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In this chapter, we describe the field of clinical neuropsychology and approaches to neuropsychological assessment. We critically review tests commonly used in neuropsychological assessment. Our critical review includes coverage of concurrent and criterion validity as well as other important aspects to construct validity for neuropsychological tests (i.e., relationship to functional and structural imaging, ecological validity of test scores). Throughout our review, we also address the use of neuropsychological tests with diverse individuals. Throughout the chapter, we emphasize the need for assessment of the credibility of neuropsychological test performance in order to interpret test results. We also discuss unique assessment issues that arise in neuropsychological assessment, with a focus on neuropsychological test selection issues, interpretation of scores from neuropsychological tests, and integration of test scores with other data. We also briefly discuss relatively unique ethical/professional issues that arise in the neuropsychological assessment context.