Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 4
  • Print publication year: 2015
  • Online publication date: August 2015

27 - Implementing After-Action Review Systems in Organizations

from Postevent Meetings

Summary

Abstract

Actors in high-reliability organizations often form meetings to discuss incidents and learn from them. Such after-action reviews (AARs) are structured opportunities for shared retrospective learning, innovation development, and continuous improvement. Research on AARs has examined the meeting-level antecedents and outcomes associated with various elements of AARs, but has generally stopped short of considering how they should influence and respond to the organizations in which they are situated. After connecting the functions of AARs using the theoretical frameworks of collective sensemaking, organizational learning, and knowledge management, this chapter presents an input-process-output model of AAR systems that accounts for a range of extra-meeting factors that influence and are influenced by the content of retrospective discussion. It also describes best practices and directions for future research associated with these inputs, processes, and outputs.

Abrahamson, D. E. & Goodman-Delahunty, J. (2014). Impediments to information and knowledge sharing within policing: A study of three Canadian policing organizations. Sage Open. doi:10.1177/2158244013519363
Adams, K., & Galanes, G. (2009). Communicating in groups. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Allen, B. J. (2004). Difference matters. Long Grove, IL: Waveland.
Allen, J. A., Baran, B. E., & Scott, C. S. (2010). After-action reviews: A venue for the promotion of safety climate. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 42, 750757. doi:10.1016/j.aap.2009.11.004
Allen, J. A., Beck, T., Scott, C., & Rogelberg, S. G. (2014). Understanding workplace meetings: A qualitative taxonomy of meeting purposes. Management Research Review, 37(9), 791814. doi:10.1108/MRR-03–2013–0067.
Allen, J. A., Scott, C. W., Tracy, S. J., & Crowe, J. D. (2014). The signal provision of emotion: Using emotions to enhance reliability via sensemaking. International Journal of Work Organisation and Emotion, 6, 240260. doi:10.1504/IJWOE.2014.065758
Axley, S. R. (1984). Managerial and organizational communication in terms of the conduit metaphor. Academy of Management Review, 9, 428437. doi:10.5465/AMR.1984.4279664
Bantz, C. R., & Smith, D. H. (1977). A critique and experimental test of Weick's model of organizing. Communications Monographs, 44, 171184. doi:10.1080/03637757709390129
Baran, B. E., & Scott, C. W. (2010). Organizing ambiguity: A grounded theory of leadership and sensemaking within dangerous contexts. Military Psychology, 22(S1), S42S69.
Baran, B. E., Shanock, L. R., Rogelberg, S. G., & Scott, C. W. (2012). Leading group meetings: Supervisors' actions, employee behaviors, and upward perceptions. Small Group Research, 43, 330355. doi:10.1177/1046496411418252
Berger, C. R., & Calabrese, R. J. (1975). Some explorations in initial interaction and beyond: Toward a developmental theory of interpersonal communication. Human Communication Research, 1, 99112. doi:10.1111/j.1468–2958.1975.tb00258.x
Brown, J. S., & Duguid, P. (1991). Organizational learning and communities-of-practice: Toward a unified view of working, learning, and innovating. Organization Science, 2, 4057.
Brown, J. S., & Duguid, P. (2000). The social life of information. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
Browning, L. D. (1992). Lists and stories as organizational communication. Communication Theory, 2, 281302. doi:10.1111/j.1468–2885.1992.tb00045.x
Camerer, C., & Weber, M. (1992). Recent developments in modeling preferences: Uncertainty and ambiguity. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 5, 325370. doi:10.1007/BF00122575
Daft, R. L., & Weick, K. E. (1984). Toward a model of organizations as interpretation systems. Academy of Management Review, 9, 284295. doi:10.5465/AMR.1984.4277657
Dunn, A., Scott, C. W., Bonilla, D. L., & Allen, J. (2014, July). Quantity and quality: Increasing safety norms through after action reviews. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Network for Group Research. Raleigh, NC.
Edmondson, A. (1999). Psychological safety and learning behavior in work teams. Administrative Science Quarterly, 44, 350383. doi:10.2307/2666999
Eisenberg, N. (1986). Altruistic emotion, cognition and behavior. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Eisenberg, N. (1991). Values, sympathy, and individual differences: Toward a pluralism of factors influencing altruism and empathy. Psychological Inquiry, 2, 128.
Finucane, M. L., Alhakami, A., Slovic, P., & Johnson, S. M. (2000). The affect heuristic in judgments of risks and benefits. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 13, 117. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-0771(200001/03)13:1<1::AID-BDM333>3.0.CO;2-S
Fisher, W. R. (1987). Human communication as narration: Toward a philosophy of reason, value, and action. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press.
Flynn, J., Slovic, P., & Mertz, C. K. (1994). Gender, race, and perception of environmental health risks, Risk Analysis, 14, 11011108.
Garvin, D. A., Edmondson, A. C., & Gino, F. (2008). Is yours a learning organization? Harvard Business Review, 86, 109120. doi:10.1225/R0803H
Gilley, J. W., & Maycunich, A. (2000). Organizational learning, performance, and change: An introduction to strategic human resource development. Cambridge, MA: Perseus.
Hallett, T., Harger, B., & Eder, D. (2009). Gossip at work: Unsanctioned evaluative talk in formal school meetings. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 38, 584618. doi:10.1177/0891241609342117
Hollenbeck, J. R., Ilgen, D. R., Sego, D. J., Hedlund, J., Major, D. A., & Phillips, J. (1995). Multilevel theory of team decision making: Decision performance in teams incorporating distributed expertise. Journal of Applied Psychology, 80(2), 292316. doi:10.1037//0021–9010.80.2.292
Ilgen, D. R., Hollenbeck, J. R., Johnson, M., & Jundt, D. (2005). Teams in organizations: From input-process-output models to IMOI models. Annual Review of Psychology, 56, 517543. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.56.091103.070250
Iverson, J. O., & McPhee, R. D. (2008). Communicating knowledge through communities of practice: Exploring internal communicative processes and differences among CoPs. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 36, 176199
Keltner, J. S. (1989). Facilitation catalyst for group problem solving. Management Communication Quarterly, 3(1), 832.
Kramer, M. W. (2003). Managing uncertainty in organizational communication. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Lewin, K. (1947). Frontiers of group dynamics: Concept, method and reality in social science, social equilibria, and social change. Human Relations, 1, 541.
Miller, V. D., & Jablin, F. M. (1991). Information seeking during organizational entry: Influences, tactics, and a model of the process. Academy of Management Review, 16, 92120. doi:10.5465/AMR.1991.4278997
Morris, M. W., & Moore, P. C. (2000). The lessons we (don't) learn: Counterfactual thinking and organizational accountability after a close call. Administrative Science Quarterly, 45, 737765.
Morrison, E. W. (2002). Information seeking within organizations. Human Communication Research, 28, 229242. doi:10.1111/j.1468–2958.2002.tb00805.x
Nonaka, I. (1994). A dynamic theory of organizational knowledge creation. Organization Science, 5, 1437. doi:10.1287/orsc.5.1.14
O'Reilly, C. A., Chatman, J. A., & Anderson, J. C. (1987). Message flow and decision making. In Jablin, F. M., Putnam, L. L., Porter, L. W., & Roberts, K. H. (Eds.), Handbook of organizational communication (pp. 704731). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Patriotta, G. (2003). Sensemaking on the shop floor: Narratives of knowledge in organizations. Journal of Management Studies, 40, 349375. doi:10.1111/1467–6486.00343
Polanyi, M. (1969). Knowing and being: Essays by Michael Polanyi. Chicago, IL: University of ChicagoPress.
Putnam, L. L., & Stohl, C. (1990). Bona fide groups: A reconceptualization of groups in context. Communication Studies, 41, 248265. doi:10.1080/10510979009368307
Reiter-Palmon, R., Kennel, V., Allen, J. A., Jones, K., & Skinner, A. (2004). Naturalistic decision making in after-action review meetings: The implementation of and learning from post-fall huddles. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology. doi:10.1111/joop.12084
Rhodes, C., & Brown, A. D. (2005). Narrative, organizations, and research. Journal of Management Review, 7, 167188. doi:10.1111/j.1468–2370.2005.00112.x
Ron, N., Lipshitz, R., & Popper, M. (2002). How organizations learn: Post-flight reviews in a F-16 fighter squadron. Organization Studies, 27, 10691089. doi:10.1177/0170840606064567
Schultze, U., & Stabell, C. (2004). Knowing what you don't know? Discourses and contradictions in knowledge management research. Journal of Management Studies, 41, 549573. doi:10.1111/j.1467–6486.2004.00444.x
Schwarz, R. M. (1994). The skilled facilitator: Practical wisdom for developing effective groups. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Scott, C., Allen, J. A., Bonilla, D., Baran, B., & Murphy, D. (2013). Ambiguity and freedom of dissent in post incident discussion. Journal of Business Communication, 50(4), 383402. doi:10.1177/0021943613497054
Scott, W. C., & Tretheway, A. (2008). Organizational discourse and the appraisal of occupational hazards: Interpretive reservoirs, heedful interrelating, and identity at work. Journal of Applied Communication in Research, 36, 298317. doi:10.1080/00909880802172137
Simon, H. A. (1991). Bounded rationality and organizational learning. Organization Science, 2, 125134.
Simon, H. A. (1997). Administrative behavior (50th anniversary ed.). New York, NY: Free Press.
Stohl, C. & Putnam, L. L. (1994). Group communication in context: Implications for the study of bona fide groups. In Frey, L. (Ed.), Communication in context: Studies in naturalistic groups (pp. 285292). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C. (1986). The social identity theory of group behavior. In Worchel, L. & Austin, W. (Eds.), The psychology of group behavior (pp. 724). Chicago, IL: Nelson Hall.
Tannenbaum, S. I., & Cerasoli, C. P. (2013). Do team and individual debriefs enhance performance?: A meta-analysis. Human Factors, 55, 231245. doi:10.1177/0018720812448394
Teboul, R. (1996). Introduction a l'oeuvre de Mane. Paris: Ellipses/Edition Marketing.
Thackaberry, J. A. (2004). “Discursive opening” and closing in organisational self-study culture as trap and tool in wildland firefighting safety. Management Communication Quarterly, 17(3), 319359.
U.S. Army. (2011). A leader's guide to after-action reviews (Training Circular 2520). Fort Leavenworth, KS: Author.
Waring, J. J. (2009). Constructing and re-constructing narratives of patient safety. Social Science & Medicine, 69, 17221731. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2009.09.052
Weick, K. E. (1979). The social psychology of organizing (2nd ed.). Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Weick, K. E. (1995). Sensemaking in organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Weick, K. E., & Ashford, S. J. (2001). Learning in organizations. In Jablin, F. M. & Putnam, L. L. (Eds.), The new handbook of organizational communication: Advances in theory, research, and methods (pp. 704731). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Weick, K. E., & Sutcliffe, K. M. (2001). Managing the unexpected: Assuring high performance in an age of complexity. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Weick, K. E., Sutcliffe, K. M., & Obstfeld, D. (2005). Organizing and the process of sensemaking. Organization Science, 16, 409421. doi:10.1287/orsc.1050.0133
Wenger, E. (1998). Communities of practice: Learning, meaning, and identity. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Wenger, E., McDermott, R., & Snyder, W. M. (2002). Cultivating communities of practice: A guide to managing knowledge. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
Ziegler, J. A. (2007). The story behind an organizational list: A genealogy of wildland firefighters' 10 Standard Fire Orders. Communication Monographs, 74, 415442. doi:10.1080/036377507017165