Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2012
  • Online publication date: June 2012

21 - Preoperative evaluation of the pediatric patient

from Section 4 - Spine surgery for pediatric patients

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

References

1. Weinstein S, Zavala DC, Ponseti I. Idiopathic scoliosis: long-term follow-up and prognosis in untreated patients. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1981; 63: 702.
2. Upadhyay S, Mullaji A, Luk K, et al. Relation of spinal and thoracic cage deformities and their flexibilities with altered pulmonary functions in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Spine 1995; 20: 2415.
3. Jackson R, Simons E, Stripinis D. Coronal and sagittal plane spinal deformities correlating with back pain and pulmonary function in adult idiopathic scoliosis. Spine 1989; 14: 1391.
4. Aaro S, Ohlund C. Scoliosis and pulmonary function. Spine 1984; 9: 220.
5. Newton P, Faro F, Gollogly S, et al. Results of preoperative pulmonary function testing of adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis. a study of six hundred and thirty-one patients. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2005; 87: 1937.
6. Gibson P. Anaesthesia for correction of scoliosis in children. Anaesth Intensive Care 2004; 32: 548–59.
7. Barois A. Respiratory problems in severe scoliosis. Bull Acad Nationale Méd 1999; 183: 721.
8. Branthwaite M. Cardiorespiratory consequences of unfused idiopathic scoliosis. Br J Dis Chest 1986; 80: 360–9.
9. Pehrsson K, Larsson S, Oden A, et al. Long-term follow-up of patients with untreated scoliosis a study of mortality, causes of death, and symptoms. Spine 1992; 17: 1091.
10. Weinstein S, Dolan L, Spratt K, et al. Health and function of patients with untreated idiopathic scoliosis: a 50-year natural history study. JAMA 2003; 289: 559.
11. Muirhead A, Conner A. The assessment of lung function in children with scoliosis. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1985; 67: 699.
12. Yuan N, Fraire J, Margetis M, et al. The effect of scoliosis surgery on lung function in the immediate postoperative period. Spine 2005; 30: 2182.
13. Zhang J, Wang W, Qiu G, et al. The role of preoperative pulmonary function tests in the surgical treatment of scoliosis. Spine 2005; 30: 218.
14. Primiano FP Jr, Nussbaum E, Hirschfeld S, et al. Early echocardiographic and pulmonary function findings in idiopathic scoliosis. J Pediatr Orthop 1983; 3: 475.
15. Kafer E. Respiratory and cardiovascular functions in scoliosis and the principles of anesthetic management. Anesthesiology 1980; 52: 339.
16. Hirschfeld S, Rudner C, Nash CL Jr. et al. Incidence of mitral valve prolapse in adolescent scoliosis and thoracic hypokyphosis. Pediatrics 1982; 70: 451.
17. Shapiro F, Sethna N. Blood loss in pediatric spine surgery. Eur Spine J 2004; 13: 6–17.
18. Guay J, Haig M, Lortie L, et al. Predicting blood loss in surgery for idiopathic scoliosis. Can J Anesth 1994; 41: 775–81.
19. Meert K, Kannan S, Mooney JF. Predictors of red cell transfusion in children and adolescents undergoing spinal fusion surgery. Spine 2002; 27: 2137.
20. Murray D, Forbes R, Titone M, et al. Transfusion management in pediatric and adolescent scoliosis surgery. efficacy of autologous blood. Spine 1997; 22: 2735–40.
21. Hodgkinson I, Berard C, Chotel F, et al. Pelvic obliquity and scoliosis in non-ambulatory patients with cerebral palsy: a descriptive study of 234 patients over 15 years of age. Rev Chir Orthop Réparatrice Appareil Moteur 2002; 88: 337.
22. Thomson J, Banta J. Scoliosis in cerebral palsy: an overview and recent results. J Pediatr Orthop B 2001; 10: 6.
23. Kurz L, Mubarak S, Schultz P, et al. Correlation of scoliosis and pulmonary function in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. J Pediatr Orthop 1983; 3: 347.
24. Smith AD, Koreska J, Moseley C. Progression of scoliosis in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. J Bone Joint Surg 1989; 71: 1066.
25. Anderson P, Puno M, Lovell S, et al. Postoperative respiratory complications in non-idiopathic scoliosis. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1985; 29: 186–92.
26. Murphy N, Firth S, Jorgensen T, et al. Spinal surgery in children with idiopathic and neuromuscular scoliosis. What’s the difference? J Pediatr Orthop 2006; 26: 216.
27. Sarwahi V, Sarwark J, Schafer M, et al. Standards in anterior spine surgery in pediatric patients with neuromuscular scoliosis. J Pediatr Orthop 2001; 21: 756.
28. Lipton G, Miller F, Dabney K, et al. Factors predicting postoperative complications following spinal fusions in children with cerebral palsy. J Spinal Disord Tech 1999; 12: 197.
29. Mohamad F, Parent S, Pawelek J, et al. Perioperative complications after surgical correction in neuromuscular scoliosis. J Pediatr Orthop 2007; 27: 392.
30. Jenkins J, Bohn D, Edmonds J, et al. Evaluation of pulmonary function in muscular dystrophy patients requiring spinal surgery. Crit Care Med 1982; 10: 645.
31. Padman R, Mcnamara R. Postoperative pulmonary complications in children with neuromuscular scoliosis who underwent posterior spinal fusion. Delaware Med J 1990; 62: 999.
32. Yuan N, Skaggs D, Dorey F, et al. Preoperative predictors of prolonged postoperative mechanical ventilation in children following scoliosis repair. Pediatr Pulmonol 2005; 40: 414–19.
33. Udink Ten Cate F, Van Royen B, Van Heerde et al. Incidence and risk factors of prolonged mechanical ventilation in neuromuscular scoliosis surgery. J Pediatr Orthop B 2008; 17: 203.
34. Sakai DN, Hsu J, Bonnett C, et al. Stabilization of the collapsing spine in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Clin Orthop Relat Res 1977; 128: 256.
35. Weimann R, Gibson D, Moseley C, et al. Surgical stabilization of the spine in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Spine 1983; 8: 776.
36. Rawlins B, Winter R, Lonstein J, et al. Reconstructive spine surgery in pediatric patients with major loss in vital capacity. J Pediatr Orthop 1996; 16: 284.
37. Wazeka A, Dimaio M, Boachie-Adjei O. Outcome of pediatric patients with severe restrictive lung disease following reconstructive spine surgery. Spine 2004; 29: 528.
38. Marsh A, Edge G, Lehovsky J. Spinal fusion in patients with Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy and a low forced vital capacity. Eur Spine J 2003; 12: 507–12.
39. Almenrader N, Patel D. Spinal fusion surgery in children with non-idiopathic scoliosis: is there a need for routine postoperative ventilation? Br J Anaesth 2006; 97: 851–7.
40. Harper C, Ambler G, Edge G. The prognostic value of pre-operative predicted forced vital capacity in corrective spinal surgery for Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy. Anaesthesia 2004; 59: 1160–2.
41. Gill I, Eagle M, Mehta J, et al. Correction of neuromuscular scoliosis in patients with preexisting respiratory failure. Spine 2006; 31: 2478.
42. Bach J, Sabharwal S. High pulmonary risk scoliosis surgery: role of noninvasive ventilation and related techniques. J Spinal Disord Tech 2005; 18: 527.
43. Soudon P, Hody JL, Bellen P. Preoperative cardiopulmonary assessment in the child with neuromuscular scoliosis. J Pediatr Orthop B 2000; 9: 229–33.
44. Pruijs JE, Van Tol MJ, Van Kesteren RG, et al. Neuromuscular scoliosis: clinical evaluation pre- and postoperative. J Pediatr Orthop B 2000; 9: 217–20.
45. Eagle M, Baudouin S, Chandler C, et al. Survival in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: improvements in life expectancy since 1967 and the impact of home nocturnal ventilation. Neuromusc Disord 2002; 12: 926–9.
46. Mullender M, Blom N, De Kleuver M, et al. A Dutch guideline for the treatment of scoliosis in neuromuscular disorders. Scoliosis 2008; 3: 14.
47. Boland BJ, Silbert P, Groover R, et al. Skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle failure in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Pediat Neurol 1996; 14: 7–12.
48. Finister J, Stollberger C. The heart in human dystrophinopathies. Cardiology 2003; 99: 1–19.
49. Perloff J, Roberts W. The distinctive electrocardiogram of Duchenne’s progressive muscular dystrophy: an electrocardiographic–pathologic correlative study. Am J Med 1967; 42: 179–88.
50. Schmidt G, Burmeister M, Lilje C, et al. Acute heart failure during spinal surgery in a boy with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Br J Anaesth 2003; 90: 800.
51. Sethna N, Rockoff M, Worthen H, et al. anesthesia-related complications in children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Anesthesiology 1988; 68: 462.
52. Morris P. Duchenne muscular dystrophy: a challenge for the anaesthetist. Pediat Anesth 1997; 7: 1–4.
53. Edler A, Murray D, Forbes R. Blood loss during posterior spinal fusion surgery in patients with neuromuscular disease: is there an increased risk? Pediatr Anesth 2003; 13: 818–22.
54. Winter S, Kriel R, Novacheck T, et al. Perioperative blood loss: the effect of valproate. Pediat Neurol 1996; 15: 19–22.
55. Chambers H, Weinstein C, Mubarak S, et al. The effect of valproic acid on blood loss in patients with cerebral palsy. J Pediatr Orthop 1999; 19: 792.
56. Brenn B, Theroux M, Dabney K, et al. Clotting parameters and thromboelastography in children with neuromuscular and idiopathic scoliosis undergoing posterior spinal fusion. Spine 2004; 29: E310.
57. Forst J, Forst R, Leithe H, et al. Platelet function deficiency in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Neuromuscul Disord 1998; 8: 46–9.
58. Noordeen M, Haddad F, Muntoni F, et al. Blood loss in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: vascular smooth muscle dysfunction? J Pediatr Orthop B 1999; 8: 212.
59. Saito T, Takenaka M, Miyai I, et al. Coagulation and fibrinolysis disorder in muscular dystrophy. Muscle Nerve 2001; 24: 399–402.
60. Drvaric D, Roberts J, Burke S, et al. Gastroesophageal evaluation in totally involved cerebral palsy patients. J Pediatr Orthop 1987; 7: 187.
61. Jevsevar D, Karlin L. The relationship between preoperative nutritional status and complications after an operation for scoliosis in patients who have cerebral palsy. J Bone Joint Surg 1993; 75: 880.
62. Hatton K, Mclarney J, Pittman T, et al. Vagal nerve stimulation: overview and implications for anesthesiologists. Anesth Analg 2006; 103: 1241.
63. Finsterer J. Current concepts in malignant hyperthermia. J Clin Neuromuscul Dis 2002; 4: 64.
64. Yemen T, Mcclain C. Muscular dystrophy, anesthesia and the safety of inhalational agents revisited; Again. Pediatr Anesth 2006; 16: 105–8.
65. Hayes J, Veyckemans F, Bissonnette B. Duchenne muscular Dystrophy: an old anesthesia problem revisited. Pediatr Anesth 2008; 18: 100–6.
66. Tsirikos A, Miller F, Glutting J. Life expectancy in pediatric patients with cerebral palsy and neuromuscular scoliosis who underwent spinal fusion. Dev Med Child Neurol 2003; 45: 677–82.
67. Bridwell K, Baldus C, Iffrig T, et al. Process measures and patient/parent evaluation of surgical management of spinal deformities in patients with progressive flaccid neuromuscular scoliosis (Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy and spinal muscular atrophy). Spine 1999; 24: 1300.
68. Comstock C, Leach J, Wenger D. Scoliosis in total-body-involvement cerebral palsy: analysis of surgical treatment and patient and caregiver satisfaction. Spine 1998; 23: 1412.
69. Jones K, Sponseller P, Shindle M, et al. Longitudinal parental perceptions of spinal fusion for neuromuscular spine deformity in patients with totally involved cerebral palsy. J Pediatr Orthop 2003; 23: 143.
70. Larsson E, Aaro S, Normelli H, et al. Long-term follow-up of functioning after spinal surgery in patients with neuromuscular scoliosis. Spine 2005; 30: 2145.
71. Watanabe K, Lenke LG, Daubs MD, et al. Is spine deformity surgery in patients with spastic cerebral palsy truly beneficial? A patient/parent evaluation. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2009 Sep 15; 34(20): 2222–32.
72. Bradford D, Heithoff K, Cohen M. Intraspinal abnormalities and congenital spine deformities: a radiographic and MRI study. J Pediatr Orthop 1991; 11: 36.
73. Mcmaster M. Occult intraspinal anomalies and congenital scoliosis. J Bone Joint Surg 1984; 66: 588.
74. Basu P, Elsebaie H, Noordeen M. Congenital spinal deformity: a comprehensive assessment at presentation. Spine 2002; 27: 2255–9.
75. Hensinger R, Lang J, Macewen G. Klippel–Feil syndrome: a constellation of associated anomalies. J Bone Joint Surg 1974; 56: 1246.
76. Bernard TN Jr, Burke S, Johnston CE 3rd, et al. Congenital spine deformities. a review of 47 cases. Orthopedics 1985; 8: 777.
77. Guerrero G, Saieh C, Dockendorf I, et al. Genitourinary anomalies in children with congenital scoliosis. Rev Chil Pediatr 1989; 60: 281–3.
78. Macewen G, Winter R, Hardy J. Evaluation of kidney anomalies in congenital scoliosis. J Bone Joint Surg 1972; 54: 1451.
79. Chan G, Dormans J. Update on congenital spinal deformities: preoperative evaluation. Spine 2009; 34: 1766.
80. Campbell R Jr. Spine deformities in rare congenital syndromes: clinical issues. Spine 2009; 34: 1815.
81. Butler M, Hayes B, Hathaway M, et al. Specific genetic diseases at risk for sedation/anesthesia complications. Anesth Analg 2000; 91: 837.
82. Downs J, Bergman A, Carter P, et al. Guidelines for management of scoliosis in Rett’s syndrome patients based on expert consensus and clinical evidence. Spine 2009; 34: E607.