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Book description

Very few families produce one outstanding writer. The Brontë family produced three. The works of Charlotte, Emily and Anne remain immensely popular, and are increasingly being studied in relation to the surroundings and wider context that formed them. The forty-two new essays in this book tell 'the Brontë story' as it has never been told before, drawing on the latest research and the best available scholarship while offering new perspectives on the writings of the sisters. A section on Brontë criticism traces their reception to the present day. The works of the sisters are explored in the context of social, political and cultural developments in early-nineteenth-century Britain, with attention given to religion, education, art, print culture, agriculture, law and medicine. Crammed with information, The Brontës in Context shows how the Brontës' fiction interacts with the spirit of the time, suggesting reasons for its enduring fascination.

Reviews

'General readers will enjoy it as much as Brontë students and fans, and its careful avoidance of anything too topical or controversial will keep it fresh for years. Thormählen’s high quality contributors, assembly of reliable facts and data, pertinent commentary, maps, illustrations, splendid chronology and further reading lists make it everything that one could wish for.'

Claire Harman Source: The Times Literary Supplement

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Contents


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Further reading

Some of the scholarly works listed below recur under different headings, as they are relevant to more than one topic. Three sources form a special case, however, in that they are indispensable to anyone who seeks further information about any aspect of the Brontës’ lives and works: Juliet Barker’s biography of the family, Margaret Smith’s edition of Charlotte Brontë’s letters and Christine Alexander and Margaret Smith’s Brontë encyclopaedia. The titles of these three works are stated in full here and are not repeated under the individual headings:

Barker, Juliet. The Brontës. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1994; new edn 2011.
Smith, Margaret, ed. The Letters of Charlotte Brontë with a Selection of Letters by Family and Friends. Oxford: Clarendon Press, vol. i: 1829–1847, 1995, with corrections 1996; vol. ii: 1848–1851, 2000; vol. iii:1852–1855, 2004.
Alexander, Christine, and Margaret Smith, eds. The Oxford Companion to the Brontës. Oxford University Press, 2003.

For a student of the Brontës in their time who lacks expert knowledge of the period, the following general works, some of which have already served generations of scholars, will supply excellent and wide-ranging guidance:

Altick, Richard D. The English Common Reader: A Social History of the Mass Reading Public, 1800–1900. University of Chicago Press, 1957; subsequently reissued.
Briggs, Asa. The Age of Improvement 1783–1867. 1959; new edn Harlow: Longman, 2000.
Davis, Philip. The Victorians. The Oxford English Literary History, 8. Oxford University Press, 2002.
Gash, Norman. Aristocracy and People: Britain 1815–1865. The New History of England, 8. London: Edward Arnold, 1979.
Gilmour, Robin. The Victorian Period: The Intellectual and Cultural Context of English Literature, 1830–1890. Harlow: Longman, 1993.
Harrison, J. F. C.The Early Victorians, 1832–1851. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1971.
Houghton, Walter E. The Victorian Frame of Mind, 1830–1870. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1957; subsequently reissued.
McCord, Norman. British History 1815–1906. Oxford University Press, 1991.
Woodward, Llewellyn. The Age of Reform 1815–1870. London: Oxford University Press, 1962.
Young, G. M. Victorian England: Portrait of an Age. Oxford University Press, 1936.
Young, G. M., ed. Early Victorian Britain 1830–1865. 2 vols. Oxford University Press, 1934.

1. Haworth in the time of the Brontës

Baumber, Michael. A History of Haworth. Lancaster: Carnegie Publishing, 2009.
Dinsdale, Ann. The Brontës at Haworth. London: Frances Lincoln, 2006.
Lemon, Charles, ed. Early Visitors to Haworth. Haworth: Brontë Society, 1996.
Whitehead, S. R.The Brontës’ Haworth: The Place and the People the Brontës Knew. Haworth: Ashmount Press, 2006.
Wood, Steven. Haworth: ‘A strange uncivilized little place’. Stroud: Tempus, 2005.

2. Domestic life at Haworth Parsonage

Alexander, Christine. ‘Myth and Memory: Reading the Brontë Parsonage’. In Harald Hendrix, ed., Writers’ Houses and the Making of Memory. London: Routledge, 2008, pp. 93–110.
Burton, Elizabeth. The Early Victorians at Home 1837–1861. Newton Abbot: Victorian & Modern History Book Club, 1973.
Cohen, Monica F. Professional Domesticity in the Victorian Novel: Women, Work and Home. Cambridge University Press, 1998.
Dinsdale, Ann. The Brontës at Haworth. London: Frances Lincoln, 2006.
Edgerley, C. Mabel. ‘The Structure of Haworth Parsonage: Domestic Arrangements of the Brontës’ Home’. BST, 9.46 (1936), 27–31.
Harland, Marion. Charlotte Brontë at Home. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1899.
Harling, Robert. Home: A Victorian Vignette. London: Constable, 1938.
Hesketh, Sally. ‘Needlework in the Lives and Novels of the Brontës’. BST, 22 (1997), 72–85.
Kellett, Jocelyn. Haworth Parsonage: The Home of the Brontës. Haworth: Brontë Society, 1977.
Logan, Thad. The Victorian Parlour. Cambridge University Press, 2001.
Parker, Rozsika. The Subversive Stitch: Embroidery and the Making of the Feminine. London: Women’s Press, 1984.

3. Locations in northern England associated with the Brontës’ lives and works

Dinsdale, Ann. The Brontës at Haworth. London: Frances Lincoln, 2006.
Marsden, Hilda. ‘The Scenic Background of Wuthering Heights. BST, 13.67 (1957), 111–30.
Raymond, Ernest. In the Steps of the Brontës. London: Rich and Cowan, 1948.
Stead, J. J. ‘Hathersage and Jane Eyre’. BST, 1.4 (1896), 26–8.
Stuart, J. A. Erskine. The Brontë Country: Its Topography, Antiquities, and History. London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1888.
Watson, Nicola J. The Literary Tourist: Readers and Places in Romantic & Victorian Britain. Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2006.
Wroot, Herbert E. ‘Sources of Charlotte Brontë’s Novels: Persons and Places’. BST, 8.45 (1935), 5–214.

4. The father of the Brontës

Alexander, Christine. ‘Father of the Brontës: Romantic or Victorian?’ In Natalie McKnight, ed., Victorian Fathers. Cambridge: CambridgeScholars, 2011, pp. 13–33.
Green, Dudley. Patrick Brontë: Father of Genius. Stroud: Nonsuch, 2008.
Green, Dudley, ed. The Letters of the Reverend Patrick Brontë. Stroud: Nonsuch, 2005.
Lock, John, and W. T. Dixon. A Man of Sorrow: The Life, Letters and Times of the Rev. Patrick Brontë 1777–1861. London: Nelson, 1965.
Turner, J. Horsfall, ed. Brontëana: The Rev. Patrick Brontë, A.B.: His Collected Works and Life. Bingley: T. Harrison & Sons, 1898.

5. A mother and her substitutes

Edgerley, C. Mabel. ‘Elizabeth Branwell: The “small, antiquated lady”’. BST, 9.47 (1937), 103–14.
Grylls, Richard G.Branwell & Bramble: A Brief History of a West Cornwall Clan. Tring, Herts.: Richard G. Grylls, 2006.
Lane, Margaret. ‘Maria Branwell’. BST, 18.93 (1983), 208–16.
Newbold, Margaret. ‘The Branwell Saga’. Brontë Studies, 27.1 (Mar. 2002), 15–26.

6. Patrick Branwell Brontë

Alexander, Christine, and Jane Sellars. The Art of the Brontës. Cambridge University Press, 1995.
Conover, Robin St John. ‘Creating Angria: Charlotte and Branwell Brontë’s Collaboration’. BST, 24.1 (1999), 16–32.
Gérin, Winifred. Branwell Brontë: A Biography. London: Hutchinson & Co., 1967.
Grundy, F. H.Pictures of the Past. London: Griffith and Farrar, 1879.
Leyland, Francis A.The Brontë Family with Special Reference to Patrick Branwell Brontë. 2 vols. London: Hurst and Blackett, 1886.
Neufeldt, Victor A., ed. The Poems of Patrick Branwell Brontë. New York: Garland, 1990.
Neufeldt, Victor A.The Works of Patrick Branwell Brontë. 3 vols. New York: Garland, 1997–9.
Symington, J. Alexander, and C. W. Hatfield, eds. Patrick Branwell Brontë: A Complete Transcript of the Leyland Manuscripts Showing the Unpublished Portions from the Original Manuscripts. Privately printed, 1925.
Winnifrith, Tom. ‘The Life of Patrick Branwell Brontë’. BST, 24.1 (1999), 1–10.

7. Charlotte Brontë

Alexander, Christine. The Early Writings of Charlotte Brontë. Oxford: Blackwell, 1983.
Fraser, Rebecca. Charlotte Brontë. London: Methuen, 1988.
Gérin, Winifred. Charlotte Bronte: The Evolution of Genius. Oxford University Press, 1967; frequently reprinted.
Glen, Heather. Charlotte Brontë: The Imagination in History. Oxford University Press, 2002.
Moglen, Helene. Charlotte Brontë: The Self Conceived. New York: Norton, 1976.
Shuttleworth, Sally. Charlotte Brontë and Victorian Psychology. Cambridge University Press, 1996.

8. Emily Brontë

Chitham, Edward. The Birth of Wuthering Heights: Emily Brontë at Work. Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1998.
Davies, Stevie. Emily Brontë: Heretic. London: Women’s Press, 1994.
Gérin, Winifred. Emily Brontë: A Biography. Oxford University Press, 1971.
Pykett, Lyn. Emily Brontë. Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1989.

9. Anne Brontë

Berry, Elizabeth Hollis. Anne Brontë’s Radical Vision: Structures of Consciousness. ELS Monograph Series, 62. University of Victoria, Canada, 1994.
Chitham, Edward. A Life of Anne Brontë. Oxford: Blackwell, 1991.
Frawley, Maria. Anne Brontë. Twayne English Authors Series. New York: Twayne, 1996.
Hagan, Sandra, and Juliette Wells, eds. The Brontës in the World of the Arts. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2008.
Langland, Elizabeth. Anne Brontë: The Other One. Totowa, NJ: Barnes and Noble, 1989.
Nash, Julie, and Barbara A. Suess, eds. New Approaches to the Art of Anne Brontë. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2001.

10. Friends, servants and a husband

Bellamy, Joan. ‘More Precious than Rubies’: Mary Taylor, Friend of Charlotte Brontë, Strong-Minded Woman. Beverley: Highgate Publications, 2002.
Palmer, Geoffrey, ed. Dear Martha: The Letters of Arthur Bell Nicholls to Martha Brown. Haworth: Brontë Society, 2004.
Whitehead, Barbara. Charlotte Brontë and her ‘Dearest Nell’: The Story of a Friendship. Otley: Smith Settle, 1993.
Whitehead, Stephen. ‘Arthur Bell Nicholls: A Reassessment’. Brontë Studies, 33.2 (July 2008), 97–108.

11. The Brontës’ sibling bonds

Adams, Maurianne. ‘Family Disintegration and Creative Regeneration: The Case of Charlotte Brontë and Jane Eyre’. In Anthony S. Wohl, ed., The Victorian Family: Structure and Stresses. New York: St Martin’s Press, 1978, pp. 148–79.
Elfenbein, Andrew. ‘Byron at the Margins: Emily Brontë and the Fate of Milo’. In Byron and the Victorians. Cambridge University Press, 1995, pp. 126–68.
Lamonica, Drew. ‘We are Three Sisters’: Self and Family in the Writing of the Brontës. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2003.
Tayler, Irene. Holy Ghosts: The Male Muses of Emily and Charlotte Brontë. New York: Columbia University Press, 1990.

12. Juvenilia

Alexander, Christine. The Early Writings of Charlotte Brontë. Oxford: Blackwell, 1983.
Alexander, Christine, ed. An Edition of the Early Writings of Charlotte Brontë. Oxford: Blackwell, for the Shakespeare Head Press, vol. i: The Glass Town Saga, 1826–1832, 1987; vol. ii: The Rise of Angria, 1833–1835, 1991; vol. iii: The Angrian Legend, 1836–1839, forthcoming.
Alexander, ChristineThe Brontës: Tales of Glass Town, Angria, and Gondal. OxfordWorld’s Classics. Oxford University Press, 2010.
Chitham, Edward, ed. The Poems of Anne Brontë: A New Text and Commentary. London: Macmillan, 1979; repr. 1987.
Gezari, Janet. Last Things: Emily Brontë’s Poems. Oxford University Press, 2007.
Gezari, Janet, ed. Emily Jane Brontë: The Complete Poems. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1992.
Glen, Heather. ‘Configuring a World: Some Childhood Writings of Charlotte Brontë’. In Mary Hilton, Morag Styles and Victor Watson, eds., Opening the Nursery Door: Reading, Writing and Childhood 1600–1900. Londonand New York: Routledge, 1997, pp. 215–34.
Glen, Heather, ed. Charlotte Brontë: Tales of Angria. London: Penguin, 2006.
Neufeldt, Victor A., ed. The Works of Patrick Branwell Brontë. 3 vols. New York: Garland, 1997–9.

13. The Brussels experience

Duthie, Enid. The Foreign Vision of Charlotte Brontë. London: Macmillan, 1975.
Lonoff, Sue, ed. and trans. Charlotte Brontë and Emily Brontë, the Belgian Essays: A Critical Edition. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1996.
Ruijssenaars, Eric. Charlotte Brontë’s Promised Land: The Pensionnat Heger and Other Brontë Places in Brussels. Haworth: Brontë Society, 2000.

14. The Brontë correspondence

Green, Dudley, ed. The Letters of the Reverend Patrick Brontë. Stroud: Nonsuch, 2005.
Smith, Margaret, ed. The Letters of Charlotte Brontë with a Selection of Letters by Family and Friends. Oxford: Clarendon Press, vol. i: 1829–1847, 1995, with corrections 1996; vol. ii: 1848–1851, 2000; vol. iii: 1852–1855, 2004.
Symington, J. Alexander, and Thomas J. Wise, eds. The Brontës: Their Lives, Friendships and Correspondence. 4 vols. Oxford: Blackwell, for the Shakespeare Head Press, 1932.

15. Portraits of the Brontës

Alexander, Christine, and Jane Sellars. The Art of the Brontës. Cambridge University Press, 1995.
Barker, Juliet. ‘The Brontë Portraits: A Mystery Solved’. BST, 20.1 (1990), 3–11.
Lister, Raymond. George Richmond: A Critical Biography. London: Robin Garton, 1981.
Maas, Jeremy. The Victorian Art World in Photographs. London: Barrie and Jenkins, 1984.

16. The poetry of the Brontës

Birch, Dinah. ‘Emily Brontë’. In Claude Rawson, ed., The Cambridge Companion to English Poets. Cambridge University Press, 2011, pp. 408–21.
Chitham, Edward, ed. The Poems of Anne Brontë: A New Text and Commentary. London: Macmillan, 1979; repr. 1987.
Gezari, Janet. Last Things: Emily Brontë’s Poems. Oxford University Press, 2007.
Gezari, Janet, ed. Emily Jane Brontë: The Complete Poems. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1992.
Homans, Margaret. Women Writers and Poetic Identity. Princeton University Press, 1980, pp. 104–61.
Leighton, Angela. Victorian Women Poets: Writing against the Heart. London: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1992.
Leighton, Angela. ‘The Poetry’. In Heather Glen, ed., The Cambridge Companion to the Brontës. Cambridge University Press, 2002, pp. 53–71.
Neufeldt, Victor A., ed. The Poems of Charlotte Brontë. New York: Garland, 1985.
Neufeldt, Victor A., The Works of Patrick Branwell Brontë. 3 vols. New York: Garland, 1997–9.
Roper, Derek, with Edward Chitham, eds. The Poems of Emily Brontë. Oxford University Press, 1995.
Tayler, Irene. Holy Ghosts: The Male Muses of Emily and Charlotte Brontë. New York: Columbia University Press, 1990.

17. Literary influences on the Brontës

Alexander, Christine. ‘“That kingdom of gloom”: Charlotte Brontë, the Annuals and the Gothic’.Nineteenth-Century Literature, 47.4 (Mar. 1993), 409–36.
Alton, Anne Hiebert. ‘Books in the Novels of Charlotte Brontë’. BST, 21.7 (1996), 265–74.
Glen, Heather. Charlotte Brontë: The Imagination in History. Oxford University Press, 2002.
Glen, Heather, ed. The Cambridge Companion to the Brontës. Cambridge University Press, 2002 (see especially the contributions by Glen, Juliet Barker and Carol Bock).
Thormählen, Marianne. The Brontës and Education. Cambridge University Press, 2007.
Wheat, Patricia H.The Adytum of the Heart: The Literary Criticism of Charlotte Brontë. Rutherford: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1992.
Winnifrith, Tom. The Brontës and their Background: Romance and Reality. London: Macmillan, 1973.

18. The Brontës’ way into print and19. Reading the Brontës: their first audiences

Allott, Miriam, ed. The Brontës: The Critical Heritage. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1974.
Altick, Richard D. The English Common Reader: A Social History of the Mass Reading Public 1800–1900. University of Chicago Press, 1957; subsequently reissued.
Beetham, Margaret. ‘Women and the Consumption of Print’. In Joanne Shattock, ed., Women and Literature in Britain 1800–1900. Cambridge University Press, 2001, pp. 55–77.
Black, Alistair. A New History of the English Public Library: Social and Intellectual Contexts, 1850–1914. London: Leicester University Press, 1996.
Black, Alistair, and Peter Hoare, eds. The Cambridge History of Libraries in Britain and Ireland, vol.iii: 1850–2000. Cambridge University Press, 2006.
Bock, Carol. Charlotte Brontë and the Storyteller’s Audience. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 1992.
Bock, Carol. ‘Authorship, the Brontës, and Fraser’s Magazine: “Coming Forward” as an Author in Early Victorian England’. Victorian Literature and Culture, 29 (2001), 241–66.
Duckett, Bob. ‘Where Did the Brontës Get Their Books?’Brontë Studies, 32.3 (Nov. 2007), 193–206.
Eliot, Simon. ‘“Never Mind the Value, What about the Price?”’Nineteenth-Century Literature, 56.2 (2001), 160–97.
Flint, Kate. The Woman Reader 1837–1914. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993.
Griest, Guinevere L.Mudie’s Circulating Library and the Victorian Novel. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1970.
Jordan, John O., and Robert L. Pattern, eds. Literature in the Market-Place: Nineteenth-Century British Publishing and Reading Practices. Cambridge University Press, 1995.
McKitterick, David, ed. The Cambridge History of the Book in Britain, vol. vi: 1830–1914. Cambridge University Press, 2009.
Sutherland, J. A.Victorian Novelists and Publishers. University of Chicago Press, 1976.

20. Brontë biography: a survey of a genre

Adamson, Alan. Mr Charlotte Brontë: The Life of Arthur Bell Nicholls. Montreal: McGill-Queens University Press, 2008.
Bellamy, Joan. ‘More Precious than Rubies’: Mary Taylor, Friend of Charlotte Brontë, Strong-Minded Woman. Beverley: Highgate Publications, 2002.
Bentley, Phyllis. The Brontës. London: Home and Van Thal, 1947.
Blondel, Jacques. Emily Brontë: Expérience spirituelle et création poétique. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1955.
Brontë family. The Life and Works of Charlotte Brontë and her Sisters. Haworth edn. 7 vols. London: Smith, Elder & Co., 1899–1900.
Chitham, Edward. A Life of Emily Brontë. Oxford: Blackwell, 1987; 2nd edn Stroud: Amberley Press, 2010.
Cochrane, Margaret and Robert. My Dear Boy: The Life of Arthur Bell Nicholls B. A., Husband of Charlotte Brontë. Beverley: Highgate Publications, 1999.
Franks, Kathleen. A Chainless Soul: A Life of Emily Brontë. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1990.
Fraser, Rebecca. Charlotte Brontë. London: Methuen, 1988.
Gérin, Winifred. Anne Brontë. London: Nelson, 1959.
Gérin, Winifred. Branwell Brontë. London: Nelson, 1961.
Gérin, Winifred. Charlotte Brontë: The Evolution of Genius. Oxford University Press, 1967; frequently reprinted.
Gérin, Winifred. Emily Brontë. Oxford University Press, 1971.
Gordon, Lyndall. Charlotte Brontë: A Passionate Life. London: Chatto & Windus, 1994.
Green, Dudley. Patrick Brontë: Father of Genius. Stroud: Nonsuch, 2008.
Hanson, L. and E. M. The Four Brontës. Oxford University Press, 1949.
Harrison, Grace Elizabeth. The Clue to the Brontës. London: Methuen, 1948.
Hewish, John. Emily Brontë: A Critical and Biographical Study. London: Macmillan, 1969.
Lane, Margaret. The Brontë Story: A Reconsideration of Mrs Gaskell’s Life of Charlotte Brontë. London: Heinemann, 1953.
Law, Alice. Emily Jane Brontë and the Authorship of Wuthering Heights. Altham: Old Parsonage Press, 1925.
Lemon, Charles. A Centenary History of the Brontë Society. Haworth: Brontë Society, 1993.
Leyland, Francis. The Brontë Family with Special Reference to Patrick Branwell Brontë. 2 vols. London: Hurst and Blackett, 1886.
Lock, John, and W. T. Dixon. A Man of Sorrow: The Life, Letters and Times of the Rev. Patrick Brontë 1777–1861. London: Nelson, 1965.
Maurier, Daphne du. The Infernal World of Branwell Brontë. London: Gollancz, 1960.
Miller, Lucasta. The Brontë Myth. London: Jonathan Cape, 2001.
Moglen, Helene. Charlotte Brontë: The Self Conceived. New York: Norton, 1976.
Moore, Virginia. The Life and Eager Death of Emily Brontë: A Biography. London: Rich and Cowan, 1936.
Myer, Valerie Grosvenor. Charlotte Brontë: Truculent Spirit. London: Vision Press, 1987.
Peters, Margaret. Unquiet Soul: A Biography of Charlotte Brontë. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1975.
Ratchford, Fannie. Gondal’s Queen: A Novel in Verse by Emily Jane Brontë. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1955.
Robinson, Mary F. Emily Brontë. London: W. H. Allen, 1883.
Shorter, Clement. Charlotte Brontë and her Circle. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1896.
Shorter, Clement. The Brontës: Life and Letters. 2 vols. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1908.
Simpson, Charles. Emily Brontë. London: Country Life, 1929.
Smith, Margaret. The Letters of Charlotte Brontë with a Selection of Letters by Family and Friends. 3 vols. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995–2004.
Smurthwaite, John. The Life of John Alexander Symington, Bibliographer and Librarian. New York: Edward Mellen Press, 1985.
Symington, John A., and Thomas J. Wise. The Brontës: Their Lives, Friendships and Correspondence. 4 vols. Oxford: Blackwell, for the Shakespeare Head Press, 1932.
Whitehead, Barbara. Charlotte Brontë and her ‘Dearest Nell’: The Story of a Friendship. Otley: Smith Settle, 1993.
Wilson, Romer. All Alone: The Life and Private History of Emily Jane Brontë. London: Chatto & Windus, 1928.
Winnifrith, Tom. The Brontës and their Background: Romance and Reality. London: Macmillan, 1973.
Wright, William. The Brontës in Ireland. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1893.
Yates, W. W. The Father of the Brontës: His Life and Work at Dewsbury and Hartshead. Leeds: Spack and Son, 1897; repr. Mirfield: Imelda Marsden, 2006.

21. Mid-nineteenth-century critical responses to the Brontës

Allott, Miriam, ed. Emily Brontë, Wuthering Heights: A Casebook. Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1970.
Allott, Miriam, The Brontës: The Critical Heritage. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1974.
Lodge, Sara.Jane Eyre: A Reader’s Guide to Essential Criticism. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009, chapter 1.
Miller, Lucasta. The Brontë Myth. London: Jonathan Cape, 2001.
Stoneman, Patsy. Wuthering Heights: A Reader’s Guide to Essential Criticism. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 1993; Duxford: Icon, 2000.
Stoneman, Patsy. Wuthering Heights: Brontë Transformations: The Cultural Dissemination of Jane Eyre and Wuthering Heights. Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1996.
Stoneman, Patsy, ed. Jane Eyre on Stage, 1848–1898: An Illustrated Edition of Eight Plays with Contextual Notes. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2007.

22. Brontë scholarship and criticism, 1920–1970

Allott, Miriam, ed. Emily Brontë, Wuthering Heights: A Casebook. Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1970.
Allott, Miriam, ed. Charlotte Brontë, Jane Eyre and Villette: A Casebook. Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1973.
Cecil, David. Early Victorian Novelists: Essays in Revaluation. London: Constable, 1934.
Craik, W. A.The Brontë Novels. London: Methuen, 1968.
Ewbank, Inga-Stina. Their Proper Sphere: A Study of the Brontë Sisters as Early-Victorian Female Novelists. London: Edward Arnold, 1966.
Hafley, James. ‘The Villain in Wuthering Heights. Nineteenth-Century Fiction, 13.3 (Dec. 1958), 199–215.
Heilman, Robert. ‘Charlotte Brontë, Reason, and the Moon’. Nineteenth-Century Fiction, 14.4 (Mar. 1960), 283–302.
Knies, Earl A.The Art of Charlotte Brontë. Athens: Ohio University Press, 1969.
Lodge, David. ‘Fire and Eyre: Charlotte Brontë’s War of Earthly Elements’. In Language of Fiction: Essays in Criticism and Verbal Analysis of the English Novel. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1966, pp. 114–43.
Martin, Robert Bernard. The Accents of Persuasion: Charlotte Brontë’s Novels. London: Faber and Faber, 1966.
Ratchford, Fannie Elizabeth. The Brontës’ Web of Childhood. New York: Columbia University Press, 1941.
Sanger, Charles P.The Structure of Wuthering Heights. Hogarth Essays, 19. London: Hogarth Press, 1926; frequently reprinted, e.g. in Ian Gregor, ed., The Brontës: A Collection of Critical Essays. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1970, pp. 7–18.
Thompson, Wade. ‘Infanticide and Sadism in Wuthering Heights’. PMLA, 78.1 (Mar. 1963), 69–74.
Van Ghent, Dorothy. ‘The Window-Figure and the Two-Children Figure in Wuthering Heights’.Nineteenth-Century Fiction, 7.3 (Dec. 1952), 189–97.
Walker, Arthur D., and R. J. Duckett, eds. The Brontë Society Transactions 1895–2001: An Index and History. Haworth: Brontë Society, 2005.

23. Brontë scholarship and criticism, c. 1970–2000

Some entries below are from the first decade of the twenty-first century. For a survey of post-2000 work on the Brontës, with bibliographical information, see Chapter 24 in its entirety.

Armstrong, Nancy. Desire and Domestic Fiction: A Political History of the Novel. Oxford University Press, 1987.
Berry, Laura C. ‘Acts of Custody and Incarceration inWuthering Heights and The Tenant of Wildfell Hall’. Novel, 30.1 (Fall 1996), 32–55.
Boumelha, Penny. Charlotte Brontë. London: Harvester, 1990.
Eagleton, Terry. Myths of Power: A Marxist Study of the Brontës. London: Macmillan, 1975; 30th anniversary edn 2005.
Eagleton, Terry. Heathcliff and the Great Hunger. London: Verso, 1995.
Frawley, Maria. Anne Brontë. Twayne English Authors Series. New York: Twayne, 1996.
Gezari, Janet. Last Things: Emily Brontë’s Poems. Oxford University Press, 2007.
Gilbert, Sandra, and Susan Gubar, The Madwoman in the Attic: The Woman Writer and the Nineteenth-Century Literary Imagination. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1979; repr. 2000.
Glen, Heather. Charlotte Brontë: The Imagination in History. Oxford University Press, 2002.
Glen, Heather, ed. Jane Eyre: A New Casebook. Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1997.
Homans, Margaret. Bearing the Word: Language and Female Experience in Nineteenth-Century Women’s Writing. University of Chicago Press, 1986.
Langland, Elizabeth. Anne Brontë: The Other One. Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1989.
Lodge, Sara.Jane Eyre: A Reader’s Guide to Essential Criticism. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009.
Longmuir, Anne. ‘“Reader, perhaps you were never in Belgium?”: Negotiating British Identity in Charlotte Brontë’sThe Professor and Villette’. Nineteenth-Century Literature, 64.2 (2009), 163–88.
McMaster, Juliet. ‘“Imbecile Laughter” and “Desperate Earnest” in The Tenant of Wildfell Hall’. Modern Language Quarterly, 43.3 (1982), 352–68.
Meyer, Susan. Imperialism at Home: Race and Victorian Women’s Fiction. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1996.
Michie, Elsie. ‘White Chimpanzees and Oriental Despots: Racial Stereotyping and Edward Rochester’. In Beth Newman, ed., Case Studies in Contemporary Criticism: Jane Eyre. New York: St Martin’s Press, 1996, pp. 584–98.
Nash, Julie, and Barbara A. Suess, eds. New Approaches to the Literary Art of Anne Brontë. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2001.
Shuttleworth, Sally. Charlotte Brontë and Victorian Psychology. Cambridge University Press, 1996.
Spivak, Gayatri. ‘Three Women’s Texts and a Critique of Imperialism’. Critical Inquiry, 12.1 (Autumn 1985), 243–61.
Stoneman, Patsy. Wuthering Heights: A Reader’s Guide to Essential Criticism. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 1993; Duxford: Icon, 2000.
Stoneman, Patsy. Brontë Transformations: The Cultural Dissemination of Jane Eyre and Wuthering Heights. Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1996.
Stoneman, Patsy, ed. Wuthering Heights: A New Casebook. Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1993.
Thormählen, Marianne. ‘The Villain of Wildfell Hall: Aspects and Prospects of Arthur Huntingdon’. The Modern Language Review, 88.4 (Oct. 1993), 831–41.
Winnifrith, Tom, ed. Critical Essays on Emily Brontë. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1997.

25. Adaptations, prequels, sequels, translations

Ingham, Patricia. The Brontës. OxfordWorld’s Classics, Authors in Context. Oxford University Press, 2006.
Pyrhönen, Heta. Bluebeard Gothic: Jane Eyre and its Progeny. University of Toronto Press, 2010.
Rubik, Margarete, and Elke Mettinger-Schartmann, eds. A Breath of Fresh Eyre: Intertextual and Intermedial Reworkings of Jane Eyre. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2007.
Stoneman, Patsy. Brontë Transformations: The Cultural Dissemination of Jane Eyre and Wuthering Heights. Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1996.
Stoneman, Patsy, ed. Jane Eyre on Stage, 1848–1898: An Illustrated Edition of Eight Plays with Contextual Notes. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2007.

26. Religion

Bebbington, D.W. Evangelicalism in Modern Britain: A History from the 1730s to the 1980s. London: Unwin Hyman, 1989.
Bradley, Ian. The Call to Seriousness: The Evangelical Impact on the Victorians. London: Jonathan Cape, 1976.
Chadwick, Owen. The Victorian Church, part i: 1829–1859. London: A. and C. Black, 1966; repr. London: SCM Press, 1987.
Cunningham, Valentine. Everywhere Spoken Against: Dissent in the Victorian Novel. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1975.
Davies, Horton. Worship and Theology in England, vol. iii: From Watts and Wesley to Maurice, 1690–1850. Princeton University Press, 1961.
Jay, Elisabeth. The Religion of the Heart: Anglican Evangelicalism and the Nineteenth Century Novel. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1979.
Qualls, Barry. The Secular Pilgrims of Victorian Fiction. Cambridge University Press, 1982.
Reardon, Bernard M. G. From Coleridge to Gore: A Century of Religious Thought in Britain. London: Longman, 1971.
Storr, Vernon. The Development of English Theology in the Nineteenth Century 1800–1860. London: Longman, Green & Co., 1913.
Thormählen, Marianne. The Brontës and Religion. Cambridge University Press, 1999.
Thormählen, Marianne. ‘The Brontës’. In Rebecca Lemon, Emma Mason, Jonathan Roberts and Christopher Rowland, eds., The Blackwell Companion to the Bible in English Literature. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009, pp. 512–24.
Wheeler, Michael. Death and the Future Life in Victorian Literature and Theology. Cambridge University Press, 1990.
Wolff, Robert Lee. Gains and Losses:Novels of Faith and Doubt in Victorian England. London: John Murray, 1977.

27. The philosophical-intellectual context

Ashton, Rosemary. The German Idea: Four English Writers and the Reception of German Thought, 1800–1860. Cambridge University Press, 1980; London: Libris, 1994.
Barfield, Owen. Saving the Appearances: A Study in Idolatry. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1957.
Bowie, Andrew. Aesthetics and Subjectivity: From Kant to Nietzsche. Manchester University Press, 1990.
Carlyle, Thomas. Past and Present. London: Chapman and Hall, 1843.
Coleridge, Samuel Taylor. Aids to Reflection. 1825, many subsequent edns; in John Beer, ed., The Collected Works of Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Bollingen edn, vol. xi, London and Princeton: Routledge and Princeton University Press, 1993.
Coleridge, Samuel Taylor. Confessions of an Inquiring Spirit, ed. H. N. Coleridge. London: Pickering, 1840.
Davies, Stevie. Emily Brontë: Heretic. London: Women’s Press, 1994.
Goethe, J. W. von. Wilhelm Meister’s Apprenticeship, trans. Thomas Carlyle. Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd, 1824.
Hare, Augustus andJulius. Guesses at Truth. 1st edn, London, 1827, and 3rd edn, London, 1847.
Prickett, Stephen. Origins of Narrative: The Romantic Appropriation of the Bible. Cambridge University Press, 1996.
Prickett, Stephen. Modernity and the Reinvention of Tradition: Backing into the Future. Cambridge University Press, 2009.
Pugin, A. W. N. Contrasts. 1836; repr. Leicester University Press, 1969.
Thormählen, Marianne. The Brontës and Religion. Cambridge University Press, 1999.

28. Education

Birch, Dinah. Our Victorian Education. Oxford: Blackwell, 2008.
Lawson, John, and Harold Silver. A Social History of Education in England. London: Methuen, 1973.
Lecaros, Cecilia Wadsö. The Victorian Governess Novel. Lund Studies in English, 100. Lund University Press, 2001.
Rauch, Alan. Useful Knowledge: The Victorians, Morality, and the March of Intellect. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2001.
Shuttleworth, Sally. The Mind of the Child: Child Development in Literature, Science, and Medicine, 1840–1900. Oxford University Press, 2010.
Silver, Harold. Education as History: Interpreting Nineteenth- and Twentieth-Century History. London: Methuen, 1983.
Stephens, W. B.Education in Britain, 1750–1914. New York: St Martin’s Press, 1998.
Stewart, W. A. C., and W. P. McCann. The Educational Innovators: 1750–1880. London: Macmillan, 1967.
Thormählen, Marianne. The Brontës and Education. Cambridge University Press, 2007.
Tropp, Asher. The School Teachers: The Growth of the Teaching Profession in England and Wales from 1800 to the Present Day. London: Heinemann, 1957.

29. Art and music

Alexander, Christine. The Early Writings of Charlotte Brontë. Oxford: Blackwell, 1983.
Alexander, Christine. ‘“The burning clime”: Charlotte Brontë and John Martin’. Nineteenth-Century Literature, 50.3 (Dec. 1995), 285–316.
Alexander, Christine, ed. An Edition of the Early Writings of Charlotte Brontë. Oxford: Blackwell, for the Shakespeare Head Press, vol. i: The Glass Town Saga, 1826–1832, 1987; vol. ii: The Rise of Angria, 1833–1835, 1991; vol iii: The Angrian Legend, 1836–1839, forthcoming.
Alexander, Christine, and Jane Sellars. The Art of the Brontës. Cambridge University Press, 1995.
Hagan, Sandra, and Juliette Wells, eds. The Brontës in the World of the Arts. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2008.
Higuchi, Akiko. The Brontës and Music, vol. i: Anne Brontë’s Song Book and Branwell Brontë’s Flute Book; vol. ii: The Brontës’ World of Music. 2nd edn. Tokyo: Yushodo Press, 2008.
Kromm, Jane. ‘Visual Culture and Scopic Custom in Jane Eyre and Villette. Victorian Literature and Culture, 26.2 (1998), 369–94.
Leyland, Francis A.The Brontë Family with Special Reference to Patrick Branwell Brontë. 2 vols. London: Hurst and Blackett, 1886.
Losano, Antonia. ‘The Professionalization of the Woman Artist in Anne Brontë’s The Tenant of Wildfell Hall. Nineteenth-Century Literature, 58.1 (2003), 1–41.
Rastall, Richard, ed. Anne Brontë’s Song Book and Branwell Brontë’s Flute Book. Leeds: Boethius Press, 1980.
Smith, Anne, ed. The Art of Emily Brontë. London: Vision, 1976.
Thormählen, Marianne. The Brontës and Education. Cambridge University Press, 2007.
Wallace, Robert K.Emily Brontë and Beethoven: Romantic Equilibrium in Fiction and Music. Athens, GA: Georgia University Press, 1986.

30. Natural history

Alexander, Christine, and Jane Sellars. The Art of the Brontës. Cambridge University Press, 1995.
Allen, David Elliston. The Naturalist in Britain: A Social History. London: Allen Lane, 1976.
Barber, Lynn. The Heyday of Natural History, 1820–1870. London: Jonathan Cape, 1980.
Berman, Ronald. ‘Charlotte Brontë’s Natural History’. BST, 18.94 (1984), 271–8.
Duthie, Enid L.The Brontës and Nature. London: Macmillan, 1986.
Gates, Barbara T.Kindred Nature: Victorian and Edwardian Women Embrace the Living World. University of Chicago Press, 1998.
Gates, Barbara T., ed. In Nature’s Name: An Anthology of Women’s Writing and Illustration, 1780–1930. University of Chicago Press, 2002.
Merrill, Lynn L. The Romance of Victorian Natural History. Oxford University Press, 1989.
Stedman, Jane W.‘Charlotte Brontë and Bewick’s British Birds’. BST, 15.76 (1966), 36–40.
Thormählen, Marianne. The Brontës and Education. Cambridge University Press, 2007.

31. Politics

Brantlinger, Patrick. The Spirit of Reform: British Literature and Politics, 1832–1867. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1977.
Briggs, Asa. The Age of Improvement 1783–1867. First published 1959; new edn Harlow: Longman, 2000.
Dinwiddy, J.R.From Luddism to the First Reform Bill. Oxford: Blackwell, 1986.
Ingham, Patricia. The Brontës. Oxford World’s Classics, Authors in Context. Oxford University Press, 2006.
Matthew, Colin. The Nineteenth Century. Oxford University Press, 2000.
Morris, Pam. ‘Heroes and Hero-Worship in Charlotte Brontë’s Shirley. Nineteenth-Century Literature, 54.3 (Dec. 1999), 285–307.
Offor, Richard. ‘The Brontës – Their Relation to the History and Politics of their Time’. BST, 10.53 (1943), 150–60.
Plasa, Carl. Charlotte Brontë. Basingstoke: Palgrave, 1994.
Poovey, Mary. Making a Social Body: British Cultural Formation, 1830–1864. University of Chicago Press, 1995.
Rogers, Philip. ‘Tory Brontë: Shirley and the “man”’. Nineteenth-Century Literature, 58.2 (Sept. 2003), 141–75.
Tucker, Herbert F., ed. A Companion to Victorian Literature and Culture. Oxford: Blackwell, 1999.
Wilson, A. N.The Victorians. London: Hutchinson, 2002.

32. Newspapers and magazines

Alexander, Christine. ‘Readers and Writers: Blackwood’s and the Brontës’. Gaskell Society Journal, 8 (1994), 54–69.
Alexander, Christine, ed. An Edition of the Early Writings of Charlotte Brontë, vol. i: The Glass Town Saga, 1826–1832. Oxford: Blackwell, for the Shakespeare Head Press, 1987.
Bock, Carol A.‘Authorship, the Brontës, and Fraser’s Magazine: “Coming Forward” as an Author in Early Victorian England’. Victorian Literature and Culture, 29 (2001), 241–66.
Brake, Laurel, and Marysa Demoor, eds. Dictionary of Nineteenth Century Journalism. London: British Library, 2009.
Collier, Patrick. ‘“The lawless by force . . . the peaceable by kindness”: Strategies of Social Control in Charlotte Brontë’s Shirley and the Leeds Mercury. Victorian Periodicals Review, 32.4 (1999), 279–98.
Leeds Mercury. Full text in 19th Century British Library Newspapers. http://newspapers.bl.uk/blcs (accessed 17 May 2012).
Rosengarten, Herbert J.‘Charlotte Brontë and the Leeds Mercury’. Studies in English Literature 1500–1900, 16 (1976), 591–600.

33. Agriculture and industry

Baumber, Michael. A History of Haworth. Lancaster: Carnegie Publishing, 2009.
Crump, W. B.The Little Hill Farm. Rev. ednLondon: Scrivener Press, 1951.
Daunton, M. J. Progress and Poverty: An Economic and Social History of Britain 1700–1850. Oxford University Press, 1995.
Hartwell, R. M. ‘The Yorkshire Woollen and Worsted Industry, 1800–1850’. Unpublished doctoral thesis, University of Oxford, 1955.
Heaton, Herbert. The Yorkshire Woollen and Worsted Industries: From the Earliest Times up to the Industrial Revolution. Oxford University Press, 1920.
Loudon, J. C. An Encyclopaedia of Agriculture [etc.]. London, 1831; several edns during the nineteenth century.
Martins, Susanna Wade. Farmers, Landlords and Landscapes. Macclesfield: Windgather Press, 2004.
Mingay, G. E.Rural Life in Victorian England. London: Heinemann, 1976.
Mingay, G.E., ed. The Victorian Countryside. 2 vols. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1981.
Williamson, Tom. The Transformation of Rural England: Farming and the Landscape 1700–1870. University of Exeter Press, 2002.
Wood, Steven. Haworth: ‘A strange uncivilized little place’. Stroud: Tempus, 2005.

34. Transport and travel

Buzard, James. The Beaten Track: European Tourism, Literature, and the Ways to ‘Culture’, 1800–1918. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993.
Dewhirst, Ian. A History of Keighley. Keighley Corporation, 1974.
Emsley, Kenneth. Historic Haworth Today. Bradford Libraries, 1995.
Felton, William. A Treatise on Carriages. 2 vols. London, 1794–5. Partly repr. as Felton’s Carriages: Being a Selection of Coaches, Chariots, Phaetons & C. from A Treatise on Carriages, Illustrated by Alan Osbahr. London: Hugh Evelyn, 1962.
Jenkinson, David. The London and Birmingham: A Railway of Consequence. Harrow Weald: Capital Transport, 1988.
Miltoun, Francis [pseud.]. All about Ships and Shipping. 10th edn, ed. Edwin P. Harnack. London: Faber and Faber, 1959.
Robbins, Michael. The Railway Age. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1962.
Ruijssenaars, Eric. Charlotte Brontë’s Promised Land: The Pensionnat Heger and Other Brontë Places in Brussels. Haworth: Brontë Society, 2000.
Schivelbusch, Wolfgang. The Railway Journey: Trains and Travel in the 19th Century, trans. Anselm Hollo. Oxford: Blackwell, 1980.

35. Law

Chedzoy, Ann. A Scandalous Woman: The Story of Caroline Norton. London: Allison and Busby, 1992.
Diederich, Nicole. ‘The Art of Comparison: Remarriage in Anne Brontë’s The Tenant of Wildfell Hall. Rocky Mountain Review of Language and Literature, 57 (2003), 25–41.
Doggett, Maeve E.Marriage, Wife-Beating and the Law in Victorian England. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1992.
Dolin, Kieran. Fiction and the Law: Legal Discourse in Victorian and Modernist Literature. Cambridge University Press, 1999.
Dolin, Kieran. A Critical Introduction to Law and Literature. Cambridge University Press, 2007.
Finn, Margaret. ‘Victorian Law, Literature and History: Three Ships Passing in the Night’. Journal of Victorian Culture, 7 (2002), 134–46.
Holcombe, Lee. Wives and Property: Reform of Married Women’s Property Law in Nineteenth Century England. Toronto University Press, 1983.
Petch, Stephen. ‘Identity and Responsibility in Victorian England’. In Michael Freeman and Andrew D. E. Lewis, eds., Law and Literature. Current Legal Issues, 2. Oxford University Press, 1999, pp. 397–415.
Petch, Stephen. ‘Law, Literature, and Victorian Studies’. Victorian Literature and Culture, 35 (2007), 361–84.
Sanger, Charles P.The Structure of Wuthering Heights. London: Hogarth Press, 1926; frequently reprinted, e.g. in Ian Gregor, ed., The Brontës: A Collection of Critical Essays. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1970, pp. 7–18.
Schramm, Jan-Melissa. Testimony and Advocacy in Victorian Law, Literature and Theology. Cambridge University Press, 2000.
Shanley, Mary. Feminism, Marriage and the Law in Victorian England 1850–1895. Princeton University Press, 1989.
Spring, Eileen. Law, Land and Family: Aristocratic Inheritance in England 1300 to 1800. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1993.
Ward, Ian. ‘The Case of Helen Huntingdon’. Criticism, 49 (2007), 151–82.
Ward, Ian. ‘The Rochester Wives’. Law and Humanities, 2 (2008), 99–130.
Weisberg, Richard. Poethics and Other Strategies of Law and Literature. New York: Columbia University Press, 1992.
Wiener, Martin. Men of Blood: Violence, Manliness, and Criminal Justice in Victorian England. Cambridge University Press, 2004.
Williams, Melanie. Empty Justice: One Hundred Years of Law, Literature and Philosophy. London: Cavendish, 2002.

36. Class

Cohen, Monica F.Professional Domesticity in the Victorian Novel: Women, Work and Home. Cambridge University Press, 1998.
Davidoff, Leonore, and Catherine Hall. Family Fortunes: Men and Women of the English Middle Class, 1780–1850. University of Chicago Press, 1987.
Gallagher, Catherine. The Industrial Reformation of English Fiction: Social Discourse and Narrative Form, 1832–1867. University of Chicago Press, 1985.
Ingham, Patricia. The Language of Gender and Class: Transformation in the Victorian Novel. Londonand New York: Routledge, 1996.
Ingham, Patricia. The Brontës. Oxford World’s Classics, Authors in Context. Oxford University Press, 2006.
Langland, Elizabeth. Nobody’s Angels: Middle-Class Women and Domestic Ideology in Victorian Culture. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1995.
Levy, Anita. Other Women: The Writing of Class, Race and Gender, 1832–1989. Princeton University Press, 1994.
Poovey, Mary. Uneven Developments: The Ideological Work of Gender in Mid-Victorian England. University of Chicago Press, 1988.

37. Careers for middle-class women

Davis, Tracy C., and Ellen Donkin, eds. Women and Playwriting in Nineteenth-Century Britain. Cambridge University Press, 1999.
Ewbank, Inga-Stina. Their Proper Sphere: A Study of the Brontë Sisters as Early-Victorian Female Novelists. London: Edward Arnold, 1966.
Gates, Barbara T., and Ann B. Shteir, eds. Natural Eloquence: Women Reinscribe Science. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1997.
Hughes, Kathryn. The Victorian Governess. London: Rio Grande, 1993.
Shattock, Joanne, ed. Women and Literature in Britain 1800–1900. Cambridge University Press, 2001.
Swindells, Julia. Victorian Writing and Working Women: The Other Side of Silence. Cambridge: Polity, 1985.
Thompson, Nicola Diane, ed. Victorian Women Writers and the Woman Question. Cambridge University Press, 1999.
Thormählen, Marianne. The Brontës and Education. Cambridge University Press, 2007.
Vicinus, Martha, ed. A Widening Sphere: Changing Roles of Victorian Women. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1977.

38. Marriage and family life

Davidoff, Leonore, and Catherine Hall. Family Fortunes: Men and Women of the English Middle Class, 1780–1850. University of Chicago Press, 1987.
Foster, Shirley. Victorian Women’s Fiction: Marriage, Freedom and the Individual. London: Croom Helm, 1985.
Gillis, John R. For Better, for Worse: British Marriages, 1600 to the Present. New York: Oxford University Press, 1985.
Gleadle, Kathryn. British Women in the Nineteenth Century. Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2001.
Grylls, David. Guardians and Angels: Parents and Children in Nineteenth-Century Literature. London: Faber and Faber, 1978.
Houghton, Walter E.The Victorian Frame of Mind, 1830–1870. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1957; subsequently reissued.
Jalland, Pat. Death in the Victorian Family. London: Oxford University Press, 1997.
Kane, Penny. Victorian Families in Fact and Fiction. Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1995.
Lamonica, Drew. ‘We Are Three Sisters’: Self and Family in the Writing of the Brontës. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2003.
Lerner, Laurence. Love and Marriage: Literature and its Social Context. London: Edward Arnold, 1979.
Macfarlane, Alan. Marriage and Love in England: Modes of Reproduction 1300–1840. Oxford: Blackwell, 1986.
Perkin, Joan. Women and Marriage in Nineteenth-Century England. Chicago: Lyceum, 1989.
Pollock, Linda A. Forgotten Children: Parent–Child Relations from 1500 to 1900. Cambridge University Press, 1983.
Stone, Lawrence. Road to Divorce: England 1530–1987. Oxford University Press, 1990.
Thormählen, Marianne. The Brontës and Education. Cambridge University Press, 2007.

39. Dress

Ashelford, Jane. The Art of Dress: Clothes and Society 1500–1914. London: National Trust, 1996.
Berglund, Birgitta. ‘In Defence of Madame Beck’. Brontë Studies, 30.3 (Nov. 2005), 185–211.
Bernstein, Sara T.‘“In this same gown of shadow”: Functions of Fashion in Villette. In Sandra Hagan and Juliette Wells, eds., The Brontës in the World of the Arts. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2008, pp. 149–67.
Buck, Anne. Victorian Costume and Costume Accessories. New York: Thomas Nelson & Sons, 1961.
Foster, Vanda. A Visual History of Costume: The Nineteenth Century. London: B. T. Batsford, 1984.
Foster, Vanda, and Christina Walkley. Crinolines and Crimping Irons: Victorian Clothes: How They Were Cleaned and Cared For. London: Peter Owen, 1978.
Hughes, Clair. Dressed in Fiction. Oxfordand New York: Berg, 2006.
Laver, James. Costume and Fashion: A Concise History. London: Thames and Hudson, 1982.
Lescart, Alain. ‘All Women Are Grisettes in Villette. Brontë Studies, 30.2 (July 2005), 103–11.
Newton, Stella Mary. Health, Art and Reason: Dress Reformers of the 19th Century. London: John Murray, 1974.
Steele, Valerie. The Corset. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2001.

40. Sexuality

Hoppen, K. Theodore. The Mid-Victorian Generation: 1846–1888. Oxford University Press, 1998.
Marcus, Steven. The Other Victorians: A Study of Sexuality and Pornography in Mid-Nineteenth-Century England. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1966.
Mason, Michael. The Making of Victorian Sexuality. Oxford University Press, 1995.
Matus, Jill L. Unstable Bodies: Victorian Representations of Sexuality and Maternity. Manchester University Press, 1995.
Maynard, John. Charlotte Brontë and Sexuality. Cambridge University Press, 1984.
Porter, Roy, and Lesley Hall. The Facts of Life: The Creation of Sexual Knowledge in Britain 1650–1950. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985.

41. Physical health

Bailin, Miriam. The Sickroom in Victorian Fiction: The Art of Being Ill. Cambridge University Press, 1994.
Bewell, Alan. ‘Jane Eyre and Victorian Medical Geography’, ELH, 63.3 (Fall 1996), 773–808.
Caldwell, Janis McLarren. Literature and Medicine in Nineteenth-Century Britain: From Mary Shelley to George Eliot. CambridgeUniversityPress, 2004.
Gezari, Janet. Charlotte Brontë and Defensive Conduct: The Author and the Body at Risk. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1992.
Gorsky, Susan Rubinow. ‘“I’ll Cry Myself Sick”: Illness in Wuthering Heights’. Literature and Medicine, 18.2 (1999), 173–91.
McDonagh, Josephine. Introduction to Anne Brontë, The Tenant of Wildfell Hall. Oxford World’s Classics. Oxford University Press, 2008.
Smith, F. B.The People’s Health, 1830–1910. London: Croom Helm, 1979.
Sontag, Susan. Illness as Metaphor. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1978.
Torgerson, Beth. Reading the Brontë Body: Disease, Desire and the Constraints of Culture. Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.
Wohl, Anthony. Endangered Lives: Public Health in Victorian Britain. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1983.

42. Mental health

Cooter, Roger. The Cultural Meaning of Popular Science: Phrenology and the Organization of Consent in Nineteenth-Century Britain. Cambridge University Press, 1984.
Dames, Nicholas. Amnesiac Selves: Nostalgia, Forgetting, and British Fiction, 1810–1870. Oxford University Press, 2001.
Gilbert, Sandra M., and Susan Gubar. The Madwoman in the Attic: The Woman Writer and the Nineteenth-Century Literary Imagination. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1979; repr. 2000.
Logan, Peter Melville. Nerves and Narratives: A Cultural History of Hysteria in Nineteenth-Century British Prose. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997.
Scull, Andrew. The Most Solitary of Afflictions: Madness and Society in Britain 1700–1900. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993.
Showalter, Elaine. The Female Malady: Women, Madness, and English Culture, 1830–1980. New York: Penguin, 1987.
Shuttleworth, Sally. Charlotte Brontë and Victorian Psychology. Cambridge University Press, 1996.
Small, Helen. Love’s Madness: Medicine, the Novel, and Female Insanity, 1800–1865. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996.
Taylor, Jenny Bourne, and Sally Shuttleworth, eds. Embodied Selves: An Anthology of Psychological Texts 1830–1890. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1998.
Torgerson, Beth. Reading the Brontë Body: Disease, Desire and the Constraints of Culture. Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.
van Wyhe, John. Phrenology and the Origins of Victorian Scientific Naturalism. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2004.
Vrettos, Athena. Somatic Fictions: Imagining Illness in Victorian Culture. Stanford University Press, 1995.
Wood, Jane. Passion and Pathology in Victorian Fiction. Oxford University Press, 2001.