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The Cambridge Companion to Hip-Hop
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Book description

It has been more than thirty-five years since the first commercial recordings of hip-hop music were made. This Companion, written by renowned scholars and industry professionals reflects the passion and scholarly activity occurring in the new generation of hip-hop studies. It covers a diverse range of case studies from Nerdcore hip-hop to instrumental hip-hop to the role of rappers in the Obama campaign and from countries including Senegal, Japan, Germany, Cuba, and the UK. Chapters provide an overview of the 'four elements' of hip-hop - MCing, DJing, break dancing (or breakin'), and graffiti - in addition to key topics such as religion, theatre, film, gender, and politics. Intended for students, scholars, and the most serious of 'hip-hop heads', this collection incorporates methods in studying hip-hop flow, as well as the music analysis of hip-hop and methods from linguistics, political science, gender and film studies to provide exciting new perspectives on this rapidly developing field.


‘… The Cambridge Companion to Hip-Hop provides a powerful account of what it presents, persuasively, as the most revolutionary music since rock’n’roll.’

Andrew Warnes Source: The Times Literary Supplement

'For those new to the scene as well as hip-hop heads looking to broaden their understanding and appreciation of this complex and often misappropriated culture, Justin A. Williams’s The Cambridge Companion to Hip-Hop stands out as a valuable addition to one’s library. … Justin A. Williams has succeeded in his aim to bring a comprehensive, globally aware and culturally situated exploration of hip-hop to light.'

Patrick K. Cooper Source: Journal of Popular Music Education

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  • 1 - MC origins: rap and spoken word poetry
    pp 11-21

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Books and articles

Adams, Kyle, “Aspects of the Music/Text Relationship in Rap,” Music Theory Online 14/2 (2008). Available at
Adams, Kyle, “On the Metrical Techniques of Flow in Rap Music,” Music Theory Online 15/5 (2009). Available at
Alexander, Michelle, The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness (New York: The New Press, 2012).
Alim, H. Samy, Roc the Mic Right: The Language of Hip-Hop Culture (London: Routledge, 2006).
Anderson, Elijah, Streetwise: Race, Class, and Change in an Urban Community (University of Chicago Press, 1992).
Armstrong, Andrew, “The Japanese ‘Ghetto Gangsta’: Searching for Prestige in Kansai Hip Hop Performance,” Ph.D. dissertation, Boston University, 2012.
Armstrong, Edward G., “Eminem’s Construction of Authenticity,” Popular Music and Society 2713 (2004): 335–355.
Bailey, Julius (ed.), Jay-Z: Essays on Hip Hop’s Philosopher King (Jefferson, NC: McFarland Press, 2011).
Baker, Houston A., Black Studies, Rap, and the Academy (University of Chicago Press, 1993).
Ball, Jared A., I Mix What I Like! A Mixtape Manifesto (Oakland, CA: AK Press, 2011).
Banes, Sally, “Physical Graffiti: Breaking is Hard to Do,” The Village Voice, April 22–28, 1981.
Banks, Daniel, Say Word! Voices from Hip Hop Theater (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2011).
Baraka, Amiri, Blues People: Negro Music in White America (New York: William Morrow, 1963).
Bass, Holly, “Blowing Up the Set: What Happens When the Pulse of Hip-hop Shakes Up the Traditional Stage,” American Theater, November 1999.
Bayley, Amanda, Recorded Music: Performance, Culture and Technology (Cambridge University Press, 2010).
Bennett, Andy, “Rappin’ on the Tyne: White Hip Hop Culture in Northeast England – an Ethnographic Study,” Sociological Review 47/1 (1999): 1–24.
Boone, Christine, “Mashing: Toward a Typology of Recycled Music,” Music Theory Online 19/3 (2013). Available at
Boyd, Todd, The New H.N.I.C.: The Death of Civil Rights and the Reign of Hip Hop (New York University Press, 2002).
Brewster, Bill and Frank Broughton, Last Night a DJ Saved My Life: The History of the Disc Jockey (New York: Headline Publishing, 2006).
Bynoe, Yvonne, Stand and Deliver: Political Activism, Leadership, and Hip-hop Culture (New York: Soft Skull Press, 2004).
Caro, Robert A., The Power Broker: Robert Moses and the Fall of New York (New York: Vintage, 1975).
Castleman, Craig, Getting Up: Subway Graffiti in New York (Boston: MIT Press, 1982).
Chalfant, Henry and James Prigoff, Spraycan Art (London: Thames & Hudson, 1987).
Chang, Jeff, Can’t Stop Won’t Stop: A History of the Hip-Hop Generation (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2005).
Chang, Jeff (ed.), Total Chaos: The Art and Aesthetics of Hip-Hop (New York: Basic Civitas, 2006).
Charnas, Dan, The Big Payback: The History of the Business of Hip-Hop (New York: New American Library, 2010).
Cheney, Charise, Brothers Gonna Work It Out: Sexual Politics in the Golden Age of Rap Nationalism (New York University Press, 2005).
Clay, Andreana, The Hip-Hop Generation Fights Back: Youth, Activism, and Post-Civil Rights Politics (New York University Press, 2012).
Cobb, William Jelani, To the Break of Dawn: A Freestyle on the Hip-Hop Aesthetic (New York University Press, 2007).
Cohen, Sara, “Ethnography and Popular Music Studies,” Popular Music 12/2 (1993): 123–138.
Condry, Ian, Hip-Hop Japan: Rap and the Paths of Cultural Globalization (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2006).
Cooper, Martha and Henry Chalfant, Subway Art (London: Thames & Hudson, 1984).
Cooper, Martha and Nika Kramer, We B*Girlz (New York: powerHouse Books, 2005).
Cook, Miriam and Bruce B. Lawrence, Muslim Networks from Hajj to Hip Hop (Durham, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2005).
Cross, Brian, It’s Not About a Salary: Rap, Race and Resistance in Los Angeles (London: Verso Press, 1993).
Danielsen, Anne (ed.), Musical Rhythm in the Age of Digital Reproduction (Farnham: Ashgate, 2010).
Davis, Eisa, “Hip-hop Theater: The New Underground,” The Source, March 2000, pp. 172–176.
DeFrantz, Thomas, “The Black Beat Made Visible: Hip Hop Dance and Body Power,” in André Lepecki (ed.), Of the Presence of the Body: Essays on Dance and Performance Theory (Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 2004), pp. 64–81.
Denzin, Norman K., Interpretive Ethnography: Ethnographic Practice for the 21st Century (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1997).
Dery, Mark, “Public Enemy: Confrontation,” Keyboard Magazine, September 1990, pp. 81–96.
Dimitriadis, Greg, “Hip-hop to Rap: Some Implications of an Historically Situated Approach to Performance,” Text and Performance Quarterly 19 (1999): 355–369.
Donalson, Melvin, Hip Hop in American Cinema (New York: Peter Lang Publishing, 2007).
Dyson, Michael Eric, Between God and Gangsta Rap (New York and London: Oxford University Press, 1997).
Dyson, Michael Eric, Holler If You Hear Me: Searching for Tupac Shakur (New York: Basic Civitas, 2001).
Dyson, Michael Eric, Open Mic: Reflections on Philosophy, Race, Sex, Culture and Religion (New York: Basic Civitas, 2003).
Dyson, Michael Eric, Race Rules (New York: Vintage Books, 1997).
Dyson, Michael Eric, “Rap Culture, the Church, and American Society,” Black Sacred Music: A Journal of Theomusicology 6/1 (1992): 268–273.
Eisenberg, Evan, The Recording Angel: Music, Records and Culture from Aristotle to Zappa, 2nd edn. (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2005).
Emerson, Rana,“‘Where My Girls at’: Negotiating Black Womanhood in Music Videos,” Gender & Society 16 (2002): 115–135.
Euell, Kim and Robert Alexander (eds.), Plays from the Boom Box Galaxy: Theater from the Hip-hop Generation (New York: Theatre Communications Group, 2009).
Fernandes, Sujatha, Cuba Represent! Cuban Arts, State Power, and the Making of New Revolutionary Cultures (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2006).
Fink, Robert, “The Story of ORCH5, or the Classical Ghost in the Hip-hop Machine,” Popular Music 24/3 (October 2005): 339–356.
Fintoni, Lauren, “Return of the Boombap,” Red Bull Music Academy, July 8, 2012. Available at
Flores, Juan, From Bomba to Hip-Hop (New York: Columbia University Press, 2000).
Floyd, Samuel A., Jr., The Power of Black Music (Oxford University Press, 1995).
Fogarty, Mary Elizabeth, “Dance to the Drummer’s Beat: Competing Tastes in International B-Boy/B-Girl Culture,” Dissertation University of Edinburgh, 2011.
Fogarty, Mary Elizabeth., “‘Each One Teach One’: B-Boying and Ageing,” in Paul Hodkinson and Andy Bennett (eds.), Ageing and Youth Cultures: Music, Style, and Identity (London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2012).
Fogarty, Mary Elizabeth, “Whatever Happened to Breakdancing? Transnational B-boy/B-girl Networks, Underground Video Magazines and Imagined Affinities,” Master’s Thesis, Brook University, 2006.
Forman, Murray, The ’Hood Comes First: Race, Space, and Place in Rap and Hip-Hop (Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 2002).
Forman, Murray and Mark Anthony Neal (eds.), That’s the Joint! The Hip-Hop Studies Reader, 2nd edn. (New York and London: Routledge, 2011).
Fricke, Jim and Charlie Ahearn (eds.), Yes, Yes Y’all: The Experience Music Project Oral History of Hip-Hop’s First Decade (Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press, 2002).
Gastman, Roger and Caleb Neelon, The History of American Graffiti (New York: HarperCollins, 2010).
Gaunt, Kyra Danielle, The Games Black Girls Play: Learning the Ropes from Double-Dutch to Hip-Hop (New York University Press, 2006).
George, Nelson, Hip Hop America (New York: Viking Press, 1998).
Gilroy, Paul, The Black Atlantic: Modernity and Double Consciousness (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1993).
Gooch, Cheryl R., “Rappin for the Lord: The Uses of Gospel Rap and Contemporary Music in Black Religious Communities,” in D. A. Stout and Judith M. Buddenbaum (eds.), Religion and Mass Media: Audiences and Adaptations (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1996).
Gosa, Travis L., “Counterknowledge, Racial Paranoia, and the Cultic Milieu: Decoding Hip-hop Conspiracy Theory,” Poetics 39/3 (2011): 187–204.
Gosa, Travis L. and Tristan Fields, “Is Hip-Hop Education Another Hustle? The (Ir)Responsible Use of Hip-Hop as Pedagogy,” in Brad J. Porfilio and Michael Viola (eds.), Hip-Hop(e): The Cultural Practice and Critical Pedagogy of International Hip-Hop (New York: Peter Lang, 2012), pp. 195– 210.
Greenwald, Jeff, “Hip-Hop Drumming: The Rhyme May Define, but the Groove Makes You Move,” Black Music Research Journal 22/2 (2002): 259–271.
Hager, Steven, Hip-hop: The Illustrated History of Breakdancing, Rap Music, and Graffiti (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1984).
Hanchard, Michael, Party Politics: Horizons in Black Political Thought (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006).
Harkness, Geoff, “Gangs and Gangsta Rap in Chicago: A Microscenes Perspective,” Poetics 41/2 (2013): 151–176.
Harkness, Geoff, “The Spirit of Rapitalism: Artistic Labor Practices in Chicago’s Hip Hop Underground,” Journal of Workplace Rights 16 (2012): 251–270.
Harkness, Geoff, “True School: Situational Authenticity in Chicago’s Hip Hop Underground,” Cultural Sociology 6 (2012): 283–298.
Harrison, Anthony Kwame, “‘Cheaper Than a CD, Plus We Really Mean It’: Bay Area Underground Hip Hop Tapes as Subcultural Artefacts,” Popular Music 25/2 (2006): 283–301.
Harrison, Anthony Kwame, Hip Hop Underground: The Integrity and Ethics of Racial Identification (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2009).
Heller, Jerry, Ruthless: A Memoir (New York: Gallery, 2007).
Hess, Mickey (ed.), Icons of Hip-Hop: An Encyclopedia of the Movement, Music, and Culture (Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLO, 2007).
Hoch, Danny, “Here We Go Yo! A Hip-hop Arts Manifesto,” American Theater 21/10 (2004).
Hodgson, Jay, “Lateral Dynamics Processing in Experimental Hip-Hop: Flying Lotus, Madlib, Oh No, J-Dilla and Prefuse 73,” Journal on the Art of Record Production 5 (2011).
hooks, bell, Black Looks: Race and Representation (Boston: South End Press, 1992).
Hunter, Margaret, “Shake it, Baby, Shake it: Consumption and the New Gender Relation Hip-hop,” Sociological Perspectives 54 (2001): 15–36.
Huntington, Carla Stalling, Hip Hop Dance: Meanings and Messages (Jefferson, NC: MacFarland Press, 2007).
Ibrahim, Awad, H. Samy Alim, and Alastair Pennycook (eds.), Global Linguistic Flows: Hip Hop Cultures, Youth Identities, and the Politics of Language (New York: Routledge, 2009).
Isobe, Ryō, “Yankii to hippu hoppu: Souru zoku kara B-Boy to tsuzuku mou hitotsu no yankii no rekishi,” in Takeo Igarashi (ed.), Yankii bunkaron josetsu (Tokyo: Kawade Shobō Shinsha, 2009).
Isobe, Ryō (ed.), Odotte wa ikenai kuni, nihon: Fūeihō mondai to kajō kisei sareru shakai (Tokyo: Kawade Shobō, 2012).
Jackson, John L., Jr., Real Black: Adventures of Racial Sincerity (University of Chicago Press, 2005).
Jeffries, Michael, Thug Life: Race, Gender, and the Meaning of Hip-Hop (University of Chicago Press, 2011).
Johnson, Imani Kai,“B-Boying and Battling in a Global Context: The Discursive Life of Difference in Hip Hop Dance,” Alif: Journal of Comparative Poetics 31 (2011): 173–195.
Johnson, Imani Kai, “From Blues Women to B-Girls: Performing Badass Femininity,” Women & Performance: A Journal of Feminist Theory, special issue “All Hail the Queenz: A Queer Feminist Recalibration of Hip-hop Scholarship” 24/1 (2014), pp. 15–28.
Johnson, Imani Kai, “Dark Matter in B-Boying Cyphers: Race and Global Connection in Hip Hop”, Ph.D. dissertation, University of Southern California, 2009.
Katz, Mark, Capturing Sound: How Technology Has Changed Music (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2010).
Katz, Mark, Groove Music: The Art and Culture of the Hip-Hop DJ (New York: Oxford University Press, 2012).
Kautny, Oliver, “‘…when I’m not put on this list…’ Kanonisierungsprozesse im HipHop am Beispiel Eminem,” in Dietrich Helms and Thomas Phelps (eds.), No Time for Losers. Charts, Listen und andere Kanonisierungen in der populären Musik (Bielefeld: Transcript, 2008), pp. 145–160.
Kautny, Oliver and Adam Krims (eds.), Sampling im HipHop, in Samples 9 (2010). Available at
Kaya, Ayhan, “Sicher in Kreuzberg.” Constructing Diasporas: Turkish Hip-hop Youth in Berlin (Bielefeld: Transcript, 2001).
Kelley, Robin D. G., Race Rebels: Culture, Politics, and the Black Working Class (New York: The Free Press, 1994).
Kelley, Robin D. G., Yo’ Mama’s Dysfunctional! Fighting the Culture Wars in Urban America (Boston: Beacon Press, 1997).
Keyes, Cheryl L., “Empowering Self, Making Choices, Creating Spaces: Black Female Identity via Rap Music Performance,” The Journal of American Folklore 113 (2000): 255–269.
Keyes, Cheryl L., Rap Music and Street Consciousness: Music in American Life (Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2002).
Keyes, Cheryl L., “Verbal Art Performance in Rap Music: The Conversation of the 80’s,” Folklore Forum 17/2 (1984): 143–152.
Kitwana, Bakari, The Hip-Hop Generation: Young Blacks and the Crisis in African American Culture (New York: Basic Civitas, 2002).
Kitwana, Bakari, Why White Kids Love Hip-hop (New York: Basic Civitas, 2005).
Knight, Michael Muhammad, The Five Percenters: Islam, Hip-Hop, and the Gods of New York (London: One World Books, 2007).
Krims, Adam, “The Hip-Hop Sublime as a Form of Commodification,” in Regula Burckhardt Qureshi (ed.), Music and Marx: Ideas, Practice, Politics (New York and London: Routledge, 2002), pp. 63–80.
Krims, Adam, Music and Urban Geography (London: Routledge, 2007).
Krims, Adam, Rap Music and the Poetics of Identity (Cambridge University Press, 2000).
KRS-One, The Gospel of Hip-Hop: First Instrument (Brooklyn, NY: powerHouse Books, 2009).
Kugelberg, Johan, Joe Conzo, and Afrika Bambaataa, Born in the Bronx: A Visual Record of the Early Days of Hip-Hop (New York: Rizzoli, 2007).
LaBoskey, Sara, “Getting off: Portrayals of Masculinity in Hip Hop Dance in Film,” Dance Research Journal 33 (2001): 112–120.
Lee, Jooyoung, “Open Mic: Professionalizing the Rap Career”, Ethnography 10/4 (2009): 475–495.
Lewis, Ladel, “White Thugs & Black Bodies: A Comparison of the Portrayal of African-American Women in Hip Hop Videos,” The Hilltop Review 4 (2011): 1–17.
Livingston, Samuel Thomas, “The Ideological and Philosophical Influence of the Nation of Islam on Hip-Hop Culture,” Ph.D. dissertation, Temple University, 1998.
Manabe, Noriko, “Globalization and Japanese Creativity: Adaptations of Japanese Language to Rap,” Ethnomusicology 50/1 (2006): 1–36.
Manabe, Noriko, “Music in Japanese Antinuclear Demonstrations: The Evolution of a Contentious Performance Model,” The Asia-Pacific Journal 11/3 (2013). Available at
Manabe, Noriko, “Representing Japan: ‘National’ Style among Japanese Hip-hop DJs,” Popular Music 32/1 (2013): 35–50.
Manabe, Noriko, “Straight Outta Ichimiya: The Appeal of a Rural Japanese Rapper,” The Asia Pacific Journal 11/1 (2013). Available at
Manabe, Noriko, The Revolution Will Not Be Televised: Music and Musicians in the Antinuclear Movement post-Fukushima (New York: Oxford University Press, forthcoming).
Maxwell, Ian, Phat Beats, Dope Rhymes: Hip Hop Down Under Comin’ Upper (Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 2003).
McLeod, Kembrew, “Authenticity within Hip Hop and Other Cultures Threatened with Assimilation,” Journal of Communication 49/4 (1999): 134–150.
McLeod, Kembrew and Peter DiCola, Creative License: The Law and Culture of Digital Sampling (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2011).
McQuillar, Tayannah Lee, and J. Brother, When Rap Music Had a Conscience: The Artists, Organizations, and Historic Events That Inspired and Influenced the “Golden Age” of Hip-Hop from 1987 to 1996 (New York: Thunder’s Mouth Press, 2007).
McWhorter, John, All About the Beat: Why Hip-Hop Can’t Save Black America (New York: Gotham Books, 2008).
Miller, Ivor, Aerosol Kingdom: Subway Painters of New York City (University Press of Mississippi, 2002, repr. 2010).
Miller-Young, Mireille, “Hip Hop Honeys and da Hustlaz: Black Sexualities in the New Hip Hop Pornography,” Meridians: Feminism, Race, Transnationalism 8 (2008): 261–292.
Mitchell, Tony (ed.), Global Noise: Rap and Hip Hop Outside the USA (Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 2001).
Miyakawa, Felicia, Five Percenter Rap: God Hop’s Music, Message, and Black Muslim Mission (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 2005).
Montano, Ed, “‘How do you Know He’s not Playing Pac-Man while He’s Supposed to be DJing?’ Technology, formats and the Digital Future of DJ Culture,” Popular Music 29/3 (2010): 397–416.
Morgan, Joan, When Chickenheads Come Home to Roost: A Hip Hop Feminist Breaks it Down (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1999).
Morgan, Marcyliena, The Real Hiphop: Battling for Knowledge, Power, and Respect in the LA Underground (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2009).
Morris, David Z., “The Sakura of Madness: Japan’s Nationalist Hip Hop and the Parallax of Globalized Identity Politics,” Communication, Culture & Critique 6/3 (2013): 459–480.
Mukherjee, Roopali, “The Ghetto Fabulous Aesthetic in Contemporary Black CultureCultural Studies 20 (2006): 599–629.
Neff, Ali Colleen, Let the World Listen Right: The Mississippi Delta Hip-hop Story (Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi, 2009).
Negus, Keith, “The Music Business and Rap: Between the Street and the Executive Suite,” Cultural Studies 13 (1999): 488–508.
Ness, Alien, The Art of Battle: Understanding Judged BBoy Battles. Alien Ness.
Nielson, Erik, “‘Here Come the Cops’: Policing the Resistance in Rap Music,” International Journal of Cultural Studies 15 (2012): 349–363.
Ogbar, JeffreyOgbonna Green, Hip-Hop Revolution: The Culture and Politics of Rap (Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 2007).
O’Hara, Robert and Harry Elam, The Fire This Time: African American Plays of the 21st Century (New York: Theatre Communications Group, 2002).
Osumare, Halifu, The Africanist Aesthetic in Global Hip-Hop: Power Moves (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007).
Pabon, Jessica, “Be About It: Graffiteras Performing Feminist Community,” TDR/The Drama Review 57/3 (2013): 88–116.
Perkins, William Eric (ed.), Droppin’ Science: Critical Essays on Rap Music and Hip-Hop Culture (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1996).
Perkinson, James, Shamanism, Racism, and Hip-Hop Culture: Essays on White Supremacy and Black Subversion (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006).
Perry, Imani, Prophets of the Hood: Politics and Poetics in Hip Hop (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2004).
Persley, Nicole Hodges, Remixing Blackness: Sampling Race and Gender in Hip-hop Theater and Performance (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, forthcoming).
Petchauer, Emery, Hip-hop Culture in College Students’ Lives: Elements, Embodiment, and Higher Edutainment (New York: Routledge, 2012).
Peterson, Richard A. and Andy Bennett, “Introducing Music Scenes,” in A. Bennett and R. A. Peterson, Music Scenes: Local, Translocal, Virtual (Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press, 2004), pp. 1–15.
Pfleiderer, Martin, Rhythmus. Psychologische, theoretische und stilanalytische Aspekte populärer Musik (Bielefeld: Transcript, 2006).
Phillips, Susan, “Crip Walk, Villain Dance, Pueblo Stroll: The Embodiment of Writing in African American Gang Dance,” Anthropological Quarterly 82/1 (2009): 69–97.
Pinn, Anthony (ed.), Noise and Spirit: The Religious and Spiritual Sensibilities of Rap Music (New York University Press, 2003).
Pollard, Deborah Smith, When the Church Becomes Your Party: Contemporary Gospel Music (Wayne State University Press, 2008).
Quinn, Eithne, Nuthin’ but a “G” Thang: The Culture and Commerce of Gangsta Rap, Popular Cultures, Everyday Lives (New York: Columbia University Press, 2005).
Rabaka, Reiland, Hip Hop’s Inheritance: From the Harlem Renaissance to the Hip Hop Feminist Movement (Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2011).
Ramsey, Guthrie, Race Music (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2003).
Reed, Teresa L., The Holy Profane: Religion in Black Popular Music (Lexington, KY: The University Press of Kentucky, 2003).
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Rivera, Raquel Z., New York Ricans from the Hip Hop Zone (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003).
Roberts, Robin, “‘Ladies first’: Queen Latifah’s Afrocentric feminist music video,” African American Review 28 (1994): 245–257.
Robitzky, Niels, Von Swipe Zu Storm: Breakdance in Deutschland (Hamburg: Backspin, 2000).
Rodriquez, Jason, “Color-Blind Ideology and Cultural Appropriation in Hip-Hop,” Journal of Contemporary Ethnography 35/6 (2006): 645–668.
Rose, Tricia, Black Noise: Rap Music and Black Culture in Contemporary America (Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 1994).
Rose, Tricia, The Hip Hop Wars: What We Talk about When We Talk about Hip Hop (New York: Basic Civitas, 2008).
Royster, Philip M., “The Rapper as Shaman for a Band of Dancers of the Spirit: ‘U Can’t Touch This,’” Black Sacred Music: A Journal of Theomusicology 5/1 (1991): 61–67.
Schloss, Joseph G., Foundation: B-Boys, B-Girls, and Hip-Hop Culture in New York (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009).
Schloss, Joseph G., Making Beats: The Art of Sample-Based Hip-Hop (Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 2004).
Sewell, Amanda, “A Typology of Sampling in Hip-Hop,” Ph.D. dissertation, Indiana University, 2013.
Shapiro, Roberta, “The Aesthetics of Institutionalization: Breakdancing in France,” The Journal of Arts Management, Law, and Society 33/4 (2004): 316–335.
Sharpley-Whiting, Tracy, Pimps Up Hoes Down: Hip Hop’s Hold on Young Black Women (New York University Press, 2008).
Simmons, Danny, Russell Simmons Def Poetry Jam on Broadway and More (New York: Atria Books, 2005).
Sinnreich, Aram, Mashed Up: Music, Technology, and the Rise of Configurable Culture (Amherst and Boston: University of Massachusetts Press, 2010).
Smith, Efrem and Phil Jackson, The Hip Hop Church: Connecting with the Movement Shaping our Culture (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2006).
Sokol, Monika, “Verbal Duelling. Ein universeller Sprachspieltypus und seine Metamorphosen im US-amerikanischen, französischen und deutschen Rap,” in Eva Kimminich (ed.), Rap: More than Words (Frankfurt: Peter Lang, 2004), pp. 113–160.
Sorett, Josef, “Beats, Rhyme and Bible: An Introduction to Gospel Hip Hop,” African American Pulpit 10 (2006–2007): 12–16.
Sorett, Josef, “‘Believe Me, This Pimp Game is Very Religious’: Toward a Religious History of Hip Hop,” Culture and Religion 10/1 (2009): 11–22.
Spady, James, Nation Conscious Rap: The Hip-Hop Vision (PC International Press, 1991).
Spady, James G., H. Samy Alim, and Samir Meghelli (eds.), The Global Cipha: Hip Hop Culture and Consciousness (Philadelphia: Black History Museum Publishers, 2006).
Spence, Lester K., Blues and Evil (Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee Press, 1993).
Spence, Lester K., Stare in the Darkness: The Limits of Hip-Hop and Black Politics (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2011).
Spencer, Jon Michael, Theological Music: Introduction to Theomusicology (New York: Greenwood Press, 1991).
Stephens, Dionne, and April Few, “Hip Hop Honey or Video Ho: African American Preadolescents’ Understanding of Female Sexual Scripts in Hip Hop culture,” Sexuality & Culture 11 (2007): 48–69.
Stephens, Dionne, and Layli Phillips, “Freaks, Gold Diggers, Divas, and Dykes: The Sociohistorical Development of Adolescent African American Women’s Sexual Scripts,” Sexuality & Culture 7 (2003): 3–49.
Stoute, Steve and Mim Eichler Rivas, The Tanning of America: How Hip-Hop Created a Culture That Rewrote the Rules of the New Economy (New York: Gotham Books, 2011).
Sylvan, Robin, Traces of the Spirit: The Religious Dimensions of Popular Music (New York and London: New York University Press, 2002).
Tate, Greg, Everything but the Burden: What White People are Taking from Black Culture (New York: Broadway Books, 2003).
Terkourafi, Marina (ed.), The Languages of Global Hip Hop (New York: Continuum International Publishing Group, 2010).
Toop, David, Rap Attack 2: African Rap to Global Hip-Hop, 2nd edn. (New York: Serpent’s Tail, 1991).
Van DeBurg, William, Hoodlum: African-American Blacks Villains and Social Bandits in American Life (University of Chicago Press, 2004).
Wald, Elijah, The Dozens: A History of Rap’s Mama (New York: Oxford University Press, 2012).
Walser, Robert, “Rhythm, Rhyme, and Rhetoric in the Music of Public Enemy,” Ethnomusicology 39/2 (1995): 193–217.
Walser, Robert, Hip Hop Matters: Politics, Pop Culture, and the Struggle for the Soul of a Movement (Boston: Beacon Press, 2005).
Ward, L. Monique, Edwina Hansbrough, and Eboni Walker, “Contributions of Music Video Exposure to Black Adolescents’ Gender and Sexual Schemas,” Journal of Adolescent Research 20 (2005): 143–166.
Watkins, S. Craig, Representing: Hip Hop Culture and the Production of Black Cinema (University of Chicago Press, 1998).
Weitzer, Ronald and Charis Kubrin, “Misogyny in Rap Music: A Content Analysis of Prevalence and Meanings,” Men and Masculinities 12 (2009): 3–29.
Williams, Erik J., “Only God Can Judge Us, Only God Can Save Us: The Hip-Hop Soul of Thugology,” Black Arts Quarterly: Hip Hop Culture: Language, Literature, Literacy and the Lives of Black Youth 6/2 (2001): 42–45.
Williams, Justin A., “Beats and Flows: A Response to Kyle Adams,” Music Theory Online 15/2 (2009). Available at
Williams, Justin A., Rhymin’ and Stealin’: Musical Borrowing in Hip-Hop (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2013).
Wilson, Olly, “The Significance of the Relationship between Afro-American Music and West African Music,” The Black Perspective in Music 2/1 (1974): 3–22.
Wilson, William Julius, The Truly Disadvantaged: The Inner City, the Underclass, and Public Policy (University of Chicago Press, 1987).
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8 Mile, dir. Curtis Hanson (Universal Pictures, 2002).
Akira’s Hip Hop Shop, dir. Joseph Doughrity (Daydreamer Pictures, Lightspeed Entertainment, 2007).
All the Ladies Say, dir. Ana “Rokafella” Garcia-Dionosio (Full Circle Productions, 2009).
Beat Street, dir. Stan Lathan (Orion Pictures Corp., 1984).
Black and White, dir. James Toback (Bigel/Mailer Films, Palm Pictures, 1999).
Bouncing Cats, dir. Nabil Elderkin (Red Bull Media House, 2010). Available at (accessed September 15, 2013).
Boyz N the Hood, dir. John Singleton (Columbia Pictures, 1991).
Breakin’, dir. Joel Silberg (MGM, 1984).
Breakin’ 2: Electric Boogaloo, dir. Sam Firstenberg (MGM, 1984).
Brown Sugar, dir. Rick Famuyiwa (Fox Searchlight, 2002).
Bulworth, dir. Warren Beatty (Twentieth Century Fox, 1998).
CB4, dir. Tamra Davis (Universal Pictures, 1993).
Check Your Body at the Door, dir. Sally Sommers (2012).
Class Act, dir. Randall Miller (Warner Bros., 1992).
Cool as Ice, dir. David Kellogg (Alive Films, Capella, Koppelmann/Bandier-Carnegie Pictures, 1991).
A Day in the Life, dir. Sticky Fingaz (Major Independents, 2009).
Death of a Dynasty, dir. Damon Dash (Dash Films, Entertainment Funding Group, Intrinsic Value Films, 2003).
Diamond Dawgs, dir. Chris Rogers (ScreenMagic Films, 2009).
Do the Right Thing, dir. Spike Lee (40 Acres & A Mule Filmworks, 1989).
Everything Remains Raw: Hip Hop’s Folkloric Lineage, dir. Moncell “Ill Kosby” Durden (forthcoming).
Exit Through the Gift Shop (A Banksy film, 2010).
Fear of a Black Hat, dir. Rusty Cundieff (Incorporated Television Company, Oakwood Productions, 1993).
Feel the Noise, dir. Alejandro Chomski (Sony Pictures, 2007).
Flashdance, dir. Adrian Lyne (Paramount Pictures, 1983).
Freshest Kids: A History of the B-boy, dir. Baba Israel (QD3 Entertainment Inc., 2002).
From Mambo to Hip Hop: A South Bronx Tale, dir. Henry Chalfant (City Lore Productions, 2006).
Get Rich or Die Tryin’, dir. Jim Sheridan (Cent Productions Inc., Paramount Pictures, MTV Films, 2005).
Go For It, dir. Carmen Marron (Sparkhope Productions, 2011).
Graffiti Rock and Other Hip Hop Delights (CB Communication Inc., 2002).
Hip Hop 4 Life, dir. David Velo Stewart (Velocity Productions Ltd., 2001).
History and Concept of Hip-hop Dance: The Street Culture that Became a Global Expression, dir. Moncell Durden (Dancetime Productions, 2010).
Honey, dir. Bille Woodruff (Universal Pictures, Marc Platt Productions, NuAmerica Entertainment, 2003).
House of Trés (Alive TV no. 603, 1990).
House Party, dir. Reginald Hudlin (The Hudlin Brothers, Jackson/McHenry Company, New Line Cinema, 1990).
House Party 2, dir. Doug McHenry and George Jackson (The Hudlin Brothers, Jackson/McHenry Company, New Line Cinema, 1991).
House Party 3, dir. Eric Meza (The Hudlin Brothers, Jackson/McHenry Company, New Line Cinema, 1994).
How She Move, dir. Ian Iqbal Rashid (Sienna Films, Celluloid Creams, MTV Films, 2007).
Hustle and Flow, dir. Craig Brewer (Crunk Pictures, Homegrown Pictures, MTV Films, 2005).
Inside the Circle, dir. Marcy Garriott (La Sonrisa Productions Inc., 2007).
The Janky Promoters, dir. Marcus Raboy (Cube Vision, Dimension Films, 2009).
Juice, dir. Ernest R. Dickerson (Island World, 1992).
Just Another Day, dir. Peter Spirer (Rugged Entertainment, Secret Society Films, 2009).
Kings of Broadway: The History of New York Subway Graffiti, dir. Chris Pape (Broadway Style Productions, 1998).
Krush Groove, dir. Michael Schultz (Crystalite Productions, Film Development Fund, Visual Eye Productions, 1985).
Know Thy Enemy, dir. Lee Cipolla (Future Films, 2009).
Let It Shine, dir. Paul Hoen (G Wave Productions, 2012).
Maestro, dir. Josell Ramos (Sanctuary, 2005).
Malibu’s Most Wanted, dir. John Whitesell (Warner Bros., Karz Entertainment, Big Ticket Productions, 2003).
Marci X, dir. Richard Benjamin (Paramount Pictures, Scott Rudin Productions, Munich Film Partners New Century & Company, 2003).
Murda Musik, dir. Lawrence Page (1999).
Notorious, dir. George Tillman, Jr. (Fox Searchlight Pictures, Voletta Wallace Films, Bystorm Films, 2009).
Out of Sync, dir. Debbie Allen (Black Entertainment Television, United Image Entertainment, 1995).
Planet B-Boy, dir. Benson Lee (Arts Alliance America, 2008).
Play’d: A Hip Hop Story, dir. Oz Scott (Stu Segal Productions, 2002).
Rize, dir. David LaChapelle (Lions Gate, 2005).
Reck’n Shop: Live From Brooklyn (Alive TV no. 805, 1992).
Redder Than Red: The Story of B-Girl Bubbles, dir. Martha Cooper and Nika Kramer (We B*Girlz Productionz!, 2005).
Rock Dance History: The Untold Story of Up-Rockin’, dir. Jorge “Popmaster Fabel” Pabon (forthcoming).
Save the Last Dance, dir. Thomas Carter (Cort/Madden Productions, MTV Films, 2001).
Slam, dir. Marc Levin (Off Line Entertainment Group, 1998).
Stations of the Elevated, dir. produced by Manfred Kirchheimer (Xenon Entertainment, 1979).
Step Off, dir. Austin LaRon (Lion’s Gate, 2011).
Step Up, dir. Anne Fletcher (Summit Entertainment, Touchstone Pictures, Offspring Entertainment, 2006).
Step Up 2: The Streets, dir. John M. Chu (Summit Entertainment, Touchstone Pictures, Offspring Entertainment, 2008).
Step Up 3D, dir. John M. Chu (Summit Entertainment, Touchstone Pictures, Offspring Entertainment, 2010).
Style Wars, dir. Tony Silver and Henry Chalfant (Public Art Films, 1983).
Thicker Than Water, dir. Richard Cummings, Jr. (First Write Productions, Hoo-Bangin’, Marsmedia, Priority Films, 1999).
Tougher Than Leather, dir. Rick Rubin(Def Pictures, 1988).
Turn It Up, dir. Robert Adetuyi (MadGuy Films, New Line Cinema, Paris Brothers, 2000).
Underground Dance Masters: Final History of a Forgotten Era, dir. Thomas Guzman-Sanchez (Clockman Vision, 2008).
Video Girl, dir. Ty Hodges (Dan Garcia Productions, Datari Turner Productions, Most Wanted Films, 2011).
Whiteboyz, dir. Marc Levin (Bac Films, Canal+, Fox Searchlight Pictures, Off Line Entertainment Group, 1999).
Wild Style, dir. Charlie Ahearn (Rhino Theatrical, 1983).
You Got Served, dir. Chris Stokes (Screen Gems, Ultimate Group Films, The (TUG), Melee Entertainment, Gotta Dance Inc., 2004).
You Got Served: Beat the World, dir. Robert Adetuyi (Telefilm Canada, The Harold Greenberg Fund, Inner City Films, Ontario Media Development Corporation, Shotz Fiction Film, 2011).