Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2013
  • Online publication date: February 2013

Chapter 21 - MoralEmotions

from Section VI - Social Emotions

Summary

This chapter draws on existing frameworks for understanding emotion regulation to critically review a large and growing body of work in affective and cognitive neuroscience on the cognitive regulation of emotion. It focuses on studies employing neuroimaging, which is one powerful and widely used method to delineate the neural mechanisms underlying the capacity to flexibly alter and refine the experience of emotions in humans. Emotion regulation has a far-reaching impact on multiple aspects of health, disease, and interpersonal functioning and is now recognized as a critical area of study in psychology, psychiatry, and neuroscience. The chapter presents studies that experimentally manipulate the direction of attention by instructing subjects to pay attention to the nonemotional/nonperceptual aspects of an evocative stimulus. Research over the last decade has elucidated the functional neuroanatomy of the regulation of emotions, focusing on cognitive strategies aimed at attention modification and interpretation change.

References

Alexander, B., Brewin, C. R., Vearnals, S., Wolff, G., & Leff, J. (1999). An investigation of shame and guilt in a depressed sample. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 72, 323–38.
Augstein, H. F. (1996). J. C. Prichard's concept of moral insanity: A medical theory of the corruption of human nature. Medical History, 40(3), 311–43.
Bechara, A., Damasio, H., & Damasio, A. R. (2000). Emotion, decision making and the orbitofrontal cortex. Cerebral Cortex, 10(3), 295–307.
Berrios, G. E., Bulbena, A., Bakshi, N., Dening, T. R., Jenaway, F, Markar, H., et al. (1992). Feelings of guilt in major depression – conceptual and psychometric aspects. British Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 781–87.
Bishop, J. D. (1996). Moral motivation and the development of Francis Hutcheson's philosophy. Journal of the History of Ideas, 57(2), 277–95.
Borg, J. S., Lieberman, D., & Kiehl, K. A. (2008). Infection, incest, and iniquity: Investigating the neural correlates of disgust and morality. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 20(9), 1529–46.
Bozeat, S., Gregory, C. A., Ralph, M. A., & Hodges, J. R. (2000). Which neuropsychiatric and behavioral features distinguish frontal and temporal variants of frontotemporal dementia from Alzheimer's disease? Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, & Psychiatry, 69(2), 178–86.
Brutkowski, S. (1965). Functions of prefrontal cortex in animals. Physiological Reviews, 45(4), 721–46.
Ciaramelli, E., Muccioli, M., Ladavas, E., & di Pellegrino, G. (2007). Selective deficit in personal moral judgment following damage to ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Social Cognitive & Affective Neuroscience, 2(2), 84–92.
Cleckley, H. M. (1976). The mask of sanity (5th ed.). St. Louis: Mosby.
Damasio, H., Grabowski, T., Frank, R., Galaburda, A. M., & Damasio, A. R. (1994). The return of Phineas Gage: Clues about the brain from the skull of a famous patient. Science, 264(5162), 1102–5.
Decety, J., & Grezes, J. (2006). The power of simulation: Imagining one's own and other's behavior. Brain Research, 1079, 4–14.
Decety, J., & Jackson, P. L. (2004). The functional architecture of human empathy. Behavioral Cognitive Neuroscience Review, 3, 71–100.
de Oliveira-Souza, R., Hare, R. D., Bramati, I. E., Garrido, G. J., Azevedo Ignácio, F., Tovar-Moll, F., et al. (2008). Psychopathy as a disorder of the moral brain: Fronto-temporo-limbic grey matter reductions demonstrated by voxel-based morphometry. NeuroImage, 40(3), 1202–13.
Depue, R. A., & Morrone-Strupinsky, J. V. (2005). A neurobehavioral model of affiliative bonding: Implications for conceptualizing a human trait of affiliation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 28(3), 313–350.
de Vignemont, F., & Singer, T. (2006). The empathic brain: How, when and why? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 10(10), 435–41.
Eisenberg, N. (2000). Emotion, regulation, and moral development. Annual Review of Psychology, 51, 665–97.
Elliott, R., Zahn, R., Deakin, J. F., & Anderson, I. M. (2010). Affective cognition and its disruption in mood disorders. Neuropsychopharmacology. doi:10.1038/npp.2010.77
Eslinger, P. J. (1998). Neurological and neuropsychological bases of empathy. European Neurology, 39(4), 193–99.
Eslinger, P. J., & Damasio, A. R. (1985). Severe disturbance of higher cognition after bilateral frontal lobe ablation: patient EVR. Neurology, 35(12), 1731–41.
Fischer, A. H., & Roseman, I. J. (2007). Beat them or ban them: The characteristics and social functions of anger and contempt. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93(1), 103–15.
Gintis, H., Henrich, J., Bowles, S., Boyd, R., & Fehr, E. (2008). Strong reciprocity and the roots of human morality. Social Justice Research, 21(2), 241–253.
Greene, J. D. (2007). Why are VMPFC patients more utilitarian? A dual-process theory of moral judgment explains. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 11(8), 322–323.
Greene, J. D., Nystrom, L. E., Engell, A. D., Darley, J. M., & Cohen, J. D. (2004). The neural bases of cognitive conflict and control in moral judgment. Neuron, 44(2), 389–400.
Greene, J. D., Sommerville, R. B., Nystrom, L. E., Darley, J. M., & Cohen, J. D. (2001). An fMRI investigation of emotional engagement in moral judgment. Science, 293(5537), 2105–8.
Haidt, J. (2003). The moral emotions. In R. J. Davidson, K. R. Scherer, & H. H. Goldsmith (Eds.), Handbook of affective sciences (pp. 852–70). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Harbaugh, W. T., Mayr, U., & Burghart, D. R. (2007). Neural responses to taxation and voluntary giving reveal motives for charitable donations. Science, 316(5831), 1622–25.
Hare, R. D. (2003). The Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (2nd ed.). Toronto: Multi-Health Systems.
Herholz, K. (2003). PET studies in dementia. Annals of Nuclear Medicine, 17(2), 79–89.
Higgins, E. T. (1987). Self-discrepancy – a theory relating self and affect. Psychological Review, 94(3), 319–40.
Hodges, J. R. (2001). Frontotemporal dementia (Pick's disease): Clinical features and assessment. Neurology, 56(11 Suppl. 4), S6–10.
Hsu, M., Anen, C., & Quartz, S. R. (2008). The right and the good: Distributive justice and neural encoding of equity and efficiency. Science, 320(5879), 1092–95.
Hume, D. (1777). An enquiry into the principles of morals, Vol. 2. London: T. Cadell.
Immordino-Yang, M. H., McColl, A., Damasio, H., & Damasio, A. (2009). Neural correlates of admiration and compassion. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(19), 8021–26.
Insel, T. R., & Young, L. J. (2001). The neurobiology of attachment. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 2(2), 129–36.
Janoff-Bulman, R. (1979). Characterological versus behavioral self-blame – inquiries into depression and rape. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37(10), 1798–1809.
Kant, I. (1786). Grundlegung zur Metaphysik der Sitten (2nd ed.). Riga: Johann Friedrich Hartknoch.
Kedia, G., Berthoz, S., Wessa, M., Hilton, D., & Martinot, J. L. (2008). An agent harms a victim: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study on specific moral emotions. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 20(10), 1788–98.
Koenigs, M., & Tranel, D. (2007). Irrational economic decision-making after ventromedial prefrontal damage: Evidence from the Ultimatum Game. Journal of Neuroscience, 27(4), 951–56.
Koenigs, M., Young, L., Adolphs, R., Tranel, D., Cushman, F., Hauser, M., et al. (2007). Damage to the prefrontal cortex increases utilitarian moral judgements. Nature, 446(7138), 908–11.
Kringelbach, M. L., & Rolls, E. T. (2004). The functional neuroanatomy of the human orbitofrontal cortex: Evidence from neuroimaging and neuropsychology. Progress in Neurobiology, 72(5), 341–72.
Krueger, F., McCabe, K., Moll, J., Kriegeskorte, N., Zahn, F, Strenziok, M., et al. (2007). Neural correlates of trust. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(50), 20084–89.
Lamb, R. B. (1974). Adam Smith's system: Sympathy not self-interest. Journal of the History of Ideas, 35(4), 671–82.
Liu, W., Miller, B. L., Kramer, J. H., Rankin, K., Wyss-Coray, C., Gearhart, R., et al. (2004). Behavioral disorders in the frontal and temporal variants of frontotemporal dementia. Neurology, 62(5), 742–48.
McClure, S. M., Botvinick, M. M., Yeung, J. D., & Cohen, J. D. (2006). Conflict monitoring in cognition-emotion competition. In J. J. Gross (Ed.), Handbook of emotion regulation. New York Guilford Press.
Miller, E. K., & Cohen, J. D. (2001). An integrative theory of prefrontal cortex function. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 24, 167–202.
Moll, J., de Oliveira-Souza, R., & Eslinger, P. J. (2003). Morals and the human brain: A working model. Neuroreport, 14(3), 299–305.
Moll, J., de Oliveira-Souza, R., Garrido, G. J., Bramati, I. E., Caparelli-Daquer, E. M. A., Paiva, M. M. F., et al. (2007). The self as a moral agent: Linking the neural bases of social agency and moral sensitivity. Social Neuroscience, 2(3 & 4), 336–52.
Moll, J., de Oliveira-Souza, R., Moll, F. T., Ignacio, F. A., Bramati, I. E., Caparelli-Daquer, E. M., et al. (2005). The moral affiliations of disgust: A functional MRI study. Cognitive & Behavioral Neurology, 18(1), 68–78.
Moll, J., De Oliveira-Souza, R., & Zahn, R. (2008). The neural basis of moral cognition: Sentiments, concepts, and values. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1124(1), 161–80.
Moll, J., Eslinger, P. J., & Oliveira-Souza, R. (2001). Frontopolar and anterior temporal cortex activation in a moral judgment task: Preliminary functional MRI results in normal subjects. Arquivos de Neuro-Psiuiatria, 59(3-B), 657–64.
Moll, J., Krueger, F., Zahn, R., Pardini, M., de Oliveira-Souza, R., & Grafman, J. (2006). Human fronto-mesolimbic networks guide decisions about charitable donation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 103(42), 15623–28.
Moll, J., Oliveira-Souza, R., Zahn, R., & Grafman, J. (2007). The cognitive neuroscience of moral emotions. In W. Sinnott-Armstrong (Ed.), Moral psychology, Vol. 3: Morals and the brain. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Moll, J., & Schulkin, J. (2009). Social attachment and aversion in human moral cognition. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 33(3), 456–65.
Moll, J., Zahn, R., de Oliveira-Souza, R., Bramati, I. E., Krueger, F., Tura, B., et al. (2011). Impairment of prosocial sentiments is associated with frontopolar and septal damage in frontotemporal dementia. Neuroimage, 54(2), 1735–42.
Moll, J., Zahn, R., de Oliveira-Souza, R., Krueger, F., & Grafman, J. (2005). Opinion: The neural basis of human moral cognition. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 6(10), 799–809.
Neary, D., Snowden, J. S., Gustafson, L., Passant, U., Stuss, D., Black, S., et al. (1998). Frontotemporal lobar degeneration: A consensus on clinical diagnostic criteria. Neurology, 51(6), 1546–54.
O’Connor, L. E., Berry, J. W., Weiss, J., & Gilbert, P. (2002). Guilt, fear, submission, and empathy in depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 71(1–3), 19–27.
Rankin, K. P., Gorno-Tempini, M. L., Allison, S. C., Stanley, C. M., Glenn, S., Weiner, M. W., et al. (2006). Structural anatomy of empathy in neurodegenerative disease. Brain, 129(11), 2945–56.
Rusch, N., Lieb, K., Gottler, I., Hermann, C., Schramm, E., Richter, H., et al. (2007). Shame and implicit self-concept in women with borderline personality disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 164(3), 500–8.
Saver, J. L., & Damasio, A. R. (1991). Preserved access and processing of social knowledge in a patient with acquired sociopathy due to ventromedial frontal damage. Neuropsychologia, 29(12), 1241–49.
Schwartz, S. H. (1992). Universals in the content and structure of values – theoretical advances and empirical tests in 20 countries. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 25, 1–65.
Shamay-Tsoory, S. G., Aharon-Peretz, J., & Perry, D. (2009). Two systems for empathy: A double dissociation between emotional and cognitive empathy in inferior frontal gyrus versus ventromedial prefrontal lesions. Brain, 132, 617–27.
Shin, L. M., Dougherty, D. D., Orr, S. P., Pitman, R. K., Lasko, M., Macklin, M. L., et al. (2000). Activation of anterior paralimbic structures during guilt-related script-driven imagery. Biological Psychiatry, 48(1), 43–50.
Spitzer, M., Fischbacher, U., Herrnberger, B., Gron, G., & Fehr, E. (2007). The neural signature of social norm compliance. Neuron, 56(1), 185–96.
Takahashi, H., Matsuura, M., Koeda, M., Yahata, N., Suhara, T., Kato, M., et al. (2008). Brain activations during judgments of positive self-conscious emotion and positive basic emotion: Pride and joy. Cerebral Cortex, 18(4), 898–903.
Takahashi, H., Yahata, N., Koeda, M., Matsuda, T., Asai, K., & Okubo, Y. (2004). Brain activation associated with evaluative processes of guilt and embarrassment: an fMRI study. Neuroimage, 23(3), 967–74.
Tangney, J. P., Stuewig, J., & Mashek, D. J. (2007). Moral emotions and moral behavior. Annual Review of Psychology, 58, 345–72.
Tangney, J. P., Wagner, P., & Gramzow, R. (1992). Proneness to shame, proneness to guilt, and psychopathology. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 101(3), 469–78.
Tononi, G., & Koch, C. (2008). The neural correlates of consciousness – An update. Year in Cognitive Neuroscience, 1124, 239–61.
Tracy, J. L., & Robins, R. W. (2006). Appraisal antecedents of shame and guilt: Support for a theoretical model. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32(10), 1339–51.
Tracy, J. L., Shariff, A. F., & Cheng, J. T. (2010). A naturalist's view of pride. Emotion Review, 163–77.
Weiner, B. (1985). An attributional theory of achievement-motivation and emotion. Psychological Review, 92(4), 548–73.
Weiner, B. (1992). Human motivation: Metaphors, theories, and research. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Welt, L. (1888). Über Charakterveränderungen des Menschen. Dtsch Arch Klin Med, 42, 339–90.
Wood, J. N., & Grafman, J. (2003). Human prefrontal cortex: processing and representational perspectives. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 4(2), 139–47.
Zahn, R. (2009). The role of neuroimaging in translational cognitive neuroscience. Top- ics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 20(5), 279–89.
Zahn, R., de Oliveira-Souza, R., Bramati, I., Garrido, G., & Moll, J. (2009). Subgenual cingulate activity reflects individual differences in empathic concern. Neuroscience Letters, 457(2), 107–10.
Zahn, R., Moll, J., Iyengar, V., Huey, E. D., Tierney, M., Krueger, F., et al. (2009). Social conceptual impairments in frontotemporal lobar degeneration with right anterior temporal hypometabolism. Brain, 132(Pt. 3), 604–16.
Zahn, R., Moll, J., Krueger, F., Huey, E. D., Garrido, G., & Grafman, J. (2007). Social concepts are represented in the superior anterior temporal cortex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(15), 6430–35.
Zahn, R., Moll, J., Paiva, M. M. F., Garrido, G., Krueger, F., Huey, E. D., et al. (2009). The neural basis of human social values: Evidence from functional MRI. Cerebral Cortex, 19(2), 276–83.
Zak, P. J., Kurzban, R., & Matzner, W. T. (2004). The neurobiology of trust. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1032, 224–27.