human Relations, 60/1: 99–135.
Pettigrew, A. M. (1973), The Politics of Organizational Decision-Making. London: Tavistock.
Phillips, N., Sewell, G., and Jaynes, S. (2008), ‘Applying critical discourse analysis in strategic management research’, Organizational Research Methods, 11/4: 770–89.
Rasche, A., and Chia, R. (2009), ‘Researching strategy practices: a genealogical social theory perspective’, Organization Studies, 30/7: 713–34.
Reckwitz, A. (2002), ‘Toward a theory of social practices: a development in culturalist theorizing’, European Journal of Social Theory, 5/2: 243–63.
Regnér, P. (2003), ‘Strategy creation in the periphery: inductive versus deductive strategy making’, Journal of Management Studies, 40/1: 57–82.
Regnér, P. (2008), ‘Strategy-as-practice and dynamic capabilities: steps towards a dynamic view of strategy’, Human Relations, 61/4: 565–88.
Rouleau, L. (2003), ‘Micro-strategy as gendered practice: resisting strategic change through the family metaphor’, paper presented at the nineteenth European Group for Organizational Studies colloquium, Copenhagen, 5 July.
Rouleau, L. (2005), ‘Micro-practices of strategic sensemaking and sensegiving: how middle managers interpret and sell change every day’, Journal of Management Studies, 42/7: 1414–41.
Rouleau, L. (2013), ‘Strategy-as-practice research at a crossroads’, M@n@gement, 16/5: 547–65.
Rouleau, L., and Balogun, J. (2011). ‘Middle managers, strategic sensemaking, and discursive competence’, Journal of Management Studies, 48/5: 953–83.
Samra-Fredericks, D. (2003), ‘Strategizing as lived experience and strategists’ everyday efforts to shape strategic direction’, Journal of Management Studies, 40/1: 141–74.
Samra-Fredericks, D. (2004), ‘Understanding the production of “strategy” and “organization” through talk amongst managerial elites’, Culture and Organization, 10/2: 125–41.
Samra-Fredericks, D. (2005), ‘Strategic practice, “discourse” and the everyday interactional constitution of “power effects”’, Organization, 12/6: 803–41.
Schatzki, T. R. (2002), The Site of the Social: A Philosophical Account of the Constitution of Social Life and Change. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.
Schatzki, T. R., Knorr Cetina, K., and von Savigny, E. (eds.) (2001), The Practice Turn in Contemporary Theory. London: Routledge.
Schwarz, M. (2004), ‘Knowing in practice: how consultants work with clients to create, share and apply knowledge?’, Academy of Management Proceedings, Supplement: D1–D6.
Seidl, D. (2007), ‘General strategy concepts and the ecology of strategy discourses: a systemic-discursive perspective’, Organization Studies, 28/2: 197–218.
Seidl, D., and Whittington, R. (2014), ‘Enlarging the strategy-as-practice research agenda: towards taller and flatter ontologies’, Organization Studies, 35/10: 1407–21.
Sillince, J., and Mueller, F. (2007), ‘Switching strategic perspective: the reframing of accounts of responsibility’, Organization Studies, 28/2: 155–76.
Sillince, J., Jarzabkowski, P., and Shaw, D. (2012), ‘Shaping strategic action through the rhetorical construction and exploitation of ambiguity’, Organization Science, 23/3: 630–50.
Sloan, P., and Oliver, D. (2013), ‘Building trust in multi-stakeholder partnerships: critical emotional incidents and practices of engagement’, Organization Studies, 34/12: 1835–68.
Sminia, H. (2005), ‘Strategy formation as layered discussion’, Scandinavian Journal of Management, 21/3: 267–91.
Spee, P., and Jarzabkowski, P. (2009), ‘Strategy tools as boundary objects’, Strategic Organization, 7/2: 223–32.
Spee, P. (2011),‘Strategic planning as communicative process’, Organizational Studies, 32/9: 1217–45.
Stensaker, I., and Falkenberg, J. (2007), ‘Making sense of different responses to corporate change’, Human Relations, 60/1: 137–78.
Suddaby, R., Seidl, D., and , J. (2013), ‘Strategy-as-practice meets neo-institutional theory’, Strategic Organization, 11/3: 329–44.
Sztompka, P. (1991), Society in Action: The Theory of Social Becoming. Cambridge: Polity.
Teulier, R., and Rouleau, L. (2013), ‘Middle managers’ sensemaking and interorganizational change initiation: translation spaces and editing practices’, Journal of Change Management, 13/3: 308–37.
Thomas, R., Sargent, L. D., and Hardy, C. (2011), ‘Managing organizational change: negotiating meaning and power–resistance relations’, Organization Science, 22/1: 22–41.
Tuomela, R. (2005), The Philosophy of Social Practices: A Collective Acceptance View. Cambridge University Press.
Turner, S. (1994), The Social Theory of Practices: Tradition, Tacit Knowledge, and Presuppositions. University of Chicago Press.
Vaara, E. (2010), ‘Taking the linguistic turn seriously: strategy as multifaceted and interdiscursive phenomenon’, in Baum, J. A. C., and Lampel, J. (eds.), Advances in Strategic Management, vol. XXVII, The Globalization of Strategy Research: 29–50. Bingley, UK: Emerald.
Vaara, E., Kleymann, B., and Seristö, H. (2004), ‘Strategies as discursive constructions: the case of airline alliances’, Journal of Management Studies, 41/1: 1–35.
Vaara, E., and Reff Pedersen, A. (2013), ‘Strategy and chronotopes: a Bakhtinian perspective on the construction of strategy narratives’, M@n@gement, 16/5: 593–604.
Vaara, E., Sorsa, V., and Pälli, P. (2010), ‘On the force potential of strategy texts: a critical discourse analysis of a strategic plans and its power effects in a city organization’, Organization, 17/6: 685–702.
Vaara, E., and Whittington, R. (2012), ‘Strategy-as-practice: taking social practices seriously’, Academy of Management Annals, 6/1: 285–336.
Van Aaken, D., Koob, C., Rost, K., and Seidl, D. (2013), ‘Ausgestaltung und Erfolg von Strategieworkshops: eine empirische Analyse’, Zeitschrift für betriebswirtschaftliche Forschung, 65/7: 588–616.
Venkateswaran, R., and Prabhu, G. N. (2010), ‘Taking stock of research methods in strategy as practice’, Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods, 8/2: 156–62.
Vygotsky, L. (1978), Mind in Society: The Development of Higher Psychological Processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Werle, F., and Seidl, D. (forthcoming), ‘The layered materiality of strategizing: epistemic objects and the interplay between material artefacts in the exploration of strategic topics’, British Journal of Management.
Whittington, R. (1992), ‘Putting Giddens into action: social systems and managerial agency’, Journal of Management Studies, 29/6: 693–712.
Whittington, R. (1996), ‘Strategy as practice’, Long Range Planning, 29/5: 731–5.
Whittington, R. (2006), ‘Completing the practice turn in strategy research’, Organization Studies, 27/5: 613–34.
Whittington, R. (2007), ‘Strategy practice and strategy process: family differences and the sociological eye’, Organization Studies, 28/10: 1575–86.
Whittington, R. (2011), ‘The practice turn in organization research: a disciplined transdisciplinarity’, Accounting, Organization and Society, 36/3: 183–6.
Whittington, R. (2014), ‘Information systems strategy and strategy-as-practice: a joint agenda’, Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 23/1: 87–91.
Whittington, R., and Cailluet, L. (2008), ‘The crafts of strategy: special issue introduction by the guest editors’, Long Range Planning, 41/3: 241–7.
Whittington, R., Cailluet, L., and Yakis-Douglas, B. (2011), ‘Opening strategy: evolution of a precarious profession’, British Journal of Management, 22/3: 531–44.
Whittington, R., Jarzabkowski, P., Mayer, M., Mounoud, E., Nahapiet, J., and Rouleau, L. (2003), ‘Taking strategy seriously: responsibility and reform for an important social practice’, Journal of Management Inquiry, 12/4: 396–409.
Whittington, R., Molloy, E., Mayer, M., and Smith, A. (2006), ‘Practices of strategising/organising: broadening strategy work and skills’, Long Range Planning, 39/6: 615–29.
Whittle, A., Housley, W., Gilchrist, A., Mueller, F., and Lenney, P. (2014), ‘Power, politics and organizational communication: an ethnomethodological perspective’, in Cooren, F., Vaara, E., Langley, A., and Tsoukas, H. (eds.), Language and Communication at Work: Discourse, Narrativity, and Organizing: 71–94. Oxford University Press.
Wittgenstein, L. (1953 [1951]), Philosophical Investigations. Oxford: Blackwell.
Wodak, R., Kwon, W., and Clarke, I. (2011), ‘“Getting people on board”: discursive leadership for consensus building in team meetings’, Discourse and Society, 22/5: 592–644.
Wright, R. P., Paroutis, S., and Blettner, D. P. (2013), ‘How useful are the strategic tools we teach in business schools?’, Journal of Management Studies, 50/1: 92–125.