Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2018
  • Online publication date: March 2018

Chapter 20 - Sexualities and Homophobia

from Part III - Problems of Discrimination and Inequality

Summary

Historically, social norms have emphasized procreative sex within the context of a stable union, most often marriage. While homosexuality and other forms of nonprocreative sex have long been viewed as deviant, they have not always been outlawed. As sexual behaviors became increasingly linked to people's identity, new measures were introduced to restrict so-called deviant sexual expression. This connection between sexual behavior and identity gave rise to homophobia as well as to tightening restrictions on sexualities, particularly female sexualities. Homophobia takes many forms, and beginning in the 1950s in the United States, public policies were created granting explicit permission to fire federal employees on grounds of “sexual perversion.” As US society has shifted its views about sexuality and normative sexual practices, research on sex and sexualities has evolved. Problems, however, continue to exist in the areas of sexualities, most notably for those with female, non-gender-conforming, adolescent, and/or black and brown bodies.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO
Ahn, Kathy. 2009. The pendulum swings backwards: The Clery act must be amended to address university policies that discourage rape reporting. Women's Rights Law Reporter 31:514–37.
Aquinas, Saint Thomas. 1948. Summa Theologica: Complete English Edition in Five Volumes. Allen: Texas Christian Classics.
Armstrong, Elizabeth A., Hamilton, Laura, and Sweeney, Brian. 2006. Sexual assault on campus: A multilevel, integrative approach to party rape. Social Problems 53(4):483–99.
Baumle, Amanda K., and Compton, D'Lane R.. 2014. Identity versus identification: How LGBTQ parents identify their children on census surveys. Journal of Marriage and Family 76(1):94104.
Bersamin, Melina, Todd, Michael, Fisher, Deborah A, Hill, Douglas L., Grube, Joel W., and Walker, Samantha. 2008. Parenting practices and adolescent sexual behavior: A longitudinal study. Journal of Marriage and Family 70(1):97112.
Beyond Marriage. 2006. Beyond same-sex marriage: A new strategic vision for all our families & relationships. www.beyondmarriage.org/BeyondMarriage.pdf.
Bos, Henny, Goldberg, Naomi, Gelderen, Loes Van, and Gartrell, Nanette. 2012. Adolescents of the U.S. National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study: Male role models, gender role traits, and psychological adjustment. Gender & Society 26(4):603–38.
Broad, K. L. 2002. Social movement selves. Sociological Perspectives 45(3):317–36.
Broad, K. L. 2011. Coming out for parents, families and friends of lesbians and gays: From support group grieving to love advocacy. Sexualities 14(4):399415.
Broad, K. L., Crawley, Sara L., and Foley, Lara. 2004. Doing “real family values”: The interpretive practice of families in the GLBT movement. The Sociological Quarterly 45(3):509–27.
Butler, Judith P. 1990. Gender Trouble. New York: Routledge.
Butler, Paul. 2010. One hundred years of race and crime. The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 100(3):1043–60.
Byers, E. Sandra, Sears, Heather A., and Weaver, Angela D.. 2008. Parents’ reports of sexual communication with children in kindergarten to grade 8. Journal of Marriage and Family 70(1):8696.
Chauncey, George. 2004. Why Marriage? The History Shaping Today's Debate over Gay Equality. New York: Basic Books.
Cheng, Simon, Hamilton, Laura, Missari, Stacy, and Ma, Josef. 2014. Sexual subjectivity among adolescent girls: Social disadvantage and young adult outcomes. Social Forces 93(2):515.
Cherlin, Andrew J. 2009. The Marriage-Go-Round: The State of Marriage and the Family in America Today. New York: Vintage Books.
Cohn, Amy M., Zinzow, Heidi M., Resnick, Heidi S., and Kilpatrick, Dean G.. 2013. Correlates of reasons for not reporting rape to police: Results from a national telephone household probability sample of women with forcible or drug-or-alcohol facilitated/incapacitated rape. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 28(3):455–73.
Collins, Patricia Hill. 1992. Transforming the inner circle: Dorothy Smith's challenge to sociological theory. Sociological Theory 10(1):7380.
Collins, Patricia Hill. 2000. Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness, and the Politics of Empowerment. 2nd ed. New York: Routledge.
Collins, Patricia Hill. 2004. Black Sexual Politics: African Americans, Gender, and the New Racism. New York: Routledge.
Cott, Nancy. 2000. Public Vows: A History of Marriage and the Nation. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Davis, Angela Y., and Shaylor, Cassandra. 2001. Race, gender, and the prison industrial complex: California and beyond. Meridians 2(1):125.
Davis, Erin Calhoun, and Friel, Lisa V. 2001. Adolescent sexuality: Disentangling the effects of family structure and family context. Journal of Marriage and the Family 63(3):669–81.
Eaton, Lisa, Kaufman, Michelle, Fuhrel, Andrea, Cain, Demetria, Cherry, Charsey, Pope, Howard, and Kalichman, Seth C. 2008. Examining factors co-existing with interpersonal violence in lesbian relationships. Family Violence 23(8):697705.
Edin, Kathryn, and Kefalas, Maria. 2005. Promises I Can Keep: Why Poor Women Put Motherhood Before Marriage. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Eskridge, William N.., and Hunter, Nan D. 1997. Theories of sexuality, gender, and the law. In Sexuality, Gender, and the Law, 501652. New York: Foundation Press.
Fallin-Bennett, Keisa. 2015. Implicit bias against sexual minorities in medicine: Cycles of professional influence and the role of the hidden curriculum. Academic Medicine 90(5):549–52.
FBI. 2013. Hate crime statistics. Uniform Crime Report.
FBI. 2014. Frequently asked questions about the change in the UCR definition of rape. www.fbi.gov/about-us/cjis/ucr/recent-program-updates/new-rape-definition-frequently-asked-questions.
Fields, Jessica. 2001. Normal queers: Straight parents respond to their children's “coming out.” Symbolic Interaction 24(2):165–87.
Fields, Jessica. 2005. “Children having children”: Race, innocence, and sexuality education. Social Problems 52(4):549–71.
Fields, Jessica. 2008. Risky Lessons: Sex Education and Social Inequality. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Fisher, Bonnie S., Daigle, Leah E., Cullen, Francis T., and Turner, Michael G.. 2003a. Acknowledging sexual victimization as rape: Results from a national-level study. Justice Quarterly 20(3):535–74.
Fisher, Bonnie S., Daigle, Leah E., Cullen, Francis T., and Turner, Michael G.. 2003b. Reporting sexual victimization to the police and others: Results from a national-level study of college women. Criminal Justice and Behavior 30(1):638.
Foucault, Michel. 1978. The History of Sexuality. Vol. 1. Translated by Hurley, Robert. New York: Vintage.
Francis, Roberta W. N.d. The history behind the Equal Rights Amendment. www.equalrightsamendment.org/history.htm.
Geiger-Oneto, Stephanie, and Phillips, Scott. 2003. Driving while black. Journal of Ethnicity in Criminal Justice 1(2):125.
Gengler, Amanda M., and Jarrell, Megan V.. 2015. What difference does difference make? The persistence of inequalities in healthcare delivery. Sociology Compass 9(8):718–30.
Goffman, Erving. 1963. Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Gonzalez-Lopez, Gloria. 2004. Fathering Latina sexualities: Mexican men and the virginity of their daughters. Journal of Marriage and Family 66(5):1118–30.
Haste, Polly. 2013. Sex education and masculinity: The “problem” of boys. Gender and Education 25(4):515–27.
hooks, bell. 2001. Homophobia in black communities. In The Greatest Taboo: Homosexuality in Black Communities, edited by Constantine-Simms, Delroy, 6775. Los Angeles, CA: Alyson Books.
Horn, Wade F. 2001. Wedding bell blues: Marriage and welfare reform. www.brookings.edu/articles/wedding-bell-blues-marriage-and-welfare-reform/.
Irvine, Janice M. 1994. A place in the rainbow: Theorizing lesbian and gay culture. Sociological Theory 12(2):232–48.
Irvine, Janice M. 2014. Is sexuality research “dirty work”? Institutionalized stigma in the production of sexual knowledge. Sexualities 17(5/6):632–56.
Irving, Toni. 2008. Decoding black women: Policing practices and rape prosecution on the streets of Philadelphia. NWSA Journal 20(2):100120.
Jackson, Aubrey L. 2015. State contexts and the criminalization of marital rape across the United States. Social Science Research 51:290306.
Kinsey, Alfred C., et al. 1948. Sexual Behavior in the Human Male. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders.
Kinsey, Alfred C., et al. 1953. Sexual Behavior in the Human Female. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders.
Kosciw, J. G., Greytak, E. A., Palmer, N. A., and Boesen, M. J.. 2014. The 2013 National School Climate Survey: The Experiences of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Youth in Our Nation's Schools. New York: GLSEN.
Lewis, Rachel A. 2014. “Gay? Prove it”: The politics of queer anti-deportation activism. Sexualities 17(8):958–75.
McNeill, Tanya. 2013. Sex education and the promotion of heteronormativity. Sexualities 16(7):826–46.
National Gay and Lesbian Task Force. N.d. Why data collection matters to LGBT people. www.thetaskforce.org/why-data-collection-matters-to-lgbt-people/.
Patterson, Debra, and Tringali, Brenda. 2015. Understanding how advocates can affect sexual assault victim engagement in the criminal justice process. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 30(12):1987–97.
Paul, Lisa A., Walsh, Kate, McCauley, Jenna L., Ruggiero, Kenneth J., Resnick, Heidi S., and Kilpatrick, Dean G.. 2013. College women's experiences with rape disclosure: A national study. Violence against Women 19(4):486502.
Pettit, Becky, and Western, Bruce. 2004. Mass imprisonment and the life course: Race and class inequality in U.S. incarceration. American Sociological Review 69(2):151–69.
Reger, Jo. 2015. The story of a slut walk: Sexuality, race, and generational divisions in contemporary feminist activism. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography 44(1):84112.
Ritchie, Andrea J. 2012–13. Crimes against nature: Challenging criminalization of queerness and black women's sexuality. Loyola Journal of Public Interest Law 14:355–74.
Roraback, Catherine G. 1989. Griswold v. Connecticut: A brief case history. In Modern Family Law: Cases and Materials, edited by Weisberg, D. Kelly and Appleton, Susan Frelich, 810. New York: Aspen.
Rubin, Gayle S. 1984. Thinking sex: Notes for a radical theory of the politics of sexuality. In Pleasure and Danger: Exploring Female Sexuality, edited by Vance, Carole. Boston: Routledge.
Schram, Sanford F., Soss, Joe, Fording, Richard C., and Houser, Linda. 2009. Deciding to discipline: Race, choice, and punishment at the frontlines of welfare reform. American Sociological Review 74(3):398422.
Seidman, Steven. 1994. Queer-ing sociology, sociologizing queer theory: An introduction. Sociological Theory 12(2):166–77.
Shapiro, Julie. 1999. A lesbian-centered critique of second-parent adoptions. Berkeley Women's Law Journal 14:17.
Simmons, Kami Chavis. 2012. Subverting symbolism: The Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act and cooperative federalism. American Criminal Law Review 49(4):101275.
Simon, William, and Gagnon, John H. 1967. Homosexuality: The formulation of a sociological perspective. Journal of Health and Social Behavior 8(3):177–85.
Stone, Amy L., and Gorga, Allison. 2014. Containing pariah femininities: Lesbians in the sorority rush process. Sexualities 17(3):348–64.
Trevor Project. 2015. Facts about suicide. www.thetrevorproject.org/pages/facts-about-suicide.
Wooldredge, John. 2012. Distinguishing race effects on pre-trial release and sentencing decisions. Justice Quarterly 29(1):4175.
Yale Law Journal. 1973. The legality of homosexual marriage. 82(3):573–89.