This chapter gives an overview of the key technologies to produce biochar. First, an introduction will be given to the different thermochemical conversion techniques of dry biomass (including pyrolysis) which result in char as one of the product fractions. A second part of this chapter is devoted to the discussion on how the biochar physicochemical properties result from the type of biomass feedstock used, as well as from the prevailing process conditions applied during thermochemical conversion – as some of these physicochemical properties in biochar have a major impact on the functionality and stability of biochar in soil. A major challenge for the successful deployment of biochar systems is to render its production economically profitable. Hence, this chapter concludes with an economic assessment of biochar. This last part of the chapter also emphasizes the potential increase in value creation in the biochar production process by identifying potential economic uses of co-products, including bio-oil and producer gas.
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