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  • Print publication year: 2020
  • Online publication date: September 2020

9 - Evaluation of Cross-Cultural Training

from Part I - Theoretical Foundations of Intercultural Training


In this chapter, we attempt to summarize the vast literature on evaluation of cross-cultural training programs. We start by discussing theoretical frameworks that can be gainfully employed for assessing the effectiveness of training programs. Evaluation frameworks have stressed the need to consider affective, cognitive and behavioral dimensions of training and the need for evaluations to assess economic, social and psychological outcomes. Theoretical frameworks suggest whether, how and why training programs are effective. Our review, however, also suggests that there is a large gap between optimal training evaluations and the reality of existing empirical research. We present empirical research on the effectiveness of CCT for outcomes grouped according to the Kirkpatrick’s four levels of training evaluation. Best practices for training design and delivery are also presented. Finally, we review the role of individual differences in cross-cultural training success, basically underscoring the need for an aptitude by treatment interaction.

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