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  • Print publication year: 2018
  • Online publication date: April 2018

2 - Conflict and Transformation, 1808–1920

from Part I - History of Quaker Faith and Practice


Over the course of the nineteenth century, Quakerism was transformed. A united body in 1808, Friends had split into three branches by 1860. In 1808, Friends adhered to a lifestyle that served as a “hedge” against “the world,” a distinctive spirituality, and a unique form of worship. By 1920, that unity had disappeared, with little agreement on most matters of Quaker faith and practice.
Hamm, Thomas D. (1988) The Transformation of American Quakerism: Orthodox Friends, 1800–1907. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Ingle, H. Larry. (1986) Quakers in Conflict: The Hicksite Reformation. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.
Isichei, Elizabeth. (1970) Victorian Quakers. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Kennedy, T. C. (2001) British Quakerism, 1860–1920: The Transformation of a Religious Community. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Southern, Alice. (2011) “The Rowntree History Series and the Growth of Liberal Quakerism.” Quaker Studies 16, no. 1: 773.