1988. The system of professions. Chicago IL: The University of Chicago Press..
1991. On the difficulty of detecting cognitive uncertainty. Human Development 34: 204–223. and .
2006. The evolving organization of professional work. Working paper, University of Southern California. and .
1990. “Do I know you?”: The role of significant others in general social perception. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 59: 384–399. and .
1995. Transference in social perception: The role of chronic accessibility in significant-other representations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 69: 41–57., , , and .
1997. The self and others: Cognitive and motivational underpinnings. In The self across psychology: Self-recognition, self-awareness, and the self-concept, edited by and , 233–275. New York: New York Academy of Science., , and .
1998. Transference in everyday experience: Implications of experimental research for relevant clinical phenomena. Review of General Psychology 2(1): 81–120. and .
1996. Situated learning and education. Educational Researcher 25(4): 5–11., , and .
1997. Situative versus cognitive perspectives: Form versus substance. Educational Researcher 26(1): 18–21., , and .
2000. Perspectives on learning, thinking, and activity. Educational Researcher 29(4): 11–13., , , and .
1992. The social animal. 6th ed. New York: W.H. Freeman..
1952. Social psychology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall..
1996. Proactivity during organizational entry: The role of desire for control. Journal of Applied Psychology 81(2): 199–214. and .
1992. Relational schemas and the processing of information. Psychological Bulletin 112: 461–484..
2002. Smart people or smart contexts? Cognition, ability, and talent development in an age of situated approaches to knowing and learning. Educational Psychologist 37(3): 165–182. and .
1982. Attention and automaticity in the processing of self-relevant information. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 43: 425–436..
1984. Automatic and cognitive processing of social information. In Handbook of social cognition, vol. 3, edited by and , 1–43. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum..
1989. Conditional automaticity: Varieties of automatic influence in social perception and cognition. In Unintended thought, edited by and , 3–51. New York: Guilford..
1996. Automaticity in social psychology. In Social psychology: Handbook of basic principles, edited by and , 169–183. New York: The Guilford Press..
1983. Developing “complicated” understanding in administrators. Academy of Management Review 8: 273–284., , and .
1998. Organizational socialization: A review and directions for future research. Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management 16: 149–214., , and .
1995. The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin 117: 497–529. and .
1976. Cognitive therapy and emotional disorders. New York: International Universities Press..
1967. Self-Perception: The dependent variable of human performance. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 2: 105–121..
1974. The homeless mind: Modernization and consciousness. New York: Vintage Books., , and .
1970. Children's reasoning and thinking. In Carmichael's manual of child psychology, 3rd ed., edited by , vol. 1, 939–981. New York: Wiley..
1990. The creative mind: Myths and mechanisms. London: Weidenfeld & Nicholson..
1977. The logic of practice. Stanford CA: Stanford University Press..
1984/2000. Distinction: A social critique of the judgment of taste. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press..
1996. Who is this “we”? Levels of collective identity and self representations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 71(1): 83–93. and .
1999. Dual processes in the cognitive representation of persons and social categories. In Dual process theories in social psychology, edited by and , 255–271. New York: Guilford Press. and .
1989. Situated cognition and the culture of learning. Educational Researcher 18(1): 32–42., , and .
1957. Going beyond the information given. In Contemporary approaches to cognition, edited by , , , , , , and , 41–69. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press..
1962. On knowing: Essays for the left hand. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press..
1962. Intolerance of ambiguity as a personality variable. Journal of Personality 30: 29–50..
1998. The firmwide 360° performance evaluation process at Morgan Stanley. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press..
1986. Contributions to human development, vol. 16: Knowing levels and developmental stages. Basel: Karger. and .
1981. Attention and self-regulation: A control-theory approach to human behavior. New York: Springer Verlag. and .
1990. Principles of self-regulation: Action and emotion. In Handbook of motivation and cognition: Foundations of social behavior, edited by and , vol. 2, 3–52. New York: Guilford. and .
1993. Understanding the social scientific practice of understanding practice. In Understanding practice: Perspectives on activity and context, edited by and , 377–402. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press..
1993. Understanding practice: Perspectives on activity and context. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. and (eds.).
1994. Organizational socialization: Its content and consequences. Journal of Applied Psychology 79(5): 730–743., , , , and .
1995. Oeuvres complètes. Rev. ed. Paris: Gallimard (Plèiade)..
1996. Dans l'atelier du poète. Edited by . Paris: Gallimard..
1973. Perception in chess. Cognitive Psychology 4: 55–81. and .
2006. The relational self revealed: Integrative conceptualization and implications for interpersonal life. Psychological Bulletin 132(2): 151–179., , and .
1997. Lay dispositionism and implicit theories of personalities. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 73(1): 19–30., , and .
1996. Cultural psychology: A once and future discipline. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press..
2006. Managing chaos. Fortune 154(7): 76–82..
1902/1964. Human nature and the social order. New York: Schocken Books..
1967. Greedy organizations. European Journal of Sociology 8: 196–215..
1998. The calculated and the avowed: Techniques of discipline and struggles over identity in big six public accounting firms. Administrative Science Quarterly 49: 293–327., , , and .
1981. A tentative exploration into the amount and equivocality of information processing in organizational work units. Administrative Science Quarterly 26: 207–225. and .
1984. Peer education: The untapped potential. Journal of Applied Behavioral Psychology 5: 331–343..
1997. The varieties of social construction. Theory and Psychology 7(3): 399–416..
1999. The content and unsolved problems of activity theory. In Perspectives on activity theory, edited by , , and , 39–2. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press..
1991. Consciousness explained. Boston MA: Little, Brown, and Company..
1955. A study of normative and informational social influence upon individual judgment. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 51: 629–636. and .
1916. Democracy and education. New York: Free Press..
1999. Being-in-the-world. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press..
1993. Post-capitalist society. New York: HarperCollins..
1986. Motivational processes affecting learning. American Psychologist 41: 1040–1048..
1999. Self-Theories: Their role in motivation, personality, and development. Philadelphia PA: Psychology Press..
1988. A social-cognitive approach to motivation and personality. Psychological Review 95(2): 256–273. and .
1988. Doing deals: Investment banks at work. Boston MA: Harvard Business School Press. and .
2003. Activity theory and individual and social transformation. In Perspectives on activity theory, edited by , , and . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press..
1996. Expert and exceptional performance: Evidence of maximal adaptation to task constraints. Annual Review of Psychology 47(1): 273–305. and .
1975. A comparative analysis of complex organizations: On power, involvement, and their correlates. New York: Free Press..
1954. A theory of social comparison processes. Human Relations 7: 114–140..
1991. Social cognition. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill. and .
1994. The IBM paradox. Industrial and Corporate Change 3: 713–758..
1978. The unit of analysis in organizational research. In Environments and organizations, edited by , 335–351. San Francisco CA: Jossey-Bass..
1958. The dynamics of transference. Standard ed., vol. 12. London: Hogarth.
2001a. Construction in contention: Towards consequential resolutions. Theory and Psychology 11(3): 419–432..
2001b. Psychological science in a postmodern context. American Psychologist 56(10): 803–813..
1992. Beyond narrative in the negotiation of therapeutic meaning. In Therapy as social construction, edited by and , 166–185. London: Sage. and .
1977. The theory of affordances. In Perceiving, acting, and knowing: Toward an ecological psychology, edited by and , 67–82. Hillsdale NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum..
1986. The ecological approach to visual perception. Hillsdale NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum..
1992. Pinto fires and personal ethics: A script analysis of missed opportunities. Journal of Business Ethics 11: 379–389..
1961. Asylums: Essays on the social situation of mental patients and other inmates. Garden City: Doubleday..
1997. On claims that answer the wrong questions. Educational Researcher 26(1): 5–17..
1998. The situativity of knowing, learning, and research. American Psychologist 53(1): 5–26.. and The Middle-School Mathematics Through Applications Project Group.
1996. Shared reality: How social verification makes the subjective objective. In Handbook of motivation and cognition, vol. 3, edited by and , 28–84. New York: Guilford Press. and .
1991. Turning the soul: Teaching through conversation in the high school. Chicago IL: The University of Chicago Press..
Cultivating questions: A focus for schooling in the twenty-first century. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.. (in press).
1991. Keeping the faith: A model of cultural transmission in formal organization. Administrative Science Quarterly 36: 552–582. and .
2004. Psychology in organizations: The social identity approach. 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage..
1962. Being and time. New York: Harper and Row.
1979. Understanding events: Affect and the construction of social action. New York: Cambridge University Press..
1989. Effects of emotion displays on social identification. Social Psychology Quarterly 53: 10–21..
1989. Knowledge accessibility and activation: Subjectivity and suffering from unconscious sources. In Unintended thought, edited by and , 75–123. New York: Guilford..
1996. The ‘self digest:’ Self-knowledge serving self-regulatory functions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 71(6): 1062–1083..
1987. Social cognition and social perception. Annual Review of Psychology 38: 369–425. and .
1996. Social psychology: Handbook of basic principles. New York: Guilford Press. and (eds.).
1995. The four A's of life transition effects: Attention, accessibility, adaptation, and adjustment. Social Cognition 13(3): 215–242., , and .
1999. Joining groups to reduce uncertainty: Subjective uncertainty reduction and group identification. In Social identity and social contagion, edited by and , 249–279. Malden: Blackwell. and .
2000. Social identity and self-categorization processes in organizational contexts. Academy of Management Review 25(1): 121–141. and .
1985. Interpersonal attraction, social identification and psychological group formation. European Journal of Social Psychology 15: 51–66. and .
1991. The social organization of distributed cognition. In Perspectives on socially shared cognition, edited by , , and , 283–307. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association..
1995. Cognition in the wild. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press..
1999. Provisional selves: Experimenting with image and identity in professional adaptation. Administrative Science Quarterly 44: 764–791..
2000. Making partner. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press..
1996. Sociocultural approaches to learning and development. Educational Psychology 31: 191–206. and .
1978. Altering values via psychological reactance and reversal effects. Journal of Social Psychology 106: 131–134..
1985. Organizational stress and early socialization experiences. In Human stress and cognition in organization, edited by and , 117–139. New York: Wiley..
1955. The psychology of personal constructs. New York: Norton..
1958. Compliance, identification, and internalization: Three processes of attitude change. Journal of Conflict Resolution 2, 51–60..
1994. The cultural construction of self and emotion: Implications for social behavior. In Emotion and culture, edited by and , 89–130. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. and .
1995. Culture, self, and emotion: A cultural perspective on “self-conscious” emotions. In Self-conscious emotions: The psychology of shame, guilt, embarrassment, and pride, edited by and , 439–464. New York: Guilford Press., , and .
2006. The accidental investment banker. New York: Oxford University Press..
1992. Engineering culture: Control and commitment in a high-tech corporation. Philadelphia PA: Temple University Press..
2006. Chaos by design. Fortune 154(7): 86–98..
1979. Laboratory life: The social construction of scientific facts. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. and .
1988. Cognition in practice: Mind, mathematics and culture in everyday life. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press..
1991. Situating learning in communities of practice. In Perspectives on socially shared cognition, edited by , , and , 63–84. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association..
2003. The practice of learning. In Understanding practice: Perspectives on activity and context, edited by and , 3–34. New York: Cambridge University Press..
1991. Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. and .
1967. Organization and environment: Managing differentiation and integration. Cambridge, MA: Graduate School of Business Administration, Harvard Business School. and .
1911. Psychologie der Massen. Stuttgart: Kroener..
1992. Core capabilities and core rigidities: A paradox in managing new product development. Strategic Management Journal 13: 111–125..
1993. Social foundations of cognition. Annual Review of Psychology 44: 585–612., , and .
2001. Bateson and Academia: Reflections on the fit of different kinds of visions with the business of departments of anthropology. Paper presented at 7th Biennial Meeting of the Society for Psychological Anthropology, Decatur, Georgia..
1993. The protean self: Human resilience in an age of fragmentation. Chicago IL: The University of Chicago Press..
1936. The study of man. New York: Appleton-Century Co..
1984. The postmodern condition. Manchester: Manchester University Press..
1995. Loyal from day one: Biodata, organizational identification, and turnover among newcomers. Personnel Psychology 48: 309–333. and .
2005. The real reasons you're working so hard … and what you can do about it. Business Week, October 3, 60–67..
2006. Mr. Risk goes to Washington. Business Week, June 12, 46..
1958. Organizations. New York: Wiley. and .
1980. The self in thought and memory. In The self in social psychology, edited by and , 102–130. New York: Oxford University Press..
1991. Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychological Review 98: 224–253. and .
1985. The cognitive perspective in social psychology. In The handbook of social psychology. 3rd ed., edited by and , vol. 1, 137–230. New York: Random House. and .
1934. Mind, self, and society. Chicago IL: The University of Chicago Press..
2006. Finding “meaning” in psychology: A lay theories approach to self-regulation, social perception, and social development. American Psychologist 61(3): 192–203. and .
1953. Who shall survive?: Foundations of sociometry, group psychotherapy, and sociodrama. Beacon, NY: Beacon House Publishers..
1999. Own versus other standpoints in self-regulation: Developmental antecedents and functional consequences. Review of General Psychology 3(3): 188–223. and .
2005. Who is a professional?Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press..
1996. Culture as social control: Corporations, cults, and commitment. In Research in Organizational Behavior, edited by , 18: 157–200. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press. and .
2001. Changing classes: School reform and the new economy. New York: Cambridge University Press..
2000. Sociocultural and constructivist theories of learning: Ontology, not just epistemology. Educational Psychologist 35(4): 227–241. and .
1998. Social constructivist perspectives on teaching and learning. Annual Review of Psychology 49: 345–375..
1955. Societies. Glencoe, IL: The Free Press.
1934. Pragmatism and abduction. In Collected papers of Charles Sanders Peirce, vol. 5: Pragmatism and Pragmaticism, edited by and , 112–131. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press..
1967. Six psychological studies. New York: Vintage..
1980. Experiments in Contradiction. Chicago IL: The University of Chicago Press..
1985. The equilibration of cognitive structures: The central problem of intellectual development. Chicago IL: The University of Chicago Press..
1962. The republic of science: Its political and economic theory. Minerva 1: 54–74..
1998. To be or not to be: Central questions in organizational identification. In Identity in organizations: Building theory through conversations, edited by and . Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications..
1996. Constructivisms, modern and postmodern. Educational Psychologist 31(3/4): 215–225..
1996. Ideas and their objects: A reply to Garrison. Educational Researcher 25(6): 23–34..
1999. Everyday cognition: Development in social context. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. and (eds.)
1999. Governing the soul. 2nd ed. New York: Cambridge University Press..
2003. In an uncertain world: Tough choices from Wall Street to Washington. New York: Random House..
1994. A phase model of transitions: Cognitive and motivational consequences. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology 26: 163–214..
1978. A social information processing approach to job attitudes and task design. Administrative Science Quarterly 23: 224–253. and .
1968. Aspects of internalization. New York: International University Press..
2001. The practice turn in contemporary theory. New York: Routledge., , and .
1978. Career dynamics: Matching individual and organizational needs. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley..
1999. Studying working intelligence. In Everyday cognition: Development in social context, edited by and , 9–40. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press..
1981. The psychology of literacy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. and .
1992. Organizations: Rational, natural, and open systems. 3rd ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall..
2007. Blind to trend, Quant funds pay heavy price; computer models failed to see increasing global alpha of 16%. Wall Street Journal (Eastern Edition), August 9, C1. and .
1998. On two metaphors of learning and the dangers of choosing just one. Educational Researcher 27(2): 4–13..
1989. Texts of identity. London: Sage, and (eds.)
1991. Thinking through cultures. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press..
2008. More muscle for risk manager. Business Week, February 25, 62..
1976 Administrative behavior. 3rd ed. New York: MacMillan..
1991. Bounded rationality and organizational learning. Management Science 20(1): 125–137..
1995. What do connectionism and social psychology offer each other?Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 70: 893–912..
1994. States and markets. London: Pinter..
1987. Plans and situated actions. The problem of human machine communication. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press..
1996. Brainstorming groups in context: Effectiveness in a product design firm. Administrative Science Quarterly 41(4): 685–718. and .
1981. Human groups and social categories: Studies in social psychology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press..
1979. An integrative theory of intergroup conflict. In The social psychology of intergroup relations, edited by & , 33–47. Monterey: Brooks–Cole. and .
1991. Merging identity theory and stress research. Social Psychology Quarterly, 54: 101–112..
1967. Organizations in action. New York: McGraw-Hill..
1995. Individualism and collectivism. Boulder, CO: Westview Press..
1996. Social hypothesis testing: Cognitive and motivational mechanisms. In Social psychology: Handbook of basic principles, edited by and , 239–270. New York: Guilford Press. and .
1975. Social comparison and social identity: Some prospects for intergroup behavior. European Journal of Social Psychology 5: 5–34..
1994. The social theory of practices: Tradition, tacit knowledge, and presupposition. Chicago IL: The University of Chicago Press..
1987. Rediscovering the social group: A self-categorization theory. Oxford: Basil Blackwell., , , , and .
1992. On the organizational determinants of technological change: Towards a sociology of technological evolution. In Research in organizational behavior, edited by and , 311–347. Greenwich NJ: JAI Press., and .
2003. Social identity and group performance: Identification as the key to group-oriented effort. In Social identity at work: Developing theory for organizational practice, edited by , , , and , 29–42. New York: Psychology Press. and .
1976. Breaking-in: Socialization to work. In Handbook of work, organization, and society, edited by , 67–130. Chicago IL: Rand McNally..
1979. Towards a theory of organizational socialization. In Research in Organizational Behavior, edited by , vol. 1, 209–264. Greenwich, NJ: JAI Press. and .
1995. Acquiring intellectual skills. 46–81., , and .
1962. Thought and language. Trans. by and . Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press..
1978. Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Edited by , , , and . Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press..
2003. The guts of a new machine. New York Times Magazine, November 30, 78–84..
1995. Managerial and organizational cognition: Notes from a trip down memory lane. Organization Science 6(3): 280–321..
1990. Adhocracy. New York: W.W. Norton & Company..
1979. The social psychology of organizing. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill..
1999. Organizational change and development. Annual Review of Psychology, 50: 361–386. and .
1993. Collective mind in organizations: Heedful interrelating on flight decks. Administrative Science Quarterly 38: 357–381. and .
1991. A sociocultural approach to socially shared cognition. In Perspectives on socially shared cognition, edited by , , and , 85–100. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association..
1985. The concept of internalization in Vygotsky's account of the genesis of higher mental functioning. In Culture, communication, and cognition: Vygotskian perspectives, edited by , 162–179. New York: Cambridge University Press. and .
2005. Developing management skills. 6th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson, Prentice Hall. and .
1990. Narrative means to therapeutic ends. New York: Norton. and .
1938. Modes of thought. New York: Free Press..
2007. The buzz: One quant fund sees shakeout for the ages – “10,000 years.”Wall Street Journal (Eastern Edition), August 11, B3..
1986. Orientation to the environment versus preoccupation with human potential. In Handbook of motivation and cognition: Foundations of social behavior, edited by and , 64–95. New York: Guilford Press..
1981. The economics of organization: the transaction cost approach. American Journal of Sociology 87: 548–577..
2004. Developing adaptive leaders: The crucible experience of Operation Iraqi Freedom. Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, United States Army War College. http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pubs/display.cfm?pubID =411 (accessed 12 June 2008)..
1971. Direct and implied social restoration of freedom. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 18: 294–304. and .
1994. Acting out participant examples in the classroom. Amsterdam: John Benjamins..
2001. Narratives in action: A strategy for research and analysis. New York: Teachers College Press..
2006. Learning identity. New York: Cambridge University Press..