In this chapter we examine measures and methods that have come to prominence over the last two decades exploring how they build on, and are shaped by, relevant theory. In addition, we identify how contemporary measures and methods have expanded as researchers investigate interactive influences of person and context. First, the importance of distinguishing levels of generality and specificity in definitions of motivation constructs is explored. Second, we examine attempts to define the type of relation between motivation constructs and learning, for example, mediation relations and reciprocal relations. As specific research is considered we direct attention to the types of analytic procedures that have been used to test hypotheses and assess models of the relations between motivation and learning. In particular we highlight the development of research methods that go beyond the range of insights into motivation and learning that can be achieved using only self-report questionnaires.