Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
The Biology of Oligodendrocytes
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 2
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Buy the print book

Book description

Traditionally, oligodendrocytes have been assumed to play a minor supporting role in the central nervous system and their importance has generally been overlooked. For the first time, this book provides a dedicated review of all of the major aspects of oligodendrocyte biology, including development, organization, genetics, and immunobiology. Later chapters emphasize the importance of this underestimated cell to the mammalian central nervous system by exploring the role of myelin synthesis and maintenance in neural disease and repair. Particular attention is paid to multiple sclerosis (MS), arguably the prime example of an acquired demyelinating disease, with detailed examinations of the current concepts regarding demyelination, oligodendroglial damage, and remyelination in MS lesions.

Refine List

Actions for selected content:

Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
×

Contents

References
Abelson, J. F., Kwan, K. Y., O'Roak, B. J., et al. (2005). Sequence variants in SLITRK1 are associated with Tourette's syndrome. Science 310, 317–320.
Aberg, K., Saetre, P., Lindholm, E., et al. (2006). Human QKI, a new candidate gene for schizophrenia involved in myelination. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 141, 84–90.
Aboul-Enein, F., Bauer, J., Klein, M., et al. (2004). Selective and antigen-dependent effects of myelin degeneration on central nervous system inflammation. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 63, 1284–1296.
Aboul-Enein, F., Rauschka, H., Kornek, B., et al. (2003). Preferential loss of myelin-associated glycoprotein reflects hypoxia-like white matter damage in stroke and inflammatory brain diseases. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 62, 25–33.
Adams, R. D. and Kubik, C. S. (1952). The morbid anatomy of the demyelinating diseases. Am J Med 12, 510–546.
Adler, C. M., Adams, J., DelBello, M. P., et al. (2006). Evidence of white matter pathology in bipolar disorder adolescents experiencing their first episode of mania: a diffusion tensor imaging study. Am J Psychiatry 163, 322–324.
Adrian, E. K.. and Walker, B. E. (1962). Incorporation of thymidine-H3 by cells in normal and injured mouse spinal cord. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 21, 597–609.
Agrawal, H. C., Randle, C. L., and Agrawal, D. (1982). In vivo acylation of rat brain myelin proteolipid protein. J Biol Chem. 257, 4588–4592.
Aguayo, A. J., Charron, L., and Bray, G. M. (1976). Potential of Schwann cells from unmyelinated nerves to produce myelin: a quantitative ultrastructural and radiographic study. J Neurocytol 5, 565–573.
Ainger, K., Avossa, D., Diana, A. S., Barry, C., Barbarese, E., and Carson, J. H. (1997). Transport and localization elements in myelin basic protein mRNA. J Cell Biol 138, 1077–1087.
Ainger, K., Avossa, D., Morgan, F., et al. (1993). Transport and localization of exogenous myelin basic protein mRNA microinjected into oligodendrocytes. J Cell Biol 123, 431–441.
Akiyama, Y., Honmou, O., Kato, T., Uede, T., Hashi, K., and Kocsis, J. D. (2001). Transplantation of clonal neural precursor cells derived from adult human brain establishes functional peripheral myelin in the rat spinal cord. Exp Neurol 167, 27–39.
Akiyama, Y., Radtke, C., Honmou, O., and Kocsis, J. D. (2002a). Remyelination of the spinal cord following intravenous delivery of bone marrow cells. Glia 39, 229–236.
Akiyama, Y., Radtke, C., and Kocsis, J. D. (2002b). Remyelination of the rat spinal cord by transplantation of identified bone marrow stromal cells. J Neurosci 22, 6623–6630.
Aktas, O., Prozorovski, T., and Zipp, F. (2006). Death ligands and autoimmune demyelination. Neuroscientist 12, 305–316.
Alberdi, E., Sanchez-Gomez, M. V., Torre, I., et al. (2006). Activation of kainate receptors sensitizes oligodendrocytes to complement attack. J Neurosci 26, 3220–3228.
Albert, M., Antel, J. P., Bruck, W., and Stadelmann, C. (2007). Extensive cortical remyelination in patients with chronic multiple sclerosis. Brain Pathol 17, 129–138.
Alper, G. and Schor, N. F. (2004). Toward the definition of acute disseminated encephalitis of childhood. Curr Opin Pediatr 16, 637–640.
Ambrosini, A., Bresciani, L., Fracchia, S., Brunello, N., and Racagni, G. (1995). Metabotropic glutamate receptors negatively coupled to adenylate cyclase inhibit N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor activity and prevent neurotoxicity in mesencephalic neurons in vitro. Mol Pharmacol 47, 1057–1064.
Ancel, P. Y., Livinec, F., Larroque, B., et al. (2006). Cerebral palsy among very preterm children in relation to gestational age and neonatal ultrasound abnormalities: the EPIPAGE cohort study. Pediatrics 117, 828–835.
Andre, P., Castriconi, R., Espeli, M., et al. (2004). Comparative analysis of human NK cell activation induced by NKG2D and natural cytotoxicity receptors. Eur J Immunol 34, 961–971.
Anitei, M., Cowan, A. E., Pfeiffer, S. E., and Bansal, R. (2009). Role for Rab3a in oligodendrocyte morphological differentiation. J Neurosci Res 87, 342–352.
Antel, J. P., and Bar-Or, A. (2003). Do myelin-directed antibodies predict multiple sclerosis? N Engl J Med 349, 107–109.
Antel, J. P., McCrea, E., Ladiwala, U., Qin, Y. F., and Becher, B. (1998). Non-MHC-restricted cell-mediated lysis of human oligodendrocytes in vitro: relation with CD56 expression. J Immunol 160, 1606–1611.
Anton, E. S., Hadjiargyrou, M., Patterson, P. H., and Matthew, W. D. (1995). CD9 plays a role in Schwann cell migration in vitro. J Neurosci 15, 584–595.
Antony, J. M., Marle, G., Opii, W., et al. (2004). Human endogenous retrovirus glycoprotein-mediated induction of redox reactants causes oligodendrocyte death and demyelination. Nat Neurosci 7, 1088–1095.
Aquino, J. B., Hjerling-Leffler, J., Koltzenburg, M., Edlund, T., Villar, M. J., and Ernfors, P. (2006). In vitro and in vivo differentiation of boundary cap neural crest stem cells into mature Schwann cells. Exp Neurol 198, 438–449.
Ara, J., Przedborski, S., Naini, A. B., et al. (1998). Inactivation of tyrosine hydroxylase by nitration following exposure to peroxynitrite and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95, 7659–7663.
Araki, T. and Milbrandt, J. (1996). Ninjurin, a novel adhesion molecule, is induced by nerve injury and promotes axonal growth. Neuron 17, 353–361.
Arbuthnott, E. R., Boyd, I. A., and Kalu, K. U. (1980). Ultrastructural dimensions of myelinated peripheral nerve fibres in the cat and their relation to conduction velocity. J Physiol (Lond) 308, 125–157.
Archelos, J. J., Previtali, S. C., and Hartung, H. P. (1999). The role of integrins in immune-mediated diseases of the nervous system. Trends Neurosci 22, 30–38.
Arnett, H. A., Fancy, S. P., Alberta, J. A., et al. (2004). bHLH transcription factor Olig1 is required to repair demyelinated lesions in the CNS. Science 306, 2111–2115.
Arquint, M., Roder, J., Chia, L.-S., et al. (1987). Molecular cloning and primary structure of myelin-associated glycoproteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84, 600–604.
Arriza, J. L., Fairman, W. A., Wadiche, J. I., Murdoch, G. H., Kavanaugh, M. P., and Amara, S. G. (1994). Functional comparisons of three glutamate transporter subtypes cloned from human motor cortex. J Neurosci 14, 5559–5569.
Arundine, M. and Tymianski, M. (2004). Molecular mechanisms of glutamate-dependent neurodegeneration in ischemia and traumatic brain injury. Cell Mol Life Sci 61, 657–668.
Atlante, A., Calissano, P., Bobba, A., Giannattasio, S., Marra, E., and Passarella, S. (2001). Glutamate neurotoxicity, oxidative stress and mitochondria. FEBS Lett 497, 1–5.
Azari, M. F., Profyris, C., Karnezis, T., et al. (2006). Leukemia inhibitory factor arrests oligodendrocyte death and demyelination in spinal cord injury. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 65, 914–929.
Babbe, H., Roers, A., Waisman, A., et al. (2000). Clonal expansions of CD8(+) T cells dominate the T cell infiltrate in active multiple sclerosis lesions as shown by micromanipulation and single cell polymerase chain reaction. J Exp Med 192, 393–404.
Bachelin, C., Lachapelle, F., Girard, C., et al. (2005). Efficient myelin repair in the macaque spinal cord by autologous grafts of Schwann cells. Brain 128, 540–549.
Back, S. A., Craig, A., Kayton, R. J., et al. (2007). Hypoxia-ischemia preferentially triggers glutamate depletion from oligodendroglia and axons in perinatal cerebral white matter. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 27, 334–347.
Back, S. A., Gan, X., Li, Y., Rosenberg, P. A., and Volpe, J. J. (1998). Maturation-dependent vulnerability of oligodendrocytes to oxidative stress-induced death caused by glutathione depletion. J Neurosci 18, 6241–6253.
Back, S. A., Han, B. H., Luo, N. L., et al. (2002a). Selective vulnerability of late oligodendrocyte progenitors to hypoxia-ischemia. J Neurosci 22, 455–463.
Back, S. A., Luo, N. L., Borenstein, N. S., Levine, J. M., Volpe, J. J., and Kinney, H. C. (2001). Late oligodendrocyte progenitors coincide with the developmental window of vulnerability for human perinatal white matter injury. J Neurosci 21, 1302–1312.
Back, S. A., Luo, N. L., Borenstein, N. S., Volpe, J. J., and Kinney, H. C. (2002b). Arrested oligodendrocyte lineage progression during human cerebral white matter development: dissociation between the timing of progenitor differentiation and myelinogenesis. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 61, 197–211.
Back, S. A., Tuohy, T. M., Chen, H., et al. (2005). Hyaluronan accumulates in demyelinated lesions and inhibits oligodendrocyte progenitor maturation. Nat Med 11, 966–972.
Badea, T. C., Niculescu, F. I., Soane, L., Shin, M. L., and Rus, H. (1998). Molecular cloning and characterization of RGC-32, a novel gene induced by complement activation in oligodendrocytes. J Biol Chem 273, 26977–26981.
Baechner, D., Liehr, T., Hameister, H., et al. (1995). Widespread expression of the peripheral myelin protein-22 gene (PMP22) in neural and non-neural tissues during murine development. J Neurosci Res 42, 733–741.
Baerwald, K. D. and Popko, B. (1998). Developing and mature oligodendrocytes respond differently to the immune cytokine interferon-gamma. J Neurosci Res 52, 230–239.
Bagasra, O., Michaels, F. H., Zheng, Y. M., et al. (1995). Activation of the inducible form of nitric oxide synthase in the brains of patients with multiple sclerosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 92, 12041–12045.
Bai, L., Caplan, A., Lennon, D., and Miller, R. H. (2007). Human mesenchymal stem cells signals regulate neural stem cell fate. Neurochem Res 32, 353–362.
Bakiri, Y., Burzomato, V., Frugier, G., Hamilton, N. B., Karadottir, R., and Attwell, D. (2009). Glutamatergic signaling in the brain's white matter. Neuroscience 158, 266–274.
Bakiri, Y., Hamilton, N. B., Karadottir, R., and Attwell, D. (2008). Testing NMDA receptor block as a therapeutic strategy for reducing ischaemic damage to CNS white matter. Glia 56, 233–240.
Bal-Price, A. and Brown, G. C. (2001). Inflammatory neurodegeneration mediated by nitric oxide from activated glia-inhibiting neuronal respiration, causing glutamate release and excitotoxicity. J Neurosci 21, 6480–6491.
Balabanov, R., Strand, K., Goswami, R., et al. (2007). Interferon-gamma-oligodendrocyte interactions in the regulation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Neurosci 27, 2013–2024.
Balentine, J. D. (1978a). Pathology of experimental spinal cord trauma. I. The necrotic lesion as a function of vascular injury. Lab Invest 39, 236–253.
Balentine, J. D. (1978b). Pathology of experimental spinal cord trauma. II. Ultrastructure of axons and myelin. Lab Invest 39, 254–266.
Balentine, J. D., and Spector, M. (1977). Calcification of axons in experimental spinal cord trauma. Ann Neurol 2, 520–523.
Balice-Gordon, R. J., Bone, L. J., and Scherer, S. S. (1998). Functional gap junctions in the Schwann cell myelin sheath. J Cell Biol 142, 1095–1104.
Bandtlow, C., Zachleder, T., and Schwab, M. E. (1990). Oligodendrocytes arrest neurite growth by contact inhibition. J Neurosci 10, 3837–3848.
Banker, B. Q., and Larroche, J. C. (1962). Periventricular leukomalacia of infancy. A form of neonatal anoxic encephalopathy. Arch Neurol 7, 386–410.
Bansal, R. and Pfeiffer, S. E. (1992). Novel stage in the oligodendrocyte lineage defined by reactivity of progenitors with R-mAb prior to O1 anti-galactocerebroside. J Neurosci Res 32, 309–316.
Bansal, R. and Pfeiffer, S. E. (1997). FGF-2 converts mature oligodendrocytes to a novel phenotype. J Neurosci Res 50, 215–228.
Baracskay, K. L., Kidd, G. J., Miller, R. H., and Trapp, B. D. (2007). NG2-positive cells generate A2B5-positive oligodendrocyte precursor cells. Glia 55, 1001–1010.
Barbarese, E., Carson, J. H., and Braun, P. E. (1978). Accumulation of the four myelin basic proteins in mouse brain during development. J Neurochem 31, 779–782.
Barbarese, E., Koppel, D. E., Deutscher, M. P., et al. (1995). Protein translation components are colocalized in granules in oligodendrocytes. J Cell Sci 108, 2781–2790.
Barkhof, F., Bruck, W., Groot, C. J., et al. (2003). Remyelinated lesions in multiple sclerosis: magnetic resonance image appearance. Arch Neurol 60, 1073–1081.
Barnett, M. H. and Prineas, J. W. (2004). Relapsing and remitting multiple sclerosis: pathology of the newly forming lesion. Ann Neurol 55, 458–468.
Barradas, P. C., Ferraz, A. S., Ferreira, A. A., Daumas, R. P., and Moura, E. G. (2000). 2′3 ′-Cyclic nucleotide 3′-phosphodiesterase immunohistochemistry shows an impairment on myelin compaction in hypothyroid rats. Int J Dev Neurosci 18, 887–892.
Barres, B. A., Koroshetz, W. J., Swartz, K. J., Chun, L. L. Y., and Corey, D. P. (1990). Ion channel expression by white matter glia: the O2A glial progenitor cell. Neuron 4, 507–524.
Bartel, D. P. (2004). MicroRNAs: genomics, biogenesis, mechanism, and function. Cell 116, 281–297.
Barton, W. A., Liu, B. P., Tzvetkova, D., et al. (2003). Structure and axon outgrowth inhibitor binding of the Nogo-66 receptor and related proteins. EMBO J 22, 3291–3302.
Bartsch, S., Montag, D., Schachner, M., and Bartsch, U. (1997). Increased number of unmyelinated axons in optic nerves of adult mice deficient in the myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG). Brain Res 762, 231–234.
Bartsch, U. (2003). Neural CAMS and their role in the development and organization of myelin sheaths. Front Biosci 8, d477–d490.
Bartsch, U., Bandtlow, C. E., Schnell, L., et al. (1995a). Lack of evidence that myelin-associated glycoprotein is a major inhibitor of axonal regeneration in the CNS. Neuron 15, 1375–1381.
Bartsch, U., Kirchhoff, F., and Schachner, M. (1989). Immunohistological localization of the adhesion molecules L1, N-CAM, and MAG in the developing and adult optic nerve of mice. J Comp Neurol 284, 451–462.
Bartsch, U., Montag, D., Bartsch, S., and Schachner, M. (1995b). Multiply myelinated axons in the optic nerve of mice deficient for the myelin-associated glycoprotein. Glia 14, 115–122.
Bartsch, U., Pesheva, P., Raff, M., and Schachner, M. (1993). Expression of janusin (J1–160/180) in the retina and optic nerve of the developing and adult mouse. Glia 9, 57–69.
Bartzokis, G. (2005). Brain myelination in prevalent neuropsychiatric developmental disorders: primary and comorbid addiction. Adolesc Psychiatry 29, 55–96.
Bartzokis, G. (2007). Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors may improve myelin integrity. Biol Psychiatry 62, 294–301.
Bartzokis, G., Lu, P. H., Geschwind, D. H., Edwards, N., Mintz, J., and Cummings, J. L. (2006). Apolipoprotein E genotype and age-related myelin breakdown in healthy individuals: implications for cognitive decline and dementia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 63, 63–72.
Baumann, N. and Pham-Dinh, D. (2001). Biology of oligodendrocyte and myelin in the mammalian central nervous system. Physiol Rev 81, 871–927.
Beattie, M. S. (2004). Inflammation and apoptosis: linked therapeutic targets in spinal cord injury. Trends Mol Med 10, 580–583.
Bechmann, I., Galea, I., and Perry, V. H. (2007). What is the blood-brain barrier (not)? Trends Immunol 28, 5–11.
Becker, T., Anliker, B., Becker, C. G., et al. (2000). Tenascin-R inhibits regrowth of optic fibers in vitro and persists in the optic nerve of mice after injury. Glia 29, 330–346.
Behrens, T. E., Johansen-Berg, H., Woolrich, M. W., et al. (2003). Non-invasive mapping of connections between human thalamus and cortex using diffusion imaging. Nat Neurosci 6, 750–757.
Belachew, S., Chittajallu, R., Aguirre, A. A., et al. (2003). Postnatal NG2 proteoglycan-expressing progenitor cells are intrinsically multipotent and generate functional neurons. J Cell Biol 161, 169–186.
Ben-Hur, T., Einstein, O., Mizrachi-Kol, R., et al. (2003). Transplanted multipotential neural precursor cells migrate into the inflamed white matter in response to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Glia 41, 73–80.
Bengtsson, S. L., Nagy, Z., Skare, S., Forsman, L., Forssberg, H., and Ullen, F. (2005). Extensive piano practicing has regionally specific effects on white matter development. Nat Neurosci 8, 1148–1150.
Benjamins, J. A., Iwata, R., and Hazlett, J. (1978). Kinetics of entry of proteins into the myelin membrane. J Neurochem 31, 1077–1085.
Benjamins, J. A., Nedelkoska, L., and George, E. B. (2003). Protection of mature oligodendrocytes by inhibitors of caspases and calpains. Neurochem Res 28, 143–152.
Bennett, V. and Lambert, S. (1999). Physiological roles of axonal ankyrins in survival of premyelinated axons and localization of voltage-gated sodium channels. J Neurocytol 28, 303–318.
Benninger, Y., Thurnherr, T., Pereira, J. A., et al. (2007). Essential and distinct roles for cdc42 and rac1 in the regulation of Schwann cell biology during peripheral nervous system development. J Cell Biol 177, 1051–1061.
Benson, M. D., Romero, M. I., Lush, M. E., Lu, Q. R., Henkemeyer, M., and Parada, L. F. (2005). Ephrin-B3 is a myelin-based inhibitor of neurite outgrowth. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102, 10694–10699.
Bentley, C. A. and Lee, K. F. (2000). p75 is important for axon growth and Schwann cell migration during development. J Neurosci 20, 7706–7715.
Benveniste, H., Drejer, J., Schousboe, A., and Diemer, N. H. (1984). Elevation of the extracellular concentrations of glutamate and aspartate in rat hippocampus during transient cerebral ischemia monitored by intracerebral microdialysis. J Neurochem 43, 1369–1374.
Bergamaschi, R., Tonietti, S., Franciotta, D., et al. (2004). Oligoclonal bands in Devic's neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis: differences in repeated cerebrospinal fluid examinations. Mult Scler 10, 2–4.
Berger, J. R. (2003).Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: explaining the high incidence and disproportionate frequency of the illness relative to other immunosuppressive conditions. J Neurovirol 9 Suppl 1, 38–41.
Berger, P., Niemann, A., and Suter, U. (2006). Schwann cells and the pathogenesis of inherited motor and sensory neuropathies (Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease). Glia 54, 243–257.
Berger, T., Rubner, P., Schautzer, F., et al. (2003). Antimyelin antibodies as a predictor of clinically definite multiple sclerosis after a first demyelinating event. N Engl J Med 349, 139–145.
Berger, T., Walz, W., Schnitzer, J., and Kettenmann, H. (1992). GABA- and glutamate-activated currents in glial cells of the mouse corpus callosum slice. J Neurosci Res 31, 21–27.
Berghs, S., Aggujaro, D., Dirkx, R.., et al. (2000). BetaIV spectrin, a new spectrin localized at axon initial segments and nodes of ranvier in the central and peripheral nervous system. J Cell Biol 151, 985–1002.
Bergles, D. E., Diamond, J. S., and Jahr, C. E. (1999). Clearance of glutamate inside the synapse and beyond. Curr Opin Neurobiol 9, 293–298.
Bergles, D. E., Roberts, J. D., Somogyi, P., and Jahr, C. E. (2000). Glutamatergic synapses on oligodendrocyte precursor cells in the hippocampus. Nature 405, 187–191.
Bergoffen, J., Scherer, S. S., Wang, S., et al. (1993). Connexin mutations in X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Science 262, 2039–2042.
Bergsteindottir, K., Brennan, A., Jessen, K. R., and Mirsky, R. (1992). In the presence of dexamethasone, gamma interferon induces rat oligodendrocytes to express major histocompatibility complex class II molecules. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89, 9054–9058.
Bernardo, A., Greco, A., Levi, G., and Minghetti, L. (2003). Differential lipid peroxidation, Mn superoxide, and bcl-2 expression contribute to the maturation-dependent vulnerability of oligodendrocytes to oxidative stress. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 62, 509–519.
Besancon, E., Guo, S., Lok, J., Tymianski, M., and Lo, E. H. (2008). Beyond NMDA and AMPA glutamate receptors: emerging mechanisms for ionic imbalance and cell death in stroke. Trends Pharmacol Sci 29, 268–275.
Bethea, J. R. and Dietrich, W. D. (2002). Targeting the host inflammatory response in traumatic spinal cord injury. Curr Opin Neurol 15, 355–360.
Bezzi, P., Carmignoto, G., Pasti, L., et al.(1998). Prostaglandins stimulate calcium-dependent glutamate release in astrocytes. Nature 391, 281–285.
Bezzi, P., Domercq, M., Brambilla, L., et al. (2001). CXCR4-activated astrocyte glutamate release via TNFalpha: amplification by microglia triggers neurotoxicity. Nat Neurosci 4, 702–710.
Bhat, M. A., Rios, J. C., Lu, Y., et al. (2001). Axon–glia interactions and the domain organization of myelinated axons requires neurexin IV/Caspr/Paranodin. Neuron 30, 369–383.
Billiards, S. S., Haynes, R. L., Folkerth, R. D., et al. (2008). Myelin abnormalities without oligodendrocyte loss in periventricular leukomalacia. Brain Pathol 18, 153–163.
Bitsch, A., Kuhlmann, T., da Costa, C., Bunkowski, S., Polak, T., and Brück, W. (2000a). Tumour necrosis factor alpha mRNA expression in early multiple sclerosis lesions: correlation with demyelinating activity and oligodendrocyte pathology. Glia 29, 366–375.
Bitsch, A., Schuchardt, J., Bunkowski, S., Kuhlmann, T., and Bruck, W. (2000b). Acute axonal injury in multiple sclerosis. Correlation with demyelination and inflammation. Brain 123, 1174–1183.
Bixby, J. L., Lilien, J., and Reichardt, L. F. (1988). Identification of the major proteins that promote neuronal process outgrowth on Schwann cells in vitro. J Cell Biol 107, 353–361.
Bizzozero, O. A., McGarry, J. F., and Lees, M. B. (1986). Acylation of rat brain myelin proteolipid protein with different fatty acids. J Neurochem 47, 772–778.
Bjartmar, C. and Trapp, B. D. (2001). Axonal and neuronal degeneration in multiple sclerosis: mechanisms and functional consequences. Curr Opin Neurol 14, 271–278.
Blaabjerg, M., Fang, L., Zimmer, J., and Baskys, A. (2003). Neuroprotection against NMDA excitotoxicity by group I metabotropic glutamate receptors is associated with reduction of NMDA stimulated currents. Exp Neurol 183, 573–580.
Black, J. A., Kocsis, J. D., and Waxman, S. G. (1990). Ion channel organization of the myelinated fiber. Trends Neurosci 13, 48–54.
Black, J. A., Waxman, S. G., and Smith, K. J. (2006). Remyelination of dorsal column axons by endogenous Schwann cells restores the normal pattern of Nav1.6 and Kv1.2 at nodes of Ranvier. Brain 129, 1319–1329.
Blakemore, W. F. (1969). Schmidt–Lantermann incisures in the central nervous system. J Ultrastruct Res 29, 496–498.
Blakemore, W. F. (1974). Pattern of remyelination in the CNS. Nature 249, 577–578.
Blakemore, W. F. (1977). Remyelination of CNS axons by Schwann cells transplanted from the sciatic nerve. Nature 266, 68–69.
Blakemore, W. F. (1981). Observations on myelination and remyelination in the central nervous system. In Development in the Nervous System, Garrod, D. R. and Feldman, J. D., eds. (Cambridge University Press), pp. 289–308.
Blakemore, W. F. and Keirstead, H. S. (1999). The origin of the remyelinating cells in the central nervous system. J Neuroimmunol 98, 69–76.
Blaschuk, K. L., Frost, E. E., and Ffrench-Constant, C. (2000). The regulation of proliferation and differentiation in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells by alphaV integrins. Development 127, 1961–1969.
Blau, H. M. (2002). A twist of fate. Nature 419, 437.
Blight, A. R. (1983). Cellular morphology of chronic spinal cord injury in the cat: analysis of myelinated axons by line-sampling. Neuroscience 10, 521–543.
Bo, L., Mork, S., Kong, P. A., Nyland, H., Pardo, C. A., and Trapp, B. D. (1994). Detection of MHC class II-antigens on macrophages and microglia, but not on astrocytes and endothelia in active multiple sclerosis lesions. J Neuroimmunol 51, 135–146.
Bo, L., Quarles, R. H., Fujita, N., Bartoszewicz, Z., Sato, S., and Trapp, B. D. (1995). Endocytic depletion of L-MAG from CNS myelin in quaking mice. J Cell Biol 131, 1811–1820.
Boggs, J. M. (2006). Myelin basic protein: a multifunctional protein. Cell Mol Life Sci 63, 1945–1961.
Bogler, O., Wren, D., Barnett, S. C., Land, H., and Noble, M. (1990). Cooperation between two growth factors promotes extended self-renewal and inhibits differentiation of oligodendrocyte-type-2 astrocyte (O-2A) progenitor cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87, 6368–6372.
Boison, D. and Stoffel, W. (1994). Disruption of the compacted myelin sheath of axons of the central nervous system in proteolipid protein-deficient mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91, 11709–11713.
Borges, K., Ohlemeyer, C., Trotter, J., and Kettenmann, H. (1994). AMPA/kainate receptor activation in murine oligodendrocyte precursor cells leads to activation of a cation conductance, calcium influx and blockade of delayed rectifying K+ channels. Neuroscience 63, 135–149.
Bosio, A., Bussow, H., Adam, J., and Stoffel, W. (1998). Galactosphingolipids and axono-glial interaction in myelin of the central nervous system. Cell Tissue Res 292, 199–210.
Bouvier-Labit, C., Liprandi, A., Monti, G., Pellissier, J. F., and Figarella-Branger, D. (2002). CD44H is expressed by cells of the oligodendrocyte lineage and by oligodendrogliomas in humans. J Neurooncol 60, 127–134.
Boyle, M. E., Berglund, E. O., Murai, K. K., Weber, L., Peles, E., and Ranscht, B. (2001). Contactin orchestrates assembly of the septate-like junctions at the paranode in myelinated peripheral nerve. Neuron 30, 385–397.
Brady, S. T., Witt, A. S., Kirkpatrick, L. L., et al. (1999). Formation of compact myelin is required for maturation of the axonal cytoskeleton. J Neurosci 19, 7278–7288.
Braude, P., Minger, S. L., and Warwick, R. M. (2005). Stem cell therapy: hope or hype? BMJ 330, 1159–1160.
Braun, P. E., Sandillon, F., Edwards, A., Matthieu, J.-M., and Privat, A. (1988). Immunocytochemical localization by electron microscopy of 2′,3′-cyclic nucleotide 3′-phosphodiesterase in developing oligodendrocytes of normal and mutant brain. J Neurosci 8, 3057–3066.
Bre, M.-H., Kreis, T. E., and Karsenti, E. (1987). Control of microtubule nucleation and stability in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells: the occurrence of noncentrosomal, stable detyrosinated microtubules. J Cell Biol 105, 1283–1296.
Bregman, B. S., Kunkel-Bagden, E., Schnell, L., Dai, H. N., Gao, D., and Schwab, M. E. (1995). Recovery from spinal cord injury mediated by antibodies to neurite growth inhibitors. Nature 378, 498–501.
Brenner, T., Brocke, S., Szafer, F., et al. (1997). Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase for treatment of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Immunol 158, 2940–2946.
Brierley, C. M., Crang, A. J., Iwashita, Y., et al. (2001). Remyelination of demyelinated CNS axons by transplanted human Schwann cells: the deleterious effect of contaminating fibroblasts. Cell Transplant 10, 305–315.
Brinkmann, B. G., Agarwal, A., Sereda, M. W., et al. (2008). Neuregulin-1/ErbB signaling serves distinct functions in myelination of the peripheral and central nervous system. Neuron 59, 581–595.
Brophy, P. J. (2001). Axoglial junctions: separate the channels or scramble the message. Curr Biol 11, R555–R557.
Brosamle, C., Huber, A. B., Fiedler, M., Skerra, A., and Schwab, M. E. (2000). Regeneration of lesioned corticospinal tract fibers in the adult rat induced by a recombinant, humanized IN-1 antibody fragment. J Neurosci 20, 8061–8068.
Brosnan, C. F., Bornstein, M. B., and Bloom, B. R. (1981). The effects of macrophage depletion on the clinical and pathologic expression of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. J Immunol 126, 614–620.
Brown, G. C. and Bal-Price, A. (2003). Inflammatory neurodegeneration mediated by nitric oxide, glutamate, and mitochondria. Mol Neurobiol 27, 325–355.
Brownell, B. and Hughes, J. T. (1962). The distribution of plaques in the cerebrum in multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 25, 315–320.
Brück, W., Schmied, M., Suchanek, G., et al. (1994). Oligodendrocytes in the early course of multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol 35, 65–73.
Brunner, C., Lassmann, H., Waehneldt, T. V., Matthieu, J. M., and Linington, C. (1989). Differential ultrastructural localization of myelin basic protein, myelin/oligodendroglial glycoprotein, and 2′,3′-cyclic nucleotide 3′-phosphodiesterase in the CNS of adult rats. J Neurochem 52, 296–304.
Brushart, T. M. E. (1990). Preferential motor reinnervation: a sequential double-labeling study. Restor Neurol Neurosci281–287.
Brushart, T. M. E. (1993). Motor axons preferentially reinnervate motor pathways. J Neurosci 13, 2730–2738.
Brustle, O., Jones, K. N., Learish, R. D., et al. (1999). Embryonic stem cell-derived glial precursors: a source of myelinating transplants. Science 285, 754–756.
Bruzzone, R., White, T. W., Scherer, S. S., Fischbeck, K. H., and Paul, D. L. (1994). Null mutations of connexin32 in patients with X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Neuron 13, 1253–1260.
Bsibsi, M., Ravid, R., Gveric, D., and Noort, J. M. (2002). Broad expression of Toll-like receptors in the human central nervous system. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 61, 1013–1021.
Buffo, A., Zagrebelsky, M., Huber, A. B., et al. (2000). Application of neutralizing antibodies against NI-35/250 myelin-associated neurite growth inhibitory proteins to the adult rat cerebellum induces sprouting of uninjured Purkinje cell axons. J Neurosci 20, 2275–2286.
Bunge, M. B. and Pearse, D. D. (2003). Transplantation strategies to promote repair of the injured spinal cord. J Rehabil Res Dev 40, 55–62.
Bunge, M. B.Bunge, R. P., and Ris, H. (1961). Ultrastructural study of remyelination in an experimental lesion in adult cat spinal cord. J Biophys Biochem Cytol 10, 67–94.
Bunge, R. P., Bunge, M. B., and Ris, H. (1960). Electron microscopic study of demyelination in an experimentally induced lesion in adult cat spinal cord. J Biophys Biochem Cytol 7, 685–696.
Buntinx, M., Moreels, M., Vandenabeele, F., et al. (2004). Cytokine-induced cell death in human oligodendroglial cell lines: I. Synergistic effects of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha on apoptosis. J Neurosci Res 76, 834–845.
Burgmaier, G., Schönrock, M. L., Kuhlmann, T., Richter-Landsberg, C., and Brück, W. (2000). Association of increased bcl-2 expression with rescue from TNF-α induced cell death in the oligodendrocyte cell line OLN-93. J Neurochem 75, 2270–2276.
Burke, R. E. (2007). Sir Charles Sherrington's the integrative action of the nervous system: a centenary appreciation. Brain 130, 887–894.
Burnashev, N., Monyer, H., Seeburg, P. H., and Sakmann, B. (1992). Divalent ion permeability of AMPA receptor channels is dominated by the edited form of a single subunit. Neuron 8, 189–198.
Burns, J., Rosenzweig, A., Zweiman, B., and Lisak, R. (1983). Isolation of myelin basic protein-reactive T-cell lines from normal human blood. Cell Immunol 81, 435–440.
Burt, R. K., Loh, Y., Pearce, W., et al. (2008). Clinical applications of blood-derived and marrow-derived stem cells for nonmalignant diseases. J Am Med Assoc 299, 925–936.
Bushati, N. and Cohen, S. M. (2007). microRNA functions. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 23, 175–205.
Butt, A. M., Duncan, A., Hornby, M. F., et al. (1999). Cells expressing the NG2 antigen contact nodes of Ranvier in adult CNS white matter. Glia 26, 84–91.
Butt, A. M., Hamilton, N., Hubbard, P., Pugh, M., and Ibrahim, M. (2005). Synantocytes: the fifth element. J Anat 207, 695–706.
Butt, A. M., Kiff, J., Hubbard, P., and Berry, M. (2002). Synantocytes: new functions for novel NG2 expressing glia. J Neurocytol 31, 551–565.
Butzkueven, H., Emery, B., Cipriani, T., Marriott, M. P., and Kilpatrick, T. J. (2006). Endogenous leukemia inhibitory factor production limits autoimmune demyelination and oligodendrocyte loss. Glia 53, 696–703.
Byravan, S., Foster, L. M., Phan, T., Verity, A. N., and Campagnoni, A. T. (1994). Murine oligodendroglial cells express nerve growth factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91, 8812–8816.
Cai, D., Qiu, J., Cao, Z., McAtee, M., Bregman, B. S., and Filbin, M. T. (2001). Neuronal cyclic AMP controls the developmental loss in ability of axons to regenerate. J Neurosci 21, 4731–4739.
Cai, J., Qi, Y., Hu, X., et al. (2005). Generation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells from mouse dorsal spinal cord independent of Nkx6 regulation and Shh signaling. Neuron 45, 41–53.
Cai, Z., Pan, Z. L., Pang, Y., Evans, O. B., and Rhodes, P. G. (2000). Cytokine induction in fetal rat brains and brain injury in neonatal rats after maternal lipopolysaccharide administration. Pediatr Res 47, 64–72.
Caldwell, J. H., Schaller, K. L., Lasher, R. S., Peles, E., and Levinson, S. R. (2000). Sodium channel Na(v)1.6 is localized at nodes of Ranvier, dendrites, and synapses. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97, 5616–5620.
Cameron-Curry, P. and Douarin, N. M. (1995). Oligodendrocyte precursors originate from both the dorsal and the ventral parts of the spinal cord. Neuron 15, 1299–1310.
Campagnoni, A. T., Pribyl, T. M., Campagnoni, C. W., et al. (1993). Structure and developmental regulation of Golli-mbp, a 105 kilobase gene that encompasses the myelin basic protein gene and is expressed in cells in the oligodendrocytes lineage in the brain. J Biol Chem 268, 4930–4938.
Cannella, B. and Raine, C. S. (2004). Multiple sclerosis: cytokine receptors on oligodendrocytes predict innate regulation. Ann. Neurol. 55, 46–57.
Cannella, B., Gaupp, S., Omari, K. M., and Raine, C. S. (2007). Multiple sclerosis: death receptor expression and oligodendrocyte apoptosis in established lesions. J Neuroimmunol 188, 128–137.
Cao, Q., Zhang, Y. P., Iannotti, C., et al. (2005). Functional and electrophysiological changes after graded traumatic spinal cord injury in adult rat. Exp Neurol 191 Suppl 1, S3–S16.
Carbonetto, S., Evans, D., and Cochard, P. (1987). Nerve fiber growth in culture on tissue substrata from central and peripheral nervous systems. J Neurosci 7, 610–620.
Carenini, S., Montag, D., Cremer, H., Schachner, M., and Martini, R. (1997). Absence of the myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) and the neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) interferes with the maintenance, but not with the formation of peripheral myelin. Cell Tissue Res 287, 3–9.
Carnegie, P. R., Dunkley, P. R., Kemp, B. E., and Murray, A. W. (1974). Phosphorylation of selected serine and threonine residues in myelin basic protein by endogenous and exogenous protein kinases. Nature 249, 147–150.
Caroni, P. and Schwab, M. E. (1988a). Antibody against myelin-associated inhibitor of neurite growth neutralizes nonpermissive substrate properties of CNS white matter. Neuron 1, 85–96.
Caroni, P. and Schwab, M. E. (1988b). Two membrane protein fractions from rat central myelin with inhibitory properties for neurite growth and fibroblast spreading. J Cell Biol 106, 1281–1288.
Carroll, S. L., Miller, M. L., Frohnert, P. W., Kim, S. S., and Corbett, J. A. (1997). Expression of neuregulins and their putative receptors, ErbB2 and ErbB3, is induced during Wallerian degeneration. J Neurosci 17, 1642–1659.
Carroll, W. M. and Jennings, A. R. (1994). Early recruitment of oligodendrocyte precursors in CNS demyelination. Brain 117, 563–578.
Carroll, W. M., Jennings, A. R., and Ironside, L. J. (1998). Identification of the adult resting progenitor cell by autoradiographic tracking of oligodendrocyte precursors in experimental CNS demyelination. Brain 121 (Pt 2), 293–302.
Carson, J. H., Cui, H., and Barbarese, E. (2001). The balance of power in RNA trafficking. Curr Opin Neurobiol 11, 558–563.
Carson, J. H., Gao, Y., Tatavarty, V., et al. (2008). Multiplexed RNA trafficking in oligodendrocytes and neurons. Biochim Biophys Acta 1779, 453–458.
Carson, J. H., Worboys, K., Ainger, K., and Barbarese, E. (1997). Translocation of myelin basic protein mRNA in oligodendrocytes requires microtubules and kinesin. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton 38, 318–328.
Carson, M. J., Behringer, R. R., Brinster, R. L., and McMorris, F. A. (1993). Insulin-like growth factor I increases brain growth and central nervous system myelination in transgenic mice. Neuron 10, 729–740.
Casha, S., Yu, W. R., and Fehlings, M. G. (2001). Oligodendroglial apoptosis occurs along degenerating axons and is associated with FAS and p75 expression following spinal cord injury in the rat. Neuroscience 103, 203–218.
Cassiani-Ingoni, R., Greenstone, H. L., Donati, D., et al. (2005). CD46 on glial cells can function as a receptor for viral glycoprotein-mediated cell-cell fusion. Glia 52, 252–258.
Chan, J. A., Krichevsky, A. M., and Kosik, K. S. (2005). MicroRNA-21 is an antiapoptotic factor in human glioblastoma cells. Cancer Res 65, 6029–6033.
Chan, J. R., Watkins, T. A., Cosgaya, J. M., et al. (2004). NGF controls axonal receptivity to myelination by Schwann cells or oligodendrocytes. Neuron 43, 183–191.
Chang, A., Nishiyama, A., Peterson, J., Prineas, J., and Trapp, B. D. (2000). NG2-positive oligodendrocyte progenitor cells in adult human brain and multiple sclerosis lesions. J Neurosci 20, 6404–6412.
Chang, A., Tourtellotte, W. W., Rudick, R., and Trapp, B. D. (2002). Premyelinating oligodendrocytes in chronic lesions of multiple sclerosis. New Engl J Med 346, 165–173.
Charcot, J. (1868). Histologie de la sclérose en plaque. Gaz Hop Civ Mil Empire Ottoman 41, 554–566.
Charcot, J M. (1877). Lecture VI. Disseminated sclerosis. Pathological anatomy. In Lectures on The Diseases of the Nervous System, Trans. Sigerson, George. (London: The New Sydenham Society), pp. 157–181.
Charles, P., Hernandez, M. P., Stankoff, B., et al. (2000). Negative regulation of central nervous system myelination by polysialylated-neural cell adhesion molecule. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97, 7585–7590.
Charles, P., Reynolds, R., Seilhean, D., et al. (2002a). Re-expression of PSA-NCAM by demyelinated axons: an inhibitor of remyelination in multiple sclerosis? Brain 125, 1972–1979.
Charles, P., Tait, S., Faivre-Sarrailh, C., et al. (2002b). Neurofascin is a glial receptor for the paranodin/Caspr-contactin axonal complex at the axoglial junction. Curr Biol 12, 217–220.
Charo, I. F. and Ransohoff, R. M. (2006). The many roles of chemokines and chemokine receptors in inflammation. N Engl J Med 354, 610–621.
Chaudhry, N. and Filbin, M. T. (2007). Myelin-associated inhibitory signaling and strategies to overcome inhibition. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 27, 1096–1107.
Chaudhuri, A. (2006). Lessons for clinical trials from natalizumab in multiple sclerosis. BMJ 332, 416–419.
Chaudhuri, A. and Behan, P. O. (2005). Multiple sclerosis: looking beyond autoimmunity. J R Soc Med 98, 303–306.
Chen, J. T., Kuhlmann, T., Jansen, G. H., et al. (2007a). Voxel-based analysis of the evolution of magnetization transfer ratio to quantify remyelination and demyelination with histopathological validation in a multiple sclerosis lesion. Neuroimage 36, 1152–1158.
Chen, K. and Rajewsky, N. (2006). Natural selection on human microRNA binding sites inferred from SNP data. Nat Genet 38, 1452–1456.
Chen, M. S., Huber, A. B., Haar, M. E., et al. (2000). Nogo-A is a myelin-associated neurite outgrowth inhibitor and an antigen for monoclonal antibody IN-1. Nature 403, 434–439.
Chen, Q., Long, Y., Yuan, X., et al. (2005). Protective effects of bone marrow stromal cell transplantation in injured rodent brain: synthesis of neurotrophic factors. J Neurosci Res 80, 611–619.
Chen, W., Mahadomrongkul, V., Berger, U. V., et al. (2004). The glutamate transporter GLT1a is expressed in excitatory axon terminals of mature hippocampal neurons. J Neurosci 24, 1136–1148.
Chen, Z. L., Yu, W. M., and Strickland, S. (2007b). Peripheral regeneration. Annu Rev Neurosci 30, 209–233.
Cheong, K. H., Zacchetti, D., Schneeberger, E. E., and Simons, K. (1999). VIP17/MAL, a lipid raft-associated protein, is involved in apical transport in MDCK cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96, 6241–6248.
Chew, L. J., King, W. C., Kennedy, A., and Gallo, V. (2005). Interferon-gamma inhibits cell cycle exit in differentiating oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Glia 52, 127–143.
Chitnis, T., Imitola, J., Wang, Y., et al. (2007). Elevated neuronal expression of CD200 protects Wlds mice from inflammation-mediated neurodegeneration. Am J Pathol 170, 1695–1712.
Chivatakarn, O., Kaneko, S., He, Z., Tessier-Lavigne, M., and Giger, R. J. (2007). The Nogo-66 receptor NgR1 is required only for the acute growth cone-collapsing but not the chronic growth-inhibitory actions of myelin inhibitors. J Neurosci 27, 7117–7124.
Choi, D. W. (1988). Glutamate neurotoxicity and diseases of the nervous system. Neuron 1, 623–634.
Choi, J., Opalenik, S. R., Wu, W. C., Thompson, J. A., and Forman, H. J. (2000). Modulation of glutathione synthetic enzymes by acidic fibroblast growth factor. Arch Biochem Biophys 375, 201–209.
Chopp, M., Zhang, X. H., Li, Y., et al. (2000). Spinal cord injury in rat: treatment with bone marrow stromal cell transplantation. NeuroReport 11, 3001–3005.
Chow, E., Mottahedeh, J., Prins, M., Ridder, W., Nusinowitz, S., and Bronstein, J. M. (2005). Disrupted compaction of CNS myelin in an OSP/Claudin-11 and PLP/DM20 double knockout mouse. Mol Cell Neurosci 29, 405–413.
Chun, S. J., Rasband, M. N., Sidman, R. L., Habib, A. A., and Vartanian, T. (2003). Integrin-linked kinase is required for laminin-2-induced oligodendrocyte cell spreading and CNS myelination. J Cell Biol 163, 397–408.
Ciutat, D., Caldero, J., Oppenheim, R. W., and Esquerda, J. E. (1996). Schwann cell apoptosis during normal development and after axonal degeneration induced by neurotoxins in the chick embryo. J Neurosci 16, 3979–3990.
Cleveland, D. W. (1987). The multitubulin hypothesis revisited: what have we learned? J. Cell Biol 104, 381–383.
Cogle, C. R., Yachnis, A. T., Laywell, E. D., et al. (2004). Bone marrow transdifferentiation in brain after transplantation: a retrospective study. Lancet 363, 1432–1437.
Cohen, N. R., Taylor, J. S., Scott, L. B., Guillery, R. W., Soriano, P., and Furley, A. J. (1998). Errors in corticospinal axon guidance in mice lacking the neural cell adhesion molecule L1. Curr Biol 8, 26–33.
Colello, R. J., Pott, U., and Schwab, M. E. (1994). The role of oligodendrocytes and myelin on axon maturation in the developing rat retinofugal pathway. J Neurosci 14, 2594–2605.
Coleman, M. P. and Perry, V. H. (2002). Axon pathology in neurological disease: a neglected therapeutic target. Trends Neurosci 25, 532–537.
Coles, A., Wing, M. G., Molyneux, P., Paolillo, A., Davie, C. A., and Hale, G. (1999). Monoclonal antibody treatment exposes three mechanisms underlying the clinical course of multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol 46, 304.
Colman, D. R., Kreibich, G., Frey, A. B., and Sabatini, D. D. (1982). Synthesis and incorporation of myelin polypeptide into CNS myelin. J Cell Biol 95, 598–608.
Coman, I., Aigrot, M. S., Seilhean, D., et al. (2006). Nodal, paranodal and juxtaparanodal axonal proteins during demyelination and remyelination in multiple sclerosis. Brain 129, 3186–3195.
Coman, I., Barbin, G., Charles, P., Zalc, B., and Lubetzki, C. (2005). Axonal signals in central nervous system myelination, demyelination and remyelination. J Neurol Sci 233, 67–71.
Compston, D. A. S. (1996). Remyelination of the central nervous system. Mult Scler 1, 388–392.
Compston, D. A. S., Morgan, B. P., Campbell, A. K., et al. (1989). Immunocytochemical localization of the terminal complement complex in multiple sclerosis. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 15, 307–316.
Conde, J. R. and Streit, W. J. (2006). Microglia in the aging brain. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 65, 199–203.
Confavreux, C., Vukusic, S., Moreau, T., and Adeleine, P. (2000). Relapses and progression of disability in multiple sclerosis. N Engl J Med 343, 1430–1438.
Conn, J. P. and Patel, J. (1994). The Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors. (Totowa, NJ: Humana Press).
Connor, J. R. and Menzies, S. L. (1996). Relationship of iron to oligodendrocytes and myelination. Glia 17, 83–93.
Corfas, G., Velardez, M. O., Ko, C. P., Ratner, N., and Peles, E. (2004). Mechanisms and roles of axon-Schwann cell interactions. J Neurosci 24, 9250–9260.
Cornbrooks, C. J., Carey, D. J., McDonald, J. A., Timpl, R., and Bunge, R. P. (1983). In vivo and in vitro observations on laminin production by Schwann cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 80, 3850–3854.
Counsell, S. J., Allsop, J. M., Harrison, M. C., et al. (2003). Diffusion-weighted imaging of the brain in preterm infants with focal and diffuse white matter abnormality. Pediatrics 112, 1–7.
Craig, A., Ling Luo, N., Beardsley, D. J., et al. (2003). Quantitative analysis of perinatal rodent oligodendrocyte lineage progression and its correlation with human. Exp Neurol 181, 231–240.
Craner, M. J., Lo, A. C., Black, J. A., and Waxman, S. G. (2003). Abnormal sodium channel distribution in optic nerve axons in a model of inflammatory demyelination. Brain 126, 1552–1561.
Craner, M. J., Newcombe, J., Black, J. A., Hartle, C., Cuzner, M. L., and Waxman, S. G. (2004). Molecular changes in neurons in multiple sclerosis: altered axonal expression of Nav1.2 and Nav1.6 sodium channels and Na+/Ca2+ exchanger. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101, 8168–8173.
Crespo, D., Asher, R. A., Lin, R., Rhodes, K. E., and Fawcett, J. W. (2007). How does chondroitinase promote functional recovery in the damaged CNS? Exp Neurol 206, 159–171.
Cross, A. H., Manning, P. T., Stern, M. K., and Misko, T. P. (1997). Evidence for the production of peroxynitrite in inflammatory CNS demyelination. J Neuroimmunol 80, 121–130.
Cross, A. H., Trotter, J. L., and Lyons, J.-A. (2001). B cells and antibodies in CNS demyelinating disease. J Neuroimmunol 112, 1–14.
Cross, D., Farias, G., Dominguez, J., Avila, J., and Maccioni, R. B. (1994). Carboxyl terminal sequences of beta-tubulin involved in the interaction of HMW-MAPs. Studies using site-specific antibodies. Mol Cell Biochem 132, 81–90.
Crow, J. P., Ye, Y. Z., Strong, M., Kirk, M., Barnes, S., and Beckman, J. S. (1997). Superoxide dismutase catalyzes nitration of tyrosines by peroxynitrite in the rod and head domains of neurofilament-L. J Neurochem 69, 1945–1953.
Crowe, M. J., Bresnahan, J. C., Shuman, S. L., Masters, J. N., and Beattie, M. S. (1997). Apoptosis and delayed degeneration after spinal cord injury in rats and monkeys. Nat Med 3, 73–76.
Cudrici, C., Niculescu, F., Jensen, T., et al. (2006). C5b-9 terminal complex protects oligodendrocytes from apoptotic cell death by inhibiting caspase-8 processing and up-regulating FLIP. J Immunol 176, 3173–3180.
Cummings, B. J., Uchida, N., Tamaki, S. J., et al. (2005). Human neural stem cells differentiate and promote locomotor recovery in spinal cord-injured mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102, 14069–14074.
Cuzner, M. L., Loughlin, A. J., Mosley, K., and Woodroofe, M. N. (1994). The role of microglia macrophages in the processes of inflammatory demyelination and remyelination. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 20, 200–201.
D'Antoni, S., Berretta, A., Bonaccorso, C. M., et al. (2008). Metabotropic glutamate receptors in glial cells. Neurochem Res 33, 2436–2443.
da Cunha, A., Jefferson, J. A., Jackson, R. W., and Vitkovic, L. (1993). Glial cell-specific mechanisms of TGF-beta 1 induction by IL-1 in cerebral cortex. J. Neuroimmunol. 42, 71–85.
Dahme, M., Bartsch, U., Martini, R., Anliker, B., Schachner, M., and Mantei, N. (1997). Disruption of the mouse L1 gene leads to malformations of the nervous system. Nat Genet 17, 346–349.
Dai, X., Lercher, L. D., Clinton, P. M., et al. (2003). The trophic role of oligodendrocytes in the basal forebrain. J Neurosci 23, 5846–5853.
Dalitz, P., Harding, R., Rees, S. M., and Cock, M. L. (2003). Prolonged reductions in placental blood flow and cerebral oxygen delivery in preterm fetal sheep exposed to endotoxin: possible factors in white matter injury after acute infection. J Soc Gynecol Investig 10, 283–290.
Dammann, O. and Leviton, A. (2000). Role of the fetus in perinatal infection and neonatal brain damage. Curr Opin Pediatr 12, 99–104.
Dammann, O., Kuban, K. C., and Leviton, A. (2002). Perinatal infection, fetal inflammatory response, white matter damage, and cognitive limitations in children born preterm. Men Retard Dev Dis 8, 46–50.
Danbolt, N. C. (2001). Glutamate uptake. Prog Neurobiol 65, 1–105.
Dashiell, S. M., Tanner, S. L., Pant, H. C., and Quarles, R. H. (2002). Myelin-associated glycoprotein modulates expression and phosphorylation of neuronal cytoskeletal elements and their associated kinases. J Neurochem 81, 1263–1272.
David, S. and Aguayo, A. J. (1981). Axonal elongation into peripheral nervous system “bridges” after central nervous system injury in adult rats. Science 214, 931–933.
David, S., Braun, P. E., Jackson, D. L., Kottis, V., and McKerracher, L. (1995). Laminin overrides the inhibitory effects of peripheral nervous system and central nervous system myelin-derived inhibitors of neurite growth. J Neurosci Res 42, 594–602.
Davis, A. D., Weatherby, T. M., Hartline, D. K., and Lenz, P. H. (1999). Myelin-like sheaths in copepod axons. Nature 398, 571.
Davis, J. Q., Lambert, S., and Bennett, V. (1996). Molecular composition of the node of Ranvier: identification of ankyrin-binding cell adhesion molecules neurofascin (mucin+/third FNIII domain–) and NrCAM at nodal axon segments. J Cell Biol 135(5), 1355–1367.
Dawson, J. W. (1916). The histology of disseminated sclerosis. Edinb Med J 17, 229–410.
Dawson, M. R., Levine, J. M., and Reynolds, R. (2000). NG2-expressing cells in the central nervous system: are they oligodendroglial progenitors?J Neurosci Res 61, 471–479.
Dawson, M. R., Polito, A., Levine, J. M., and Reynolds, R. (2003). NG2-expressing glial progenitor cells: an abundant and widespread population of cycling cells in the adult rat CNS. Mol Cell Neurosci 24, 476–488.
Vries, H. and Hoekstra, D. (2000). On the biogenesis of the myelin sheath: cognate polarized trafficking pathways in oligodendrocytes. Glycoconj J 17, 181–190.
Waegh, S. M., Lee, V. M., and Brady, S. T. (1992). Local modulation of neurofilament phosphorylation, axonal caliber, and slow axonal transport by myelinating Schwann cells. Cell 68, 451–463.
Decker, L., Avellana-Adalid, V., Nait-Oumesmar, B., Durbec, P., and Baron-Van Evercooren, A. (2000). Oligodendrocyte precursor migration and differentiation: combined effects of PSA residues, growth factors, and substrates. Mol Cell Neurosci 16, 422–439.
Delarasse, C., Daubas, P., Mars, L. T., et al. (2003). Myelin/oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-deficient (MOG-deficient) mice reveal lack of immune tolerance to MOG in wild-type mice. J Clin Invest 112, 544–553.
Deloire-Grassin, M. S., Brochet, B., Quesson, B., et al. (2000). In vivo evaluation of remyelination in rat brain by magnetization transfer imaging. J Neurol Sci 178, 10–16.
Demerens, C., Stankoff, B., Logak, M., et al. (1996). Induction of myelination in the central nervous system by electrical activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93, 9887–9892.
Deng, W., Rosenberg, P. A., Volpe, J. J., and Jensen, F. E. (2003). Calcium-permeable AMPA/kainate receptors mediate toxicity and preconditioning by oxygen-glucose deprivation in oligodendrocyte precursors. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100, 6801–6806.
Deng, W., Wang, H., Rosenberg, P. A., Volpe, J. J., and Jensen, F. E. (2004). Role of metabotropic glutamate receptors in oligodendrocyte excitotoxicity and oxidative stress. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101, 7751–7756.
Denisenko-Nehrbass, N., Oguievetskaia, K., Goutebroze, L., et al. (2003). Protein 4.1B associates with both Caspr/paranodin and Caspr2 at paranodes and juxtaparanodes of myelinated fibres. Eur J Neurosci 17, 411–416.
Dermietzel, R., Traub, O., Hwang, T. K., et al. (1989). Differential expression of three gap junction proteins in developing and mature brain tissues. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86, 10148–10152.
DeSilva, T. M., Kabakov, A. Y., Goldhoff, P. E., Volpe, J. J., and Rosenberg, P. A. (2009). Regulation of glutamate transport in developing rat oligodendrocytes. J Neurosci 29, 7898–7908.
DeSilva, T. M., Kinney, H. C., Borenstein, N. S., et al. (2007). The glutamate transporter EAAT2 is transiently expressed in developing human cerebral white matter. J Comp Neurol 501, 879–890.
Devaux, J. J. and Scherer, S. S. (2005). Altered ion channels in an animal model of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type IA. J Neurosci 25, 1470–1480.
Dhaunchak, A. S. and Nave, K. A. (2007). A common mechanism of PLP/DM20 misfolding causes cysteine-mediated endoplasmic reticulum retention in oligodendrocytes and Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104, 17813–17818.
Diers-Fenger, M., Kirchhoff, F., Kettenmann, H., Levine, J. M., and Trotter, J. (2001). AN2/NG2 protein-expressing glial progenitor cells in the murine CNS: isolation, differentiation, and association with radial glia. Glia 34, 213–228.
Dimos, J. T., Rodolfa, K. T., Niakan, K. K., et al. (2008). Induced pluripotent stem cells generated from patients with ALS can be differentiated into motor neurons. Science 321, 1218–1221.
Dimou, L., Schnell, L., Montani, L., et al. (2006). Nogo-A-deficient mice reveal strain-dependent differences in axonal regeneration. J Neurosci 26, 5591–5603.
Dingledine, R., Borges, K., Bowie, D., and Traynelis, S. F. (1999). The glutamate receptor ion channels. Pharmacol Rev 51, 7–61.
Disanza, A., Steffen, A., Hertzog, M., Frittoli, E., Rottner, K., and Scita, G. (2005). Actin polymerization machinery: the finish line of signaling networks, the starting point of cellular movement. Cell Mol Life Sci 62, 955–970.<