Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 1
  • Print publication year: 2014
  • Online publication date: March 2014

16 - Interpreting gunshot trauma as context clue: a case study from historic North Las Vegas, Nevada

from Part IV - Violence and identity


Aufderheide, A.C. & Rodríguez-Martin, C. (2003). The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Human Paleopathology, Reprint edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Berryman, H.E. & Haun, S.J. (1996). Applying forensic techniques to interpret cranial fracture patterns in an archaeological specimen. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology, 6, 2–9.
Berryman, H.E. & Symes, S.A. (1998). Recognizing gunshot and blunt cranial trauma through fracture interpretation. In: Reichs, K.J. (ed.) Forensic Osteology: Advances in the Identification of Human Remains, 2nd edn. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas, 333–52.
Berryman, H.E., Smith, O.C. & Symes, S.A. (1995). Diameter of cranial gunshot wounds as a function of bullet caliber. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 40, 751–4.
Blackhawk, N. (2006). Violence over the Land: Indians and Empires in the Early American West. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Brooks, S. & Suchey, J. (1990). Skeletal age determination based on the os pubis: a comparison of the Acsadi-Nemskeri and Suchey-Brooks methods. Human Evolution, 5, 227–38.
Brooks, S.T. & Brooks, R.H. (1984). Problems of burial exhumation, historical and forensic aspects. In: Brathbun, T.A. & Buikstra, J.E. (eds.) Human Identification: Case Studies in Forensic Anthropology. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas, 64–86.
Buikstra, J.E. & Mielke, J.H. (1985). Demography, diet, and health. In: Gilbert, R.I. & Mielke, J.H. (eds.) The Analysis of Prehistoric Diets. Orlando: Academic Press, 359–422.
Buikstra, J.E. & Ubelaker, D.H. (eds.) (1994). Standards for Data Collection from Human Skeletal Remains. Fayetteville: Arkansas Archeological Survey, Research Series, No. 44. A copy of Standards is required to fill out these forms accurately. It may be obtained from the Arkansas Archeological Survey, 2475 N. Hatch Ave., Fayetteville, AR 72704,
Courtney, A. & Courtney, M. (2012). Physical Mechanisms of Soft Tissue Injury from Penetrating Ballistic Impact. Colorado Springs: Air Force Academy, Report No. A408075. Published by Storming Media.
Courtwright, D.T. (1998). Violent Land: Single Men and Social Disorder from the Frontier to the Inner City. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Crist, T.A. (2006). The good, the bad, and the ugly: bioarchaeology and the modern gun culture debate. Historical Archaeology, 40, 109–30.
Currey, J.D. (2002). Bones: Structure and Mechanics. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Escobar, C. (2005). The Status of Kiel Ranch: The City of North Las Vegas has Killed but Not yet Buried the Oldest Historic Site in the State. Las Vegas: PACC, October 2005, Preservation Association of Clark County.
Galloway, A. (1999). The biomechanics of fracture production. In: Galloway, A. (ed.) Broken Bones: Anthropological Analysis of Blunt Force Trauma. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas, 35–62.
Hofbauer, M., Kdolsky, R., Figl, M., Grünauer, J., Aldrian, S., Ostermann, R.C. & Vècsei, V. (2010). Predictive factors influencing the outcome after gunshot injuries to the head – a retrospective cohort study. Journal of Trauma, 69, 770–5.
Kimmerle, E.H. & Baraybar, J.P. (eds.) (2008). Skeletal Trauma: Identification of Injuries Resulting from Human Remains Abuse and Armed Conflict. Boca Raton: CRC Press.
Komar, D.A. & Buikstra, J.E. (2008). Forensic Anthropology: Contemporary Theory and Practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Kroman, A.M. & Symes, S.A. (2012). Investigation of skeletal trauma. In: Digangi, E.A. & Moore, M.K. (eds.) Research Methods in Human Skeletal Biology. Oxford: Academic Press, 219–40.
Lovejoy, C.O., Meindl, R.S., Pryzbeck, T.R. & Mensforth, R.P. (1985). Chronological metamorphosis of the auricular surface of the ilium: a new method for the determination of adult skeletal age at death. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 68, 15–28.
Lovell, N.C. (1997). Trauma analysis in paleopathology. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology, 40, 139–70.
Lovell, N.C. (2008). Analysis and interpretation of skeletal trauma. In: Katzenberg, M.A. & Saunders, S.R. (eds.) Biological Anthropology of the Human Skeleton, 2nd edn. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 341–86.
Martin, D.L., Harrod, R.P. & Pérez, V.R. (2012). Introduction: bioarchaeology and the study of violence. In: Martin, D.L., Harrod, R.P. & Pérez, V.R. (eds.) The Bioarchaeology of Violence. Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1–10.
Martin, P.T. (1988). Historic American Buildings Survey: Kiel Ranch, North Las Vegas, Nevada, HABS No. NV-19. San Francisco: National Park Service, Western Region.
Meindl, R.S. & Lovejoy, C.O. (1985). Ectocranial suture closure: a revised method for the determination of skeletal age at death based on the lateral-anterior sutures. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 68, 57–66.
Moehring, E.P. & Green, M.S. (2005). Las Vegas: A Centennial History. Reno: University of Nevada Press.
Nag, N.K. & Sinha, P. (1992). A note on assessability of firing distance from gunshot residues. Forensic Science International, 56, 1–17.
Novak, S.A. (2008). House of Mourning: A Biocultural History of the Mountain Meadows Massacre. Salt Lake City: The University of Utah Press.
Novak, S.A. & Kopp, D. (2003). To feed a tree in Zion: osteological analysis of the 185 Mountain Meadows Massacre. Historical Archaeology, 37, 85–108.
Novak, S.A. & Rodseth, A. (2006). Remembering Mountain Meadows: collective violence and the manipulation of social boundaries. Journal of Anthropological Research, 62, 1–25.
Nunamaker, D.M. & Berg, P. (1985). Open fractures and gunshot injuries. In: Newton, C.D. & Nunamaker, D.M. (eds.) Textbook of Small Animal Orthopaedics. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott, 481–97.
Ortner, D.J. (2003). Identification of Pathological Conditions in Human Skeletal Remains. London: Academic Press.
Ortner, D.J. (2008). Differential diagnosis of skeletal injuries. In: Kimmerle, E.H. & Baraybar, J.P. (eds.) Skeletal Trauma: Identification of Injuries Resulting from Human Remains Abuse and Armed Conflict. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 21–93.
Ousley, S.D. & Jantz, R.L. (2005). Fordisc 3.0: Personal Computer Forensic Discriminant Functions. Knoxville: University of Tennessee.
Passalacqua, N.V. & Fenton, T.W. (2012). Developments in skeletal trauma: blunt-force trauma. In: Dirkmaat, D.C. (ed.) A Companion to Forensic Anthropology. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 400–12.
Phenice, T.W. (1969). A newly developed visual method of sexing the os pubis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 30, 297–301.
Ross, A.H. (1996). Caliber estimation from cranial entrance defect measurements. Forensic Science International, 41, 629–33.
Sauer, N.J. (1998). The timing of injuries and manner of death: distinguishing among antemortem, perimortem, and postmortem trauma. In: Reichs, K.J. (ed.) Forensic Osteology: Advances in the Identification of Human Remains, 2nd edn. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas, 321–32.
Smith, O.C., Berryman, H.E. & Lahren, C.H. (1987). Cranial fracture patterns and estimate of direction from low velocity gunshot wounds. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 32, 1416–21.
Spencer, S.D. (2012). Detecting violence in the archaeological record: clarifying the timing of trauma and manner of death in cases of cranial blunt force trauma among pre-Columbian Amerindians of West-Central Illinois. International Journal of Paleopathology, 2, 112–22.
Townley, C.M. (1973). Helen J. Stewart: first lady of Las Vegas, Part I. Nevada Historical Society Quarterly, 16, 214–44.
Townley, C.M. (1974). Helen J. Stewart: first lady of Las Vegas, Part II. Nevada Historical Society Quarterly, 17, 2–32.
Walker, P.L. (2001). A bioarchaeological perspective on the history of violence. Annual Review of Anthropology, 30, 573–96.
White, R. (1981). Outlaw gangs of the Middle Border: American social bandits. The Western Historical Quarterly, 12, 387–408.