Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 27
  • Print publication year: 2012
  • Online publication date: October 2012

Chapter 2 - Risk and Adversity in Developmental Psychopathology

from Part I - The “Environmental” Variable

Related content

Powered by UNSILO


Adam, E. (2006). Transactions among adolescent trait and state emotion and diurnal and momentary cortisol activity in naturalistic settings. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 31, 664–679.
Adam, E. K., Hawkley, L. C., Kudielka, B. M., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2006). Day-to-day dynamics of experience–cortisol associations in a population-based sample of older adults. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 103, 17058–17063.
Adler, N. E., Epel, E. S., Castellazo, G., & Ickovics, J. R. (2000). Relationship of subjective and objective social status with psychological and physiological functioning: Preliminary data in healthy white women. Health Psychology, 19, 586–592.
Aikens, N. L., & Barbarin, O. (2008). Socioeconomic differences in reading trajectories: the contribution of family, neighborhood, and school contexts. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100, 235–251.
American Psychiatric Association (1987). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed., revised). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Anthony, E. J., & Koupernick, C. (Eds.) (1974). The child in his family: Children at psychiatric risk. New York: Wiley.
Appleyard, K., Egeland, B., van Dulmen, M. H. M., & Sroufe, L. A. (2005). When more is not better: the role of cumulative risk in child behavior outcomes. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46, 235–245.
Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., Van IJzendoorn, M. H., Pijlman, F. T., Mesman, J., & Juffer, F. (2008). Experimental evidence for differential susceptibility: Dopamine D4 receptor polymorphism (DRD4 VNTR) moderates intervention effects on toddlers’ externalizing behavior in a randomized controlled trial, Developmental Psychology, 44, 293–300.
Barr, C. S., Newman, T. K., Lindell, S., Shannon, C., Champoux, M., Lesch, K. P., Suomi, S. J., Goldman, D., & Higley, J. D. (2004). Interaction between serotonin transporter gene variation and rearing condition in alcohol preference and consumption in female primates. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61, 1146–1152.
Belsky, J. (2005). Differential susceptibility to rearing influence: An evolutionary hypothesis and some evidence. In B. Ellis & D. Bjorklund (Eds.), Origins of the social mind: Evolutionary psychology and child development, pp. 139–163. New York: Guilford.
Belsky, J., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., & Van IJzendoorn, M. H. (2007). For better and for worse: Differential susceptibility to environmental influences. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16, 300–304.
Biederman, J., Milberger, S., Faraone, S. V., Kiely, K., Guite, J., Mick, E., Ablon, S., Warburton, R., & Reed, E. (1995). Family-environment risk factors for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A test of Rutter’s indicators of adversity. Archives of General Psychiatry, 52, 464–470.
Boyce, W. T., Chesney, M., Alkon, A., Tschann, J. M., Adams, S., Chesterman, B., Cohen, F., Kaiser, P., Folkman, S., & Wara, D. (1995). Psychobiologic reactivity to stress and childhood respiratory illnesses: Results of two prospective studies. Psychosomatic Medicine, 57, 411–422.
Boyce, W. T., & Ellis, B. J. (2005). Biological sensitivity to context: An evolutionary- developmental theory of the origins and functions of stress reactivity. Development and Psychopathology, 17, 271–301.
Brody, G. H., Beach, S. R. H., Philibert, R. A., Chen, Y., Lei, M., Murry, V. M., & Brown, A. C. (2009). Parenting moderates a genetic vulnerability factor in longitudinal increases in youths’ substance use. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77, 1–11.
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1994). Ecological models of human development. In T. Husten & T. N. Postlethwaite (Eds.), International encyclopedia of education, Vol. 3, pp. 1643–1647 (2nd ed.). New York: Elsevier Science.
Brooks-Gunn, J., & Duncan, G. J. (1997). The effects of poverty on children. The Future of Children, 7, 55–71.
Brown, G. W., & Harris, T. (1978). Social origins of depression: A study of psychiatric disorder in women. New York: Free Press.
Brugha, T., Bebbington, B., Tennant, C., & Hurry, J. (1985). The list of threatening experiences: A subset of 12 life event categories with considerable long-term contextual threat. Psychological Medicine, 15, 189–194.
Burchinal, M., Roberts, J. E., Hooper, S., & Zeisel, S. A. (2000). Cumulative risk and early cognitive development: a comparison of statistical risk models. Developmental Psychology, 36, 793–807.
Burchinal, M., Roberts, J. E., Zeisel, S. A., Hennon, E. A., & Hooper, S. (2006). Social risk and protective child, parenting, and child care factors in early elementary school years. Parenting: Science and Practice, 6, 79–113.
Caspi, A., McClay, J., Moffitt, T. E., Mill, J., Martin, J., Craig, I. W., Taylor, A., & Poulton, R. (2002). Role of genotype in the cycle of violence in maltreated children. Science, 297, 851–854.
Caspi, A., Sugden, K., Moffitt, T. E., Taylor, A., Craig, I. W., Harrington, H., McClay, J., Mill, J., Martin, J., Braithwaite, A., & Poulton, R. (2003). Influence of life stress on depression: moderation by a polymorphism in the 5-HTT gene. Science, 301(5631), 386–389.
Champagne, F. A., & Mashoodh, R. (2009). Genes in context: Gene-environment interplay and the origins of individual differences in behavior. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 18, 127–131.
Champoux, M., Bennett, A., Shannon, C., Higley, J. D., Lesch, K. P., & Suomi, S. J. (2002). Serotonin transporter gene polymorphism, differential early rearing, and behavior in rhesus monkey neonates. Molecular Psychiatry, 7, 1058–1063.
Chao, R. K. (1994). Beyond parental control and authoritarian parenting style: understanding Chinese parenting through the cultural notion of training. Child Development, 65, 1111–1119.
Chapman, D. P., Whitfield, C. L., Felitti, V. J., Dube, S. R., Edwards, V. J., & Anda, R. F. (2004). Adverse childhood experiences and the risk of depressive disorders in adulthood. Journal of Affective Disorders, 82, 217–225.
Cicchetti, D. (1996). Child maltreatment: implications for developmental theory and research. Human Development, 39, 18–39.
Cicchetti, D. (2006). Development and psychopathology. In D. Cicchetti & D. Cohen (Eds.), Developmental Psychopathology: Vol. 1. Theory and method, pp. 1–23 (2nd ed.). Hoboken NJ: Wiley.
Cicchetti, D., Rogosch, F. A., & Sturge-Apple, M. L. (2007). Interactions of child maltreatment and serotonin transporter and monoamine oxidase A polymorphisms: Depressive symptomatology among adolescents from low socioeconomic status backgrounds. Development and Psychopathology, 19, 1161–1180.
Coddington, R. D. (1972a). The significance of life events as etiologic factors in the diseases of children: I. A survey of professional workers. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 16, 7–18.
Coddington, R. D. (1972b). The significance of life events as etiologic factors in the diseases of children. II. A study of a normal population. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 16, 205–213.
Coie, J. D., Watt, N. F., West, S., Hawkins, J. D., Asarnow, J. R., Markman, H. J., Ramey, S. L., Shure, M. B., & Long, B. (1993). The science of prevention. American Psychologist, 48, 1013–1022.
Cole, S. W. (2009). Social regulation of human gene expression. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 18, 132–137.
Csikszentmihalyi, M., & Larson, R. (1987). Validity and reliability of the experience sampling method. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 175, 526–537.
Cummings, M. E., El-Sheikh, M., Kouros, C. D., & Keller, P. S. (2007). Children’s skin conductance reactivity as a mechanism of risk in the context of parental depressive symptoms. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 48, 436–445.
Deater-Deckard, K., Dodge, K. A., Bates, J. E., & Pettit, G. S. (1998). Multiple risk factors in the development of externalizing behavior problems: group and individual differences. Development and Psychopathology, 10, 469–493.
Dishion, T. J., McCord, J., & Poulin, F. (1999). When interventions harm: peer groups and problem behavior. American Psychologist, 54, 755–764.
Dong, M., Anda, R. F., Felitti, V. J., Dube, S. R., Wiliiamson, D. F., Thompson, T. J., Loo, C. M., Giles, W. H. (2004). The interrelatedness of multiple forms of childhood abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction. Child Abuse & Neglect, 28, 771–784.
Dube, S. R., Miller, J. W., Brown, D. W., Giles, W. H., Felitti, V. J., Dong, M., & Anda, R. F. (2006). Adverse childhood experiences and the association with ever using alcohol and initiating alcohol use during adolescence. Journal of Adolescent Health, 38, 444.e1–444.e10.
Eddy, J., Smith, P., Brown, C., & Reid, J. (2005). A survey of prevention science training: Implications for educating the next generation. Prevention Science, 6, 59–71.
Egeland, B. (1997). Mediators of the effects of child maltreatment on developmental adaptation in adolescence. In D. Cicchetti & S. L. Toth (Eds.), Developmental perspectives on trauma: Theory, research, and intervention, pp. 403–434. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.
Ellis, B. J., Essex, M. J., & Boyce, W. T. (2005). Biological sensitivity to context: II. Empirical explorations of an evolutionary-developmental theory. Development and Psychopathology, 17, 303–328.
Essex, M. J., Klein, M. H., Cho, E., & Kalin, N. H. (2002). Maternal stress beginning in infancy may sensitize children to later stress exposure: Effects on cortisol and behavior. Biological Psychiatry, 52, 776–784.
Evans, G. W. (2003). A multimethodological analysis of cumulative risk and allostatic load among rural children. Developmental Psychology, 39, 924–933.
Evans, G. W., Kim, P., Ting, A. H., Tesher, H. B., & Shannis, D. (2007). Cumulative risk, maternal responsiveness, and allostatic load among young adolescents. Developmental Psychology, 43, 341–351.
Forehand, R., Biggar, H., & Kotchick, B. A. (1998). Cumulative risk across family stressors: short- and long-term effects for adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 26, 119–128.
Furstenberg, F. F., Cook, T., Eccles, J., Elder, G. H., & Sameroff, A. J. (1999). Managing to make it: Urban families and adolescent success. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Garmezy, N. (1974). Children at risk: The search for the antecedents to schizophrenia: Part II. Ongoing research programs, issues and intervention. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 9, 55–125.
Garmezy, N., & Rutter. M. (Eds.) (1983). Stress, coping and development in children. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Ge, X., Lorenz, F. O., Conger, R. D., Elder, G. H., & Simons, R. L. (1995). Trajectories of stressful life events and depressive symptoms during adolescence. Developmental Psychology, 30, 467–483.
Ge, X., Natsuki, M. N., & Conger, R. D. (2006). Trajectories of depressive symptoms and stressful life events among male and female adolescents in divorced and nondivorced families. Development and Psychopathology, 18, 253–273.
Gerard, J. M., & Buehler, C. (2004). Cumulative environmental risk and youth maladjustment: the role of youth attributes. Child Development, 75, 1832–1849.
Gershoff, E. T., Aber, J. L., Raver, C. C., & Lennon, M. C. (2007). Income is not enough: Incorporating material hardship into models of income associations with parenting and child development. Child Development, 78, 70–95.
Gest, S. D., Reed, M., & Masten, A. S. (1999). Measuring developmental changes in exposure to adversity: A life chart and rating scale approach. Development and Psychopathology, 11, 171–192.
Gottesman, I. I. (1974). Developmental genetics and ontogenetic psychology: Overdue détente and propositions from a matchmaker. In A. D. Pick (Ed.), Minnesota symposium on child psychology, Vol. 8, pp. 55–80. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Gottesman, I. I., Shields, J., & Hanson, D. (1982). Schizophrenia: The epigenetic puzzle. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Greenberg, M. T., Speltz, M. L., DeKlyen, M., & Jones, K. (2001). Correlates of clinic referral for early conduct problems: Variable- and person-oriented approaches. Development and Psychopathology, 13, 255–276.
Guo, G., & Harris, K. M. (2000). The mechanisms mediating the effects of poverty on children’s intellectual development. Demography, 37, 431–447.
Hanson, D. R., & Gottesman, I. I. (2007). Choreographing genetic, epigentic, and stochastic steps in the dances of developmental psychopathology. In A. S. Masten (Ed.), Multilevel dynamics in developmental psychopathology: Pathways to the future, pp. 27–43. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Holmes, T. H., & Rahe, R. H. (1967). The social readjustment rating scale. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 11, 213–218.
Jessor, R., van den Bos, J., Vanderrym, J., Costa, F. M., & Turbin, M. S. (1995). Protective factors in adolescent problem behavior: Moderator effects and developmental change. Developmental Psychology, 31, 923–933.
Johnson, J. H. (1986). Life events as stressors in childhood and adolescence. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Kaufman, J. et al. (2004). Social supports and serotonin transporter gene moderate depression in maltreated children. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 101, 17316–17421.
Keating, D. P., & Hertzman, C. (Eds.) (1999). Developmental health and the wealth of nations: Social, biological and educational dynamics. New York: Guilford.
Keiley, M. K., Lofthouse, N., Bates, J. E., Dodge, K. A., & Pettit, G. S. (2003). Differential risks of covarying and pure components in mother and teacher reports of externalizing and internalizing behavior across age 5 to 14. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 31, 267–283.
Kim, K. J., Conger, R. D., Elder, G. H., & Lorenz, F. O. (2003). Reciprocal influences between stressful life events and internalizing and externalizing problems. Child Development, 74, 127–143.
Kim-Cohen, J., & Gold, A. L. (2009). Measured gene-environment interactions and mechanisms promoting resilient development. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 18, 139–142.
Klein Velderman, M., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., Juffer, F., & van IJzendoorn, M. H. (2006). Effects of attachment-based interventions on maternal sensitivity and infant attachment: Differential susceptibility of highly reactive infants. Journal of Family Psychology, 20, 266–274.
Kraemer, H. C., Kazdin, A. E., Offord, D., Kessler, R. C., Jensen, P. S., & Kupfer, D. (1997). Coming to terms with the terms of risk. Archives of General Psychiatry, 54, 337–343.
Kraemer, H. C., Stice, E., Kazdin, A., Offord, D., & Kupfer, D. (2001). How do risk factors work together? Mediators, moderators, and independent, overlapping, and proxy risk factors. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 848–856.
Kraemer, H. C., Wilson, T., Fairburn, C. G., & Agras, W. S. (2002). Mediators and moderators of treatment effects in randomized clinical trials. Archives of General Psychiatry, 59, 877–883.
Lansford, J. E., Chang, L., Dodge, K. A., Malone, P. S., Oburu, P., Palmérus, K., Bacchini, D., Pastorelli, C., Bombi, A. S., Zelli, A., Tapanya, S., Chaudary, N., Deater-Deckard, K., Manke, B., & Quinn, N. (2005). Physical discipline and children’s adjustment: cultural normativeness as a moderator. Child Development, 76, 1234–1246.
Lemery-Chalfant, K., Schreiber, J. E., Schmidt, N. L., Van Hulle, C. A., Essex, M. J., & Goldsmith, H. H. (2007). Assessing internalizing, externalizing, and attention problems in young children: Validation of the MacArthur HBQ. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 46, 1315–1323.
Lester, B., Masten, A. S., & McEwen, B. (Eds.) (2006). Resilience in children. New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 1094. See
Leventhal, T., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2004). A randomized study of neighborhood effects on low-income children’s educational outcomes. Developmental Psychology, 40, 488–507.
Linver, M. R., Brooks-Gunn, J., & Kohen, D. E. (2002). Family processes as pathways from income to young children’s development. Developmental Psychology, 38, 719–734.
Luthar, S. S. (1999). Poverty and children’s adjustment. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Luthar, S. S. (2006). Resilience in development: A synthesis of research across five decades. In D. Cicchetti & D. J. Cohen (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology: Vol. 3. Risk, disorder, and adaptation, pp. 739–795 (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley.
Masten, A. S. (2001). Ordinary magic: Resilience processes in development. American Psychologist, 56(3), 227–238.
Masten, A. S. (2004). Regulatory processes, risk and resilience in adolescent development. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1021, 310–319.
Masten, A. S. (2006). Developmental psychopathology: Pathways to the future. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 31, 46–53.
Masten, A. S., Best, K. M., & Garmezy, N. (1990). Resilience and development: Contributions from the study of children who overcome adversity. Development and Psychopathology, 2, 425–444.
Masten, A. S., Cutuli, J. J., Herbers, J. E., & Gabrielle-Reed, M. J. (2009). Resilience in development. In C. R. Snyder, & S. J. Lopez (Eds.), The handbook of positive psychology, pp. 117–131 (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.
Masten, A. S., & Gewirtz, A. (2006). Vulnerability and resilience in early child development. In K. McCartney & D. Phillips (Eds.), Handbook of early childhood development, pp. 22–43. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Masten, A. S., Neemann, J., & Andenas, S. (1994). Life events and adjustment in adolescents: The significance of event independence, desirability, and chronicity. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 4, 71–97.
Masten, A. S., & Obradović, J. (2006). Competence and resilience in development. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1094, 13–27.
Masten, A. S., & Shaffer, A. (2006). How families matter in child development: reflections from research on risk and resilience. In A. Clarke-Stewart & J. Dunn (Eds.), Families count: Effects on child and adolescent development, pp. 5–25. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Masten, A. S., & Wright, M. O. (1998). Cumulative risk and protection models of child maltreatment. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment, and Trauma, 2, 7–30.
McEwen, B. S., & Wingfield, J. (2003). The concept of allostasis in biology and biomedicine. Hormones and Behavior, 43, 2–15.
McLoyd, V. C. (1998). Socioeconomic disadvantage and child development. American Psychologist, 53, 185–204.
Mistry, R. S., Vandewater, E. A., Huston, A. C., & McLoydV. C. (2002). Economic well-being and children’s social adjustment: the role of family process in an ethnically diverse low-income sample. Child Development, 73, 935–951.
Morris, A. S., Silk, J. S., Steinberg, L., Sessa, F. M., Avenevoli, S., & Essex, M. J. (2002). Temperamental vulnerability and negative parenting as interacting predictors of child adjustment. Journal of Marriage and Family, 64, 461–471.
Nelson, C. A., Zeanah, C. H., & Fox, N. A. (2007). The effects of early deprivation on brain-behavioral development: The Bucharest Early Intervention Project. In D. Romer & E. F. Walker (Eds.), Adolescent psychopathology and the developing brain: integrating brain and prevention science, pp. 197–215. New York: Oxford University Press.
Obradović, J., & Boyce, W. T. (2009). Individual differences in behavioral, physiological, and genetic sensitivities to contexts: Implications for development and adaptation. Developmental Neuroscience, 300–308.
Obradović, J., Bush, N. R., Stamperdahl, J., Adler, N. A., & Boyce, W. T. (2010). Biological sensitivity to context: The interactive effects of stress reactivity and family adversity on socio-emotional behavior and school readiness. Child Development, 81, 270–289.
Obradović, J., & Hipwell, A. (2010). Psychopathology and social competence during transition to adolescence: The role of family adversity and pubertal development. Development and Psychopathology, 22, 621–634.
Obradović, J., Masten, A. S., & Shaffer, A. (April 2005). Sorting out the significance of risks, adversity, and resources in childhood for success in adulthood. Paper presented at the Society for Research in Child Development, Atlanta, GA.
O’Connor, T. G. (2006). The persisting effects of early experiences on psychological development. In D. Cicchetti & D. J. Cohen (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology: Vol. 3. Risk, disorder, and adaptation, pp. 202–234 (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
O’Dougherty, M., & Wright, F. S. (1990). Children born at medical risk: Factors affecting vulnerability and resilience. In J. Rolf, A. S. Masten, D. Cicchetti, K. H. Nuechterlein & S. Weintraub (Eds.), Risk and protective factors in the development of psychopathology, pp. 120–140. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Pauli-Pott, U., Mertesacker, B., & Beckman, D. (2004). Predicting the development of infant emotionality from maternal characteristics. Development and Psychopathology, 16, 19–42.
Pluess, M., & Belsky, J. (2009). Differential susceptibility to rearing experience: The case of childcare. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 50, 396–404.
Risch, N., Herrell, R., Lehner, T., Liany, K.-Y., Eaves, L., Hoh, J., Griem, A., Kovacs, M., Ott, J., & Merikangas, K. R. (2009). Interaction between the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR), stressful life events, and risk of depression: A meta-analysis. Journal of the American Medical Association, 301, 2462–2471.
Runyan, D. K. et al. (1998). Children who prosper in unfavorable environments: the relationship to social capital. Pediatrics, 101, 12–18.
Rutter, M. (1979). Protective factors in children’s responses to stress and disadvantage. In M. W. Kent & J. E. Rolf (Eds.), Primary prevention of psychopathology: Vol. 3. Social competence in children, pp. 49–74. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England.
Rutter, M. (1990). Psychosocial resilience and protective mechanisms. In J. Rolf, A. S. Masten, D. Cicchetti, K. H. Nuechterlein & S. Weintraub (Eds.), Risk and protective factors in the development of psychopathology, pp. 181–214. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Rutter, M. (2000). Psychosocial influences: Critiques, findings, and research needs. Development and Psychopathology, 12, 375–405.
Rutter, M. (2006). How does the concept of resilience alter the study and understanding of risk and protective influences on psychopathology?Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1094, 1–12.
Sameroff, A. (2006). Identifying risk and protective factors for healthy child development. In A. Clark-Stewart & J. Dunn (Eds.), Families count: Effects on child and adolescent development, pp. 53–76. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Sameroff, A. J., & Chandler, M. J. (1975). Reproductive risk and the continuum of caretaking casualty. In F. D. Horowitz, M. Hetherington, S. Scarr-Salapatek, & G. Siegel (Eds.), Review of child development research, pp. 187–242. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Sameroff, A. J., & Seifer, R. (1990). Early contributors to developmental risk. In In J. Rolf, A. S. Masten, D. Cicchetti, K. H. Nuechterlein & S. Weintraub (Eds.), Risk and protective factors in the development of psychopathology, pp. 52–66. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Sameroff, A. J., Seifer, R., Barocas, B., Zax, M., & Greenspan, S. (1987). IQ scores of 4-year-old children: social-environmental risk factors. Pediatrics, 79, 343–350.
Sampson, R. J., Morenoff, J. D., & Gannon-Rowley, T. (2002). Assessing “neighborhood effects”: Social processes and new directions in research. Annual Review of Sociology, 28, 443–478.
Sanbonmatsu, L., Kling, J. R., Duncan, G. J., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2006). Neighborhoods and academic achievement: Results from the Moving to Opportunity experiment. Journal of Human Resources, 61, 649–691.
Schoon, I., Bynner, J., Joshi, H., Parsons, S., Wiggins, R. D., & Sacker, A. (2002). The influence of context, timing, and duration of risk experiences for the passage from childhood to mid-adulthood. Child Development, 73, 1486–1504.
Scollon, C. N., Kim-Prieto, C., & Diener, E. (2003). Experience sampling: Promises and pitfalls, strengths and weaknesses. Journal of Happiness Studies, 4, 5–34.
Seccombe, K. (2000). Families in poverty in the 1990s: Trends, causes, consequences, and lessons learned. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 62, 1094–1113.
Seeman, T. E., McEwen, B. S., Rowe, J. W., & Singer, B. H. (2001). Allostatic load as a marker of cumulative biological risk: MacArthur studies of successful aging. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 98, 4770–4775.
Seifer, R., Sameroff, A. J., Dickstein, S., Gitner, G., Miller, I., Rasmussen, S., & Hayden, L. C. (1996). Parental psychopathology, multiple contextual risks, and one-year outcomes in children. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 25, 423–435.
Small, S. A., & Luster, T. (1994). Adolescent sexual activity: an ecological, risk-factor approach. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 56, 181–192.
Smokowski, P. R., Mann, E. A., Reynolds, A. J., & Fraser, M. W. (2004). Childhood risk and protective factors and late adolescent adjustment in inner city minority youth. Children and Youth Services Review, 26, 63–91.
Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Loeber, R., Wei, E., Farrington, D. P., & Wikström, P. O. (2002). Risk and promotive effects in the explanation of persistent serious delinquency in boys. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70, 111–123.
Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Wei, E., Homish, D. L., & Loeber, R. (2002). Which family and demographic factors are related to both maltreatment and persistent serious juvenile delinquency?Children’s Services: Social Policy, Research, and Practice, 5, 261–272.
Taylor, C. A., Boris, N. W., Heller, S. S., Clum, G. A., Rice, J. C., & Zeanah, C. H. (2008). Cumulative experiences of violence among high-risk urban youth. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 23, 1618–1635.
Trickett, E. J. (1992). Prevention ethics: Explicating the context of prevention activities. Ethics & Behavior, 2, 91–100.
Watt, N. F., Anthony, E. J., Wynne, L. C., & Rolf, J. E. (1984). Children at risk for schizophrenia: A longitudinal perspective. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Werner, E. E., & SmithR. S. (1982). Overcoming the odds: High risk children from birth to adulthood. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Williams, S., Anderson, J., McGee, R., & Silva, P. A. (1990). Risk factors for behavioral and emotional disorder in preadolescent children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 29, 413–419.
Zeanah, C. H., Boris, N. W., & Larrieu, J. A. (1997). Infant development and developmental risk: A review of the past 10 years. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 165–178.