Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 1
  • Print publication year: 2011
  • Online publication date: April 2011

Chapter 28 - Clinical pharmacology of intravenous anesthetics

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

References

1. Rich GF, Roos CM, Anderson SM, et al. Direct effects of intravenous anesthetics on pulmonary vascular resistance in the isolated rat lung. Anesth Analg 1994; 78: 961–6.
2. Todd MM, Drummond JC, UHS. The hemodynamic consequences of high-dose thiopental anesthesia. Anesth Analg 1985; 64: 681–7.
3. Stanski DR, Maitre PO. Population pharmacokinetics and pharmaco-dynamics of thiopental: The effect of age revisited. Anesthesiology 1990; 72: 412–22.
4. Avram MJ, Krejcie TC, Henthorn TK. The relationship of age to the pharmacokinetics of early drug distribution: the concurrent disposition of thiopental and indocyanine green. Anesthesiology 1990; 72: 403–11.
5. Cordato DJ, Mather LE, Gross AS, et al. Pharmacokinetics of thiopental enantiomers during and following high-dose therapy. Anesthesiology 1999; 91: 1693–702.
6. Cordata DJ, Herkes GK, Mather LE, et al. Prolonged thiopentone infusion for neurosurgical emergencies: Usefulness of therapeutic drug monitoring. Anaesth Intensive Care 2001; 29: 339–48.
7. Tomlin SL, Jenkins A, Lieb WR, Franks NP. Preparation of barbiturate optical isomers and their effects on GABA(A) receptor. Anesthesiology 1999; 90: 1714–22.
8. Mather LE, Edwards SR, Duke CC. Electroencephalographic effects of thiopentone and its enantiomers in the rat: correlation with drug tissue distribution. Br J Pharmacol 1999; 128: 83–91.
9. Cordato DJ, Gross AS, Herkes GK, Mather LE. Pharmacokinetics of thiopentone enantiomers following intravenous injection or prolonged infusion of rac-thiopentone. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1997; 43: 355–62.
10. Nguyen KT, Stephens DP, McLeish MJ, et al. Pharmacokinetics of thiopental and pentobarbital enantiomers after intravenous administration of racemic thiopental. Anesth Analg 1996; 83: 552–8.
11. Sueyasu M, Ikeda T, Taniyama T, et al. Pharmacokinetics of thiamylal enantiomers in humans. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 1997; 35: 128–32.
12. Cook CE, Seltzman TB, Tallent CR, et al. Pharmacokinetics of pentobarbital enantiomers as determined by enantioselective radioimmunoassay after administration of racemate to humans and rabbits. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1987; 241: 779–85.
13. Sueyasu M, Fujito K, Shuto H, et al. Protein binding and the metabolism of thiamylal enantiomers in vitro. Anesth Analg 2000; 91: 736–40.
14. Schwilden H, Schüttler J, Stoeckel H. Closed loop feedback control of methohexital anesthesia by quantitative EEG analysis in humans. Anesthesiology 1987; 67: 341–7.
15. Schüttler J, Ihmsen H. Population pharmacokinetics of propofol: a multicenter study. Anesthesiology 2000; 92: 727–38.
16. Kazama T, Ikeda K, Morita K, et al. Relation between initial blood distribution volume and propofol induction dose requirement. Anesthesiology 2001; 94: 205–10.
17. Schnider TW, Minto CF, Shafer SL, et al. The influence of age on propofol pharmacodynamics. Anesthesiology 1999; 90: 1502–16.
18. Bryson HM, Fulton BR, Faulds D. Propofol: An update of its use in anaesthesia and conscious sedation. Drugs 1995; 50: 513–59.
19. Cullen PM, Turtle M, Prys-Roberts C, et al. Effect of propofol on baroreflex activity in humans. Anesth Analg 1987; 66: 1115–20.
20. Spens HJ, Drummond GB. Ventilatory effects of eltanolone during induction of anaesthesia: Comparison with propofol and thiopentone. Br J Anaesth 1996; 77: 194–9.
21. Nagyova B, Dorrington KL, Gill EW, et al. Comparison of the effects of sub-hypnotic concentrations of propofol and halothane on the acute ventilatory response to hypoxia. Br J Anaesth 1995; 75: 713–18.
22. Nieuwenhuijs D, Sarton E, Teppema L, et al. Propofol for monitored care: Implications on hypoxic control of cardiorespiratory responses. Anesthesiology 2000; 92: 46–54.
23. Janicki PK, James MFM, Erskine WAR. Propofol inhibits enzymatic degradation of alfentanil and sufentanil by isolated liver microsomes in vitro. Br J Anaesth 1992; 68: 311–12.
24. Baker MT, Chadam MV, Ronnenberg WC. Inhibitory effects of propofol on cytochrome P450 activity in rat hepatic microsomes. Anesth Analg 1993; 76: 817–21.
25. Chen TL, Ueng TH, Chen SH, et al. Human cytochrome P450 mono-oxygenase system is suppressed by propofol. Br J Anaesth 1995; 74: 558–62.
26. Sear JW, Diedericks J, Foex P. Continuous infusions of propofol administered to dogs: Effects on ICG and propofol disposition. Br J Anaesth 1994; 72: 451–5.
27. Chen TL, Chen TG, Tai YT, et al. Propofol inhibits renal cytochrome P450 activity and enflurane defluorination in vitro in hamsters. Can J Anaesth 2000; 47: 680–6.
28. Coetzee JF, Glen JB, Wium CA, Boshoff L. Pharmacokinetic model selection for target controlled infusions of propofol. Assessment of three parameter sets. Anesthesiology 1995; 82: 1328–45.
29. Schnider TW, Minto CF, Gambus PL, et al. The influence of method of administration and covariates on the pharmacokinetics of propofol in adult volunteers. Anesthesiology 1998; 88: 1170–82.
30. Mertens MJ, Vuyk J, Olofsen E, et al. Propofol alters the pharmacokinetics of alfentanil in healthy male volunteers. Anesthesiology 2001; 94: 949–57.
31. Johnson KB, Syroid ND, Gupta DK, et al. An evaluation of remifentanil propofol response surfaces for loss of responsiveness, loss of response to surrogates of painful stimuli and laryngoscopy in patients undergoing elective surgery. Anesth Analg 2008; 106: 471–9.
32. Short TG. Pharmacodynamic interactions of anaesthetics. Curr Opin Anaesth 1995; 8: 292–7.
33. Billard V, Moulla F, Bourgain JL, et al. Hemodynamic response to induction and intubation. Propofol/fentanyl interaction. Anesthesiology 1994; 81: 1384–94.
34. Vinik HR, Bradley EL, Kissin I. Triple anesthetic combination: propofol-midazolam-alfentanil. Anesth Analg 1994; 78: 354–8.
35. Peden CJ, Cloote AH, Stafford N, Prys-Roberts C. The effect of intravenous dexmedetomidine premedication on the dose requirement of propofol to induce loss of consciousness in patients receiving alfentanil. Anaesthesia 2001; 56: 408–13.
36. Dutta S, Karol MD, Cohen T, et al. Effect of dexmedetomidine on propofol requirements in healthy subjects. J Pharm Sci 2001; 90: 172–81.
37. Ure RW, Dwyer SJ, Blogg CE, White AP. Patient-controlled anxiolysis with propofol (ARS abstract). Br J Anaesth 1991; 67: 657–8.
38. Rudkin GE, Osborne GA, Curtis NJ. Intra-operative patient-controlled sedation. Anaesthesia 1991; 46: 90–2.
39. Borgeat A, Wilder-Smith O, Forni M, Suter PM. Adjuvant propofol enables better control of nausea and emesis secondary to chemotherapy for breast cancer. Can J Anaesth 1994; 41: 1117–19.
40. Borgeat A, Wilder-Smith OHG, Salah M, et al. Subhypnotic doses of propofol relieve pruritus induced by epidural and intrathecal morphine. Anesthesiology 1992; 76: 510–12.
41. Salah M, Borgeat A, Wilder-Smith OH, et al. Epidural morphine-induced pruritus: Propofol versus naloxone. Anesth Analg 1994; 78: 1110–13.
42. Borgeat A, Mentha G, Savoiz D, et al. Prurit associe a une hepatopathie: Propofol, une nouvelle approche therapeutique? Schweiz Med Wochenschr 1994; 124: 649–50.
43. Fox J, Gelb AW, Enns J, et al. The responsiveness of cerebral blood flow to changes in arterial carbon dioxide is maintained during propofol-nitrous oxide in humans. Anesthesiology 1992; 77: 453–6.
44. Stone JG, Young WL, Marans ZS, et al. Consequences of electroencephalographic suppressive doses of propofol in conjunction with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. Anesthesiology 1996; 85: 497–501.
45. Newman MF, Murkin JM, Roach G, et al. Cerebral physiologic effects of burst suppression doses of propofol during non-pulsatile cardiopulmonary bypass. Anesth Analg 1995; 81: 452–7.
46. Illievich UM, Petricek W, Schramm W, et al. Electroencephalographic burst suppression by propofol infusion in humans: hemodynamic consequences. Anesth Analg 1993; 77: 155–60.
47. Sear JW. Intravenous Anaesthetics. Balliere's Clinical Anaesthesiology 1989; 3: 217–42.
48. McKeating K, Bali IM, Dundee JW. The effects of thiopentone and propofol on upper airway integrity. Anaesthesia 1988; 43: 638–40.
49. Wouters PF, Van de Velde M, Marcus MAE, et al. Hemodynamic changes during induction of with eltanolone and propofol in dogs. Anesth Analg 1995; 81: 125–31.
50. Sear JW, Prys-Roberts C, Dye A. Hepatic function after anaesthesia for major vascular reconstructive surgery: A comparison of four anaesthetic techniques. Br J Anaesth 1983; 55: 603–9.
51. Murray JM, Trinick TR. Hepatic function and indocyanine green clearance during and after prolonged anaesthesia with propofol. Br J Anaesth 1992; 69: 643–4.
52. Picard P, Tramer MR. Prevention of pain on injection with propofol: A quantitative sytematic review. Anesth Analg 2000; 90: 963–9.
53. Doenicke AW, Roizen MF, Rau J, et al. Reducing pain during propofol injection: the role of the solvent. Anesth Analg 1996; 82: 472–6.
54. Doenicke A, Roizen MF, Rau J, et al. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of propofol in a new solvent. Anesth Analg 1997; 85: 1399–404.
55. Rau J, Roizen MF, Doenicke AW, et al. Propofol in an emulsion of long- and medium-chain triglycerides: The effect on pain. Anesth Analg 2001; 93: 382–4.
56. Knibbe CAJ, Aarts LPHJ, Kuks PFM, et al. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of propofol 6% SAZN versus propofol 1% SAZN and Diprivan 10 for short-term sedation following coronary artery bypass surgery. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2000; 56: 89–95.
57. Gajraj NM, Nathanson MH. Preventing pain during injection of propofol: the optimal dose of lidocaine. J Clin Anesth 1996; 8: 575–7.
58. Lilley EM, Isert PR, Carasso ML, Kennedy RA. The effect of the addition of lignocaine on propofol emulsion stability. Anaesthesia 1996; 51: 815–18.
59. Park JW, Park ES, Chi SC, Kil HY, Lee KH. The effect of lidocaine on the globule size distribution of propofol emulsions. Anesth Analg 2003; 97: 769–71.
60. Bennett SN, McNeil MM, Bland LA, et al. Postoperative infections traced to contamination of an intravenous anesthetic propofol. N Engl J Med 1995; 333: 147–54.
61. Sosis MB, Braverman B, Villaflor E. Propofol, but not thiopental, supports the growth of Candida albicans. Anesth Analg 1995; 81: 132–4.
62. Badr AE, Mychaskiw G, Eichhorn JH. Metabolic acidosis associated with a new formulation of propofol. Anesthesiology 2001; 94: 536–8.
63. Matrin PH, Murthy BV, Petros AJ. Metabolic, biochemical and haemodynamic effects of infusion of propofol for long term sedation of children undergoing intensive care. Br J Anaesth 1997; 79: 276–9.
64. Wysowski DK, Pollock ML. Reports of death with use of propofol (Diprivan) for nonprocedural (long-term) sedation and literature review. Anesthesiology 2006; 105: 1047–51.
65. Fong JJ, Sylvia L, Ruthazer R, et al. Predictors of mortality in patients with suspected propofol infusion syndrome. Crit Care Med 2008; 36: 2281–7.
66. White PF, Schüttler J, Shafer A, et al. Comparative pharmacology of the ketamine isomers. Br J Anaesth 1985; 57: 197–203.
67. Kharasch ED, Labroo R. Metabolism of ketamine stereoisomers by human liver microsomes. Anesthesiology 1992; 77: 1201–7.
68. Adams HA, Thiel A, Jung A, et al. Untersuchumgen mit S+ ketamin an probanden. Endokrine- und kreislaufreaktionen, aufwachverhalten und traumerlebnisse. Der Anaesthesist 1992; 41: 588–96.
69. Albrecht S, Hering W, Schüttler J, Schwilden H. Neue intravenose anasthetika. Der Anaesthesist 1996; 45: 1129–41.
70. Hering W, Geisslinger G, Kamp DH, et al. Changes in the EEG power spectrum after midazolam anaesthesia combined with racemic or S+ ketamine. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1994; 38: 719–23.
71. Schüttler J, Stanski DR, White PF, et al. Pharmacodynamic modeling of the EEG effects of ketamine and its enantiomers in man. J Pharmacokinet Biopharm 1987; 15: 241–53.
72. Geisslinger G, Hering W, Thomann P, et al. Pharmacokinetics and dynamics of ketamine enantiomers in surgical patients using a stereo-specific analytical method. Br J Anaesth 1993; 70: 666–71.
73. White PF, Ham J, Way WL, Trevor AJ. Pharmacology of ketamine isomers in surgical patients. Anesthesiology 1980; 52: 231–9.
74. Doenicke A, Angster R, Maker M, et al. Die wirkung von S+ ketamin auf katecholamine und cortisol im serum. Der Anaesthesist 1992; 41: 597–603.
75. Adams HA, Bauer R, Gebhardt B, et al. TIVA mit S+ ketamin in der orthopadischen alterschirugie. Der Anaesthesist 1994; 43: 92–100.
76. Pfenninger E, Himmelseher S. Neuroprotektion durch ketamin auf zellularer ebene. Der Anaesthesist 46: 1997; s47–54.
77. Himmelseher S, Pfenninger E, Georgieff M. The effects of ketamine isomers on neuronal injury and regneration in rat hippocampal neurons. Anesth Analg 1996; 83: 505–12.
78. Harris CE, Murray AM, Anderson JM, Grounds RM, Morgan M. Effects of thiopentone, etomidate and propofol on the haemodynamic response to trachea intubation. Anaesthesia 1988; 43: 32–6.
79. Doenicke A, Roizen MF, Kugler J, et al. Reducing myoclonus after etomidate. Anesthesiology 1999; 90: 113–19.
80. Modica PA, Tempelhoff R, White PF. Pro and anticonvulsant effects of anesthetics (Part II). Anesth Analg 1990; 70: 433–44.
81. Doenicke AW, Roizen MF, Hoernecke R, Lorenz W, Ostwald P. Solvent for etomidate may cause pain and adverse effects. Br J Anaesth 1999; 83: 464–6.
82. Preziosi P, Vacca M. Adrenocortical suppression and other endocrine effects of etomidate. Life Sci 1988; 42: 477–89.
83. Jackson WJ. Should we use etomidate as an induction agent for endotracheal intubation in patients with septic shock? A critical appraisal. Chest 2005; 127: 1031–8.
84. Crozier TA, Schlaeger M, Wuttke W, Kettler D. [TIVA with etomidate-fentanyl versus midazolam-fentanyl. The preoperative strss of coronary surgery overcomes the inhibition of corrtisol synthesus caused by etomidate-fentanyl anesthesia.] Anaesthesist 1994; 43: 605–13.
85. Watt I, Ledingham IM. Mortality amonst multiple trauma patients admitted to an intensive care unit. Anaesthesia 1984; 39: 973–81.
86. Vanacker B, Wiebalck A, Van Aken H, et al. Induktionsqualitat und nebennierenrindenfunktion: Ein klinischer vergleich von Etomidatlipuro und hypnomidate. Der Anaesthesist 1993; 42: 81–9.
87. Kulka PJ, Bremer F, Schüttler J: Narkoseeinleitung mit Etomidat in Lipidemulsion. Der Anaesthesist 1993; 42: 205–9.
88. Nebauer AE, Doenicke A, Hoernecke R, et al. Does etomidate cause haemolysis? Br J Anaesth 1992; 69: 58–60.
89. Doenicke AW, Roizen MF, Hoernecke R, et al. Solvent for etomidate may cause pain and adverse effects. Br J Anaesth 1999; 83: 464–6.
90. Doenicke A, Roizen MF, Nebauer AE, et al. Comparison of two formulations of etomidate, 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD) and propylene glycol. Anesth Analg 1994; 79: 933–9.
91. St Pierre M, Dunkel M, Rutherford A, Hering W: Does etomidate increase postoperative nausea? A double-blind controlled comparison of etomidate in lipid emulsion with propofol for balanced anaesthesia. Eur J Anaesthesiol 2000; 17: 634–41.
92. Doenicke AW, Roizen MF, Rau J, Kellermann W, Babl J. Reducing pain during propofol injection: the role of the solvent. Anesth Analg 1996; 82: 472–4.
93. Baker MT, Naguib M. Propofol: The challenges of formulation. Anesthesiology 2005; 103: 860–76.
94. Morey TE, Modell JH, Shekhawat D, et al. Preparation and anesthetic properties of propofol microemulsions in rats. Anesthesiology 2006; 104: 1184–90.
95. Kim KM, Choi BM, Park SW, et al. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of propofol microemulsion and lipid emulsion after an intravenous bolus and variable rate infusion. Anesthesiology 2007; 106; 924–34.
96. Lee EH, Lee SH, Park DY, et al. Physicochemical properties, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of a reformulated microemulsion in rats. Anesthesiology 2008; 109; 436–47.
97. Dubey PK, Kumar A. Pain on injection of lipid-free propofol and propofol emulsion containing medium-chain triglyceride: a comparative study. Anesth Analg 2005; 101; 1060–2.
98. Trapani A, Laquintana V, Lopedota A, et al. Evaluation of new propofol aqueous solutions for intravenous anesthesia. Int J Pharmaceutics 2004; 278; 91–8.
99. Egan TD, Kern SE, Johnson KB, Pace NL. The pharmacodynamics and pharmacodynamics of propofol in a modified cyclodextrin formulation (captisol) versus propofol on a lipid formulation (Diprivan): an encephalographic and hemodynamic study in a porcine model. Anesth Analg 2003; 97; 72–9.
100. Bielen SJ, Lysko GS, Gough WB. The effect of cyclodextrin vehicle on the cardiovascular profile of propofol in rats. Anesth Analg 1996; 82; 920–4.
101. Ravenelle F, Gori S, Le Garrec D, et al. Novel lipid and preservative-free propofol formulation: properties and pharmacodynamics. Pharm Res 2008; 25; 313–19.
102. Ravenelle F, Vachon P, Rigby-Jones AE, et al. Anaesthetic properties of propofol polymeric micelle: a novel water soluble propofol formulation. Br J Anaesth 2008; 101: 186–93.
103. Cooke A, Anderson A, Buchanan K, et al. water-soluble propofol analogues with intravenous anaesthetic activity. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2001; 11: 927–30.
104. Trapani G, Latrofa A, Franco M, et al. Water-soluble salts of aminoacid esters of the anaesthetic agent propofol. Int J Pharmaceutics 1998; 175: 195–204.
105. Banaszczyk MG, Carlo AT, Millan V, et al. Propofol phosphate. A water-soluble propofol prodrug: in vivo evaluation. Anesth Analg 2002; 95: 1285–92.
106. Altomare C, Trapani G, Latrofa A, et al. Highly water-soluble derivatives of the anaesthetic agent propofol: in vitro and in vivo evaluation of cyclic amino acid esters. Europ J Pharmaceutical Sci 2003; 20: 17–26.
107. Gibiansky E, Struys MMRF, Gibiansky L, et al. AQUAVAN injection, a water-soluble prodrug of propofol, as a bolus injection: a phase I dose-escalation comparison with DIPRIVAN (part 1). Anesthesiology 2005; 103: 718–29.
108. Leslie JB, Cohen LB, Silvestri G, Gan T-J. Clinical safety of fospropofol sodium sedation during diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Anesthesiology 2008; 109: A190.
109. Kumpulainen H, Jarvinen T, Mannila A, et al. Synthesis, in vitro and in vivo characterization of novel ethyl dioxy phosphate prodrug of propofol. Europ J Pharmaceutical Sci 2008; 34: 110–17.
110. Lei L, Liu J. CNS safety of HX0507 in mice. Anesthesiology 2007; 107: A1685.
111. Lei L, Liu J. Respiratory and cardiovascular safety of HX0507 in beagle dogs. Anesthesiology 2007; 107: A1102.
112. Cashin MF, Moravek V. The physiological action of cholesterol. Am J Physiol 1927; 82: 294–8.
113. Sear JW. ORG 21465: a new water-soluble stereoid hypnotic: more of the same or something different? Br J Anaesth 1997; 79: 417–19.
114. Radford SG, Lockyer JA, Simpson PJ. Immunological aspects of adverse reactions to Althesin. Br J Anaesth 1982; 54: 859–63.
115. Moneret-Vautrin DA, Laxenaire MC, Viry-Babel F. Anaphylaxis caused by anti-Cremophor EL IgG STS antibodies in a case of reaction to Althesin. Br J Anaesth 1983; 55: 469–71.
116. Tachon P, Descotes J, Laschi-Loquerie A, et al. Assessment of the allergenic potential of Althesin and its constituents. Br J Anaesth 1983; 55: 715–17.
117. Simpson PJ, Radford SG, Lockyer JA, Sear JW. Some predisposing factors to hypersensitivity reactions following first exposure to Althesin. Anaesthesia 1985; 40: 420–3.
118. Sear JW, Sanders RS. Intra-patient comparison of the kinetics of alphaxalone and alphadolone in man. Eur J Anaesthesiol 1984; 1: 113–21.
119. Visser SAG, Smulders CJGM, Reijers BPR, et al. Mechanism-based pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling of concentration-dependent hysteresis and biphasic electroencephalogram effects of alphaxalone in rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2002; 302: 1158–67.
120. Holly JMP, Trafford DJH, Sear JW, Makin HLJ. The in vivo metabolism of Althesin (alphaxalone + alphadolone acetate) in man. J Pharm Pharmacol 1981; 33: 427–33.
121. Desmet G, Nemitz B, Biotieux JL, et al. Dosage de l'alphaxalone dans le serum et les urines par chromatographie gaz-liquide. Ann Biol Clin (Paris) 1979; 37: 83–8.
122. Estes KS, Brewster MW, Webb AI, Bodor N. A non-surfactant formulation for alfaxalone based on an amorphous cyclodextrin: activity studies in rats and dogs. Int J Pharmaceutics 1990; 65: 101.
123. Ferre PJ, Pasloske K, Whittem T, et al. Plasma pharmacokinetics of alphaxalone in dogs after an intravenous bolus of Alfaxan-CD RTU. Vet Anaesth Analgesia 2006; 33: 229–36.
124. Whittem T, Pasloske KM, Heit MC, Ranasinghe MG. The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of alfaxalone in cats after single and multiple intravenous administration of Alfaxan at clinical and supraclinical doses. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 2008; 31: 571–9.
125. Cotten JF, Husain SS, Forman SA, et al. Methoxycarbonyl-etomidate: a novel rapidly metabolized and ultra-short-acting etomidate analogue that does not produce prolonged adrenocortical suppression. Anesthesiology 2009; 111: 240–9.
126. Ledingham IM, Watt I. Influence of sedation on mortality in critically ill multiple trauma patients. Lancet 1983; 1: 1270.
127. Wagner RL, White PF, Kan PB, et al. Inhibition of adrenal steroidogenesis by the anesthetic etomidate. N Engl J Med 1984; 310: 1415–21.
128. Absalom A, Pledger D, Kong A. Adrenocortical function in critically ill patients 24 hours after a single dose of etomidate. Anaesthesia 1999; 54: 861–7.
129. den Brinker M, Hokken-Koelega AC, Hazelzet JA, et al. One single dose of etomidate negatively influences adrenocortical performance for at least 24 hours in children with meningococcal sepsis. Intensive Care Med 2007; 34: 163–8.
130. Hildreth AN, Mejia VA, Maxwell RA, et al. Adrenal suppression following a single dose of etomidate for rapid sequence induction: a prospective randomized study. J Trauma 2008; 65: 573–9.
131. Siegel LC, Wray J. Initial studies on the mechanism of action of PF0713, an investigational anesthetic agent. Anesthesiology 2008; 109: A642.
132. Siegel LC, Pelc LR, Shaff K. Dose response of PF0713, a novel investigational intravenous anesthetic agent. Anesthesiology 2008; 109: A869.
133. Siegel LC, Konstantatos A. PF0713 produced rapid infuction of general anesthesia without injection pain in a phase 1 study. Anesthesiology 2009; A463.
134. Kanamitsu N, Osaki T, Itsuji Y, et al. Novel water-soluble sedative-hypnotic agents: Isoindolin-1-one derivatives. Chem Pharm Bull 2007; 55: 1682–8.
135. Yamamura Y, Uchida I, Kawatsu R, et al. A new benzodiazepine site agonist, JM-1232(–), as the short acting sedative-hypnotic agent. Neuroscience Nov. 2007, Poster 358.7/J15.
136. Kuribayashi J, Kuwana S-I, Hosokawa Y, Hatori E, Takeda J. Effect of a new sedative, JM-1232 (–) on central respiratory activity in neonatal rats. Anesthesiology 2008; 109: A1767.
137. Rigby-Jones A, Ohkura T, Shimizu S, Cross M, Sneyd J. First human administration of JM1232, a novel isoindoline derivative benzodiazepine agonist. Eur J Anaesthesiol 2008; 25 (supplement 44): 129 (abstract 9AP2–6).
138. Rigby-Jones AE, Sneyd, , Okhura T, Tominaga H, Cross M. MR04A3 (aqueous 1.0% JM-1232 (–)) pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in man. Anesthesiology 2009; A464.
139. Tilbrook GS, Kilpatrick GJ. CNS 7056X, an ultra-short acting benzodiazepine: in vitro metabolism. Anesthesiology 2006; 105: A1611.
140. Kilpatrick GJ, McIntyre MS, Cox RF, et al. CNS 7056: a novel ultra-short acting benzodiazepine. Anesthesiology 2007; 107: 60–6.
141. Mutter C, Rudolf G, Diemunsch PA, Tilbrook GS, Borgeat A. CNS 7056X an ultra-short acting benzodiazepine: pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic study in pig. Anesthesiology 2006; 105: A1610.
142. Antonik LJ, Goldwater DR, Kilpatrick GJ, Tilbrook GS, Borkett KM. A phase 1 SAD study evaluating the safety, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of CNS 7056. Anesthesiology 2009; A1603.
143. Beattie D, Jenkins T, McCullough J et al. The in vivo activity of THRX-918661, a novel, pharmacokinetically responsive sedative/hypnotic agent. Anaesthesia 2004; 59: 101.
144. Egan TD, Shafer SL, Jenkins TE, Beattie DT, Jaw-Tsai SS. The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of THRX-918661, a novel sedative/hypnotic agent. Anesthesiology 2003; 99: A516.
145. Naguib M, Schmid PG, Baker MT. The electroencephalographic effects of iv anesthetic doses of melatonin: comparative studies with thiopental and propofol. Anesth Analg 2003; 97: 238–43.
146. Naguib M, Hammond DL, Schmid PG, et al. Pharmacologic effects of intravenous melatonin: comparative studies with thiopental and propofol. Br J Anaesth 2003; 90: 504–7.
147. Fisher MM, Ross JD, Harle DA, Baldo B. Anaphylaxis to thiopentone: an unusual outbreak in a single hospital. Anaesth Intensive Care 1989; 17: 361–5.
148. Moneret-Vautrin DA, Widmer S, Gueant J-L, et al. Simultaneous anaphylaxis to thiopentone and a neuromuscular blocker: A study of two cases. Br J Anaesth 1990; 64: 743–5.
149. Clarke RSJ. Adverse effects of intravenously administered drugs used in anaesthetic practice. Drugs 1981; 22: 26–41.
150. Watkins JA. Etomidate: an “immunologically safe” anaesthetic agent. Anaesthesia 1983; 38: 34–8.
151. Krumholz W, Muller H, Gerlach H, et al. Ein fall von anaphylaktoider reaktion nach gabe von etomidat. Der Anaesthesist 1984; 33: 161–2.
152. Sold M, Rothhammer A. Lebensbedrohliche anaphylaktoide reaktion nach etomidat. Der Anaesthesist 1985; 34: 208–10.
153. Fazackerley EJ, Martin AJ, Tolhurst-Cleaver CL, Watkins J. Anaphylactoid reaction following the use of etomidate. Anaesthesia 1988; 43: 953–4.
154. Mathieu A, Goudsouzian N, Snider MT. Reaction to ketamine: anaphylactoid or anaphylactic. Br J Anaesth 1975; 47: 624.
155. Laxenaire MC, Moneret-Vautrin D, Vervloet D. The French experience of anaphylactoid reactions. Int Anesthesiol Clin 1985; 23: 145–60.
156. Ducart AR, Watremez C, Louagie YA, et al. Propofol-induced anaphylactoid reaction during for cardiac surgery. J Cardiothoracic Vasc Anesth 2000; 14: 200–1.