Several of the chapters here could be entire books in themselves, and this is one of them. The topics chosen – innovation, opportunity, and integration – are potentially diffuse and all-encompassing at the same time. These are intangible aspects to successful NSF projects that are hard to realize, predict, describe, or evaluate. Scientists should challenge themselves to look for these aspects from the beginning of their envisioning and development of NSF projects. The focus here will be on past experiences, representative examples, and interesting case studies.