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  • Print publication year: 2005
  • Online publication date: August 2009

1 - Bipolar disorders beyond major depression and euphoric mania

Summary

The early descriptions and roots of mixed states are very closely connected with the history and development of concepts regarding bipolar disorders. These concepts have their roots in the work and theories of the Greek physicians of the classical period, especially of the school of Hippocrates and, later, of the school of Aretaeus of Cappadocia. Most of the studies of the families of patients with rapid-cycling bipolar disorder show no difference between rapid- and non-rapid-cycling patients. Schizoaffective disorders present as unipolar or bipolar forms in a way similar to mood disorders, as is reflected in both diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-IV) and tenth revision of the international classification of diseases (ICD-10). ICD-10 and DSM-IV handle the definition of schizoaffective disorder differently. These differences present a difficulty for cross-national research. For a long time, agitated depression has been considered to be a type of mixed state.

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