Skip to main content Accessibility help
African Women's Movements
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 28
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Buy the print book

Book description

Women entered the political scene in Africa after the 1990s, claiming more than one third of the parliamentary seats in countries like Mozambique, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, and Burundi. Women in Rwanda hold the highest percentage of legislative seats in the world. Women's movements lobbied for constitutional reforms and new legislation to expand women's rights. This book examines the convergence of factors behind these dramatic developments, including the emergence of autonomous women's movements, changes in international and regional norms regarding women's rights and representation, the availability of new resources to advance women's status, and the end of civil conflict. The book focuses on the cases of Cameroon, Uganda, and Mozambique, situating these countries in the broader African context. The authors provide a fascinating analysis of the way in which women are transforming the political landscape in Africa.


'This book counters the mainstream media image of Africa as a continent mired in the legacies of colonialism. The activist scholars writing here inspire us to recognize the impact of women’s transformative leadership in policy making and bring a message of women’s political activism as the urgent agency of social change.'

Peggy Antrobus - Development Alternatives with Women for a New Era (DAWN)

'Written by a distinguished team of African and American academics and practitioners, this outstanding book analyzes the ways in which women activists and politicians have been transforming politics in Africa since the early 1990s. With a particular focus on Uganda, Mozambique and Cameroon, the book nonetheless draws illuminating comparisons across countries and subregions. Finding that the most important single determinant of new policies has been autonomous women's movements, the book addresses several paradoxes such as differences in legislative outcomes and the variable role of democratization. African Women's Movements makes a significant contribution to our understanding of emerging African politics, women in politics and the role of social movements in Africa and will be essential reading for scholars and activists alike.'

Gretchen Bauer - University of Delaware

'An indispensable analysis of gender politics in Africa. This pathbreaking comparative analysis of African women's movements focuses attention on the importance of associational autonomy and heterogeneity for the project of realizing gender rights. Theoretically smart yet engagingly written, this book is sure to became a standard text in a wide range of courses.'

Shireen Hassim - University of the Witswatersrand, Johannesburg

'This sweeping book investigates the explosion of women’s participation and activism in Sub-Saharan Africa in the 1990s and 2000s. It analyzes how strong and independent women’s movements promoted policy changes toward gender equality in one-party states and in the aftermath of civil wars; why unprecedented numbers of women entered political office; and how state institutions were reformed to address women’s concerns. Explaining why some policy changes (such as quotas in parliament) are less controversial than others (such as family law and land rights), it shows that women’s equality is easier to achieve in state and market relations than in the domain of family, clan, and community. By unravelling puzzles of African gender politics, the authors advance theories of comparative politics and our understanding of state-society interactions under the influence of international norms.'

Mala Htun - New School for Social Research

'This path-breaking book draws on a wide range of gender and politics scholarship as well as careful empirical research to explore important questions about the role of women’s movements in politics and policymaking in Africa. In a sophisticated comparative analysis, the authors, who are all experts in their field, show us how women’s movements and new international norms interacted with the changing political landscape in Africa to produce a number of women-friendly reforms. By significantly advancing our understanding of these complex phenomena, this book will make an important contribution to the study of gender and politics in Africa as well as to comparative politics, gender studies and African studies more generally.'

Georgina Waylen - The University of Sheffield

Refine List

Actions for selected content:

Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.


,Association of African Women for Research and Development. 1982. “The Experience of the Association of African Women for Research and Development.” Development Dialogue1–2.
Abdul-Raheem, Tajudeen. 2000. Paper presented at the conference “The Challenges to the Social Sciences in Africa in the Twenty-First Century.” October, at Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.
Abdullah, Hussaina. 1993. “‘Transition Politics’ and the Challenge of Gender in Nigeria.” Review of African Political Economy 56: 27–41.
Abdullah, Hussaina. 1995. “Wifeism and Activism: The Nigerian Women's Movement.” In Challenge of Local Feminisms, ed. Basu, A.. Boulder: Westview Press.
Accampo, Elinor Ann, and Fuchs, Rachel Ginnis. 1995. Gender and the Politics of Social Reform in France, 1870–1914. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
,Action for Development. 2005. Gender Responsive Budgeting (GRB): ACFODE's Experiences at the Local Level 2004. Kampala: Action for Development.
Adams, Melinda. 2003. “Cameroon.” In Sub-Saharan Africa: The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Women's Issues Worldwide, ed. Tripp, Aili Mari. Westport: Greenwood Press.
Adams, Melinda. 2004a. “Appropriating Global Discourses for Domestic Aims: National Machinery for the Advancement of Women.” In Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association. Chicago.
Adams, Melinda. 2004b. “Women's Organizations, and the State in Cameroon.” Ph.D., Political Science, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison.
Adams, Melinda, and Kang, Alice. 2007. Regional Advocacy Networks and the Protocol on the Rights of Women in Africa. Politics & Gender 3 (4): 451–74.
Ahooja-Patel, Krishna. 1982. “Another Development with Women.” Development Dialogue 1 (2): 17–28.
Albertyn, Cathi. 2005. “Defending and Securing Rights through Law: Feminism, Law and the Courts in South Africa.” Politikon 32 (2): 217–37.
,All-Party Burundi Women's Peace Conference. “Final Declaration.” 2000. 17–20 July, at Arusha.
Alvarez, Sonia. 1998. “Latin American Feminisms ‘Go Global.’” In Cultures of Politics/Politics of Cultures: Revisioning Latin American Social Movements, ed. Alvarez, S. E., Dagnino, E., and Escobar, A.. Boulder: Westview Press.
Amadiume, Ifi. 2000. Daughters of the Goddess, Daughters of Imperialism: African Women Struggle for Culture, Power and Democracy. London: Zed.
Anderlini, Sanam N. 2000. “Women at the Peace Table: Making a Difference.” New York: UNIFEM.
Andersen, Margrethe Holm. 1992. “Women in Politics: A Case Study of Gender Relations and Women's Political Participation in Sukumaland, Tanzania.” Ph.D., Aalborg University, Denmark.
Ankrah, Maxine E. 1996. “ACFODE: A Decade and Beyond.” Arise 17 (January–June): 21–2.
Antrobus, Peggy. 2004. The Global Women's Movement: Origins, Issues and Strategies. London: Zed.
Arnfred, Signe. 1988. “Women in Mozambique: Gender Struggle and Gender Politics.” Review of African Political Economy 41: 5–16.
Arnfred, Signe. 2001 “Questions of Power: Women's Movements, Feminist Theory and Development Aid.” Sidastudies No. 3, Discussing Women's Empowerment – Theory and Practice. Stockholm: Swedish International Development Agency.
Arthur, Maria Jose, Maman, Amida, and Pedro, Helena 2000. “Politicas da Desigualdade? Primeiros Elementos para uma Avaliacao das Politicas e Programas de Genero do Governo e ONGs apos Beijing, 1995–1999.” [Politics of Inequality? Basic Elements for an Evaluation of the Politics and Programs of the Government and NGOs after Beijing, 1995–1999.] Maputo: Fórum Mulher.
Awasom, Sussana Yene. 2002. “A Critical Survey of the Resuscitation, Activation, and Adaptation of Traditional African Female Political Institutions to the Exigencies of Modern Politics in the 1990s: The Case of the Takumbeng Female Society in Cameroon.” Paper for the CODESRIA Tenth General Assembly, 8–12 December 2002 at Kampala. Available online at, accessed 21 May 2008.
Babalola, Stella. 2004. “Invisibility and Women in the Constitution.” This Day, September 1.
Bacchi, Carol Lee. 1999. Women, Policy and Politics: The Construction of Policy Problems. London: Sage.
Baden, Sally, and Goetz, Anne Marie. 1997. “Who Needs [Sex] When You Can Have [Gender]? Conflicting Discourses on Gender at Beijing.” Feminist Review 56: 3–25.
Bainomugisha, A. 1999. “The Empowerment of Women.” In Uganda's Age of Reforms: A Critical Overview, ed. Mugaju, J.. Kampala: Fountain.
Banda, Fareda. 2005. Women, Law and Human Rights: An African Perspective. Oxford and Portland: Hart.
Bangura, Yusuf. 1996. “The Concept of Policy Dialogue and Gendered Development: Understanding Its Institutional and Ideological Constraints.” Paper presented at UNRISD/CPD workshop “Working towards a More Gender Equitable Macro-Economic Agenda, 26–28,” November, at Rajendrapur, Bangladesh.
Barrig, Maruja. 1999. “The Persistence of Memory: Feminism and the State in Peru in the 1990s, Civil Society and Democratic Governance in the Andes and the Southern Cone.” Comparative Regional Project, Ford Foundation–Department of Social Sciences. La Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú (PUCP), Lima. Peru.
Basu, Amrita, ed. 1995. Challenge of Local Feminisms. Boulder: Westview Press.
“Batswana Stage Street Protests against Rape” 2002. Panafrican News Agency, 1 March.
Bauer, Gretchen, and Britton, Hannah Evelyn. 2006. Women in African Parliaments. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.
Biyong, Pauline. 1998. “Stronger NGOs Needed for Grassroots Work.” Africa Recovery (August): 32.
Blofield, Merike H., and Haas, Liesl. 2005. “Defining a Democracy: Reforming the Laws on Women's Rights in Chile, 1990–2002.” Latin American Politics and Society 47 (3): 35–68.
Brand, Laurie A. 1998. Women, the State, and Political Liberalization: Middle Eastern and North African Experience. New York: Columbia University Press.
Bratton, Michael. 1989. “The Politics of Government-NGO Relations in Africa.” World Development 17 (4): 569–87.
Britton, Hannah. 2002. “Coalition Building, Election Rules, and Party Politics: South African Women's Path to Parliament.” Africa Today 49 (4): 33–67.
Britton, Hannah. 2005. Women in the South African Parliament: From Resistance to Governance. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
Buckley, Mary. 1997. Post-Soviet Women: From the Baltic to Central Asia. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press.
Budlender, Debbie. 2000. “The Political Economy of Women's Budgets in the South.” World Development 28 (7): 1365–78.
Burke, Enid, Klot, Jennifer, and Ikaweba, Bunting, eds. 2001. Engendering Peace: Reflections on the Burundi Peace Process. UNIFEM, African Women for Peace Series.
Cahen, Michel. 1984. “I. Corporatisme et Colonialisme. Approche du Cas Mozambicain, 1933–1979. II. Crise et Survivance du Corporativisme Colonial, 1960–1979.” [I. Corporatism and Colonialism. The Case of Mozambique, 1933-1979. II. Crisis and Survival of Colonial Corporatism 1960–1979]. Cahiers d'Études Africains 98 (24): 5–24.
Callan, Hilary, and Ardener, Shirley, eds. 1984. The Incorporated Wife. London: Croom Helm.
“Cape Town Men to March against Women and Child Abuse.” 2002. BuaNews, 25 November.
Casimiro, Isabel. 1986. “Transformação nas Relações Homem/Mulher em Moçambique, 1964–74” [Changing Gender Relations in Mozambique, 1964–74]. Licenciatura, Universidade Eduardo Mondlane, Maputo.
Casimiro, Isabel. 1999. “Peace in the Country, War at Home'. Feminism and Women Organisations in Mozambique, 1987–97.” M.A., Sociology, Universidade de Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.
Casimiro, Isabel. 2004. “Paz na Terra, Guerra em Casa”. Feminismo e Organizações de Mulheres em Moçambique, Maputo. [“Peace on Earth, War at Home.” Feminism and Women Organizations in Mozambique.] Maputo: PROMÉDIA, Colecção Identidades.
“Chadian Police Forces Shot Grenades at a Peaceful Assembly of Women,” Africa News, 14 June 2001.
Chanock, Martin. 1980. “Neo-Traditionalism and the Customary Law in Malawi.” In African Women and the Law, ed. Hay, M. and Wright, M.. Boston: Boston University Press.
Chappell, Louise A. 2002. Gendering Government: Feminist Engagement with the State in Australia and Canada. Vancouver: UBC Press.
Chilaizya, Joe. 1995. “Zambia-Gender: Women Split on Constitutional Rights Issue.” Inter Press Service, November 9.
Clark, Cal, and Lee, Rose J.. 2000. “Democracy and ‘Softening’ Society.” In Democracy and the Status of Women in East Asia, ed. Lee, R. J. and Clark, C.. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.
Clark, Cindy, Sprenger, Ellen, and VeneKlasen, Lisa. 2005. “Where is the Money for Women's Rights: Assessing Resources and the Role of Donors in the Promotion of Women's Rights and the Support of Women's Organizations.” Association for Women's Rights in Development. Available at, accessed 21 May 2008.
Connell, Dan. 1998. “Strategies for Change: Women and Politics in Eritrea and South Africa.” Review of African Political Economy 25 (76): 189–206.
Cooper, Barbara. 1995. “The Politics of Difference and Women's Associations in Niger: Of ‘Prostitutes,’ the Public and Politics.” Signs 20 (4): 851–82.
,Council of Europe. 1998. Committee of Ministers Recommendation No. R (98) 14 of the Committee of Ministers to Member States on Gender Mainstreaming. Adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 7 October 1998 at the 643rd Meeting of the Ministers' Deputies.
Dahlerup, Drude, and Freidenvall, Lenita. 2005. “Quotas as a ‘Fast Track’ to Equal Representation for Women,” International Feminist Journal of Politics, 7 (1): 26–48.
Declaration, Dakar. 1982. Development Dialogue 1–2: 11–6.
Dawit, Seble. 1994. “Culture as a Human Rights Concern: Highlights for Action with the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights.” In Gender Violence and Women's Human Rights in Africa, Center for Women's Global Leadership, Douglass College, Rutgers, New Brunswick.
Dei, George J. Sefa. 1994. “The Women of a Ghanaian Village: A Study of Social Change.” African Studies Review 37 (2): 121–45.
,DENIVA 2006. Civicus Civil Society Index Project: Civil Society in Uganda: At the Crossroads?Kampala: DENIVA.
Denzer, LaRay. 1987. “Women in Freetown Politics, 1914–61: A Preliminary Study.” Africa: Journal of the International African Institute 57 (4): 439–56.
LaRay, Denzer. 1992. “Domestic Science Training in Colonial Yorubaland, Nigeria.” In African Encounters with Domesticity, ed. Hansen, K.. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.
LaRay, Denzer. ed. 1995. Constance Agatha Cummings-John: Memoirs of a Krio Leader. Ibadan: Humanities Research Center.
Diduk, Susan. 1989. “Women's Agricultural Production and Political Action in the Cameroon Grassfields.” Africa 59 (3): 338–55.
Disney, Jennifer. 2005. “Mozambique: Empowering Women through Family Law.” In Women in African Parliaments, ed. Bauer, G. and Britton, H.. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.
,DRCongo Radio. 2004. “Women Demonstrate in East, Call for Sanctions against Rwanda.” 7 December.
Dunbar, Roberta Ann, and Djibo, Hadiza. 1992. “Islam, Public Policy and the Legal Status of Women in Niger.” Genesys report prepared for Office of Women in Development, Bureau for Research and Development, Agency for International Development.
Michael, Edwards, and Hulme, Davide. 1996. “Too Close for Comfort? The Impact of Official Aid on Nongovernmental Organizations.” World Development 24 (6): 961–73
Einhorn, Barbara. 1993. Cinderella Goes to Market: Citizenship, Gender, and Women's Movements in East Central Europe. London and New York: Verso.
Elliott, C. 1987. “Some Aspects of Relations between the North and South in the NGO Sector.” World Development 15: 57–68.
Joyce, Endeley B.. 2004. “Establishment of the Department of Women and Gender Studies of the University of Buea, Cameroon.” AGI Newsletter 13 (October). Available online at, accessed 1 December 2007.
Essof, Shereen. 2005. “She-murenga: Challenges, Opportunities and Setbacks of the Women's Movement in Zimbabwe.” Feminist Africa (4): 29–45.
Facio, Alda. 1997. “Campaña Mundial 1998: Un Año para Celebrar y Exigir [1998 Worldwide Campaign: A Year of Celebration and Activism].” In Boletín Red Contra la Violencia, N°17 Septiembre. ISIS International. 5–7.
Fallon, Kathleen. 2003. “The Status of Women in Ghana.” In Sub-Saharan Africa: The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Women's Issues Worldwide, ed. Tripp, A. M.. Westport:. Greenwood Press.
Fallon, Kathleen. Forthcoming. Big Men, Small Girls, and the Transition to Democracy: Ghanaian Women Mobilizing within Gendered and Political Terrains. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Feldman, Rayah. 1983. “Women's Groups and Women's Subordination: An Analysis of Politics towards Rural Women in Kenya.” Review of African Political Economy 27/28: 67–85.
Feminia, . 2002. “Empowerment Mechanisms, How Women Wield Power in a Traditional Milieu.” Available online at, accessed 1 December 2007.
Ferguson, Anne E. with Katundu, Beatrice Liatto. 1994. “Women in Politics in Zambia: What Difference has Democracy Made?African Rural and Urban Studies 1 (2): 11–30.
Ferguson, Anne, Ludwig, Kimberly, Katundu, Beatrice Liatto, and Manda, Irene. 1995. “Zambian Women in Politics: An Assessment of Changes Resulting from the 1991 Political Transition.” Working paper, Michigan State University.
Ferree, Myra Marx. 2006. “Globalization and Feminism: Opportunities and Obstacles for Activism in the Global Arena.” In Transnational Feminisms: Women's Global Activism and Human Rights, ed. Ferree, Myra Marx and Tripp, Aili Mari. New York: New York University Press.
“Final Report of the NGO Forum on Women.” 1995. Paper presented at the NGO Forum on Women, at Beijing. 30 August–8 September.
Fleshman, Michael. 2002. “‘Gender Budgets’ Seek More Equity: Improved Spending Priorities Can Benefit All Africans.” Africa Recovery 16 (1): 4.
Fleshman, Michael. 2003. “African Women Struggle for a Seat at the Peace Table.” Africa Recovery 16 (4): 1.
Fonchingong, Charles. 2004. “The Travails of Democratization in Cameroon in the Context of Political Liberalisation since the 1990s.” African and Asian Studies, 3 (1): 33–59.
“For Women, Constitution Is a Curate's Egg.” 2005. Inter Press Service, 22 February 2005.
Franceschet, Susan. 2005. Women and Politics in Chile. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.
Gal, Susan, and Kligman, Gail. 2000a. Politics of Gender after Socialism: A Comparative-Historical Essay. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Gal, Susan, and Kligman, Gail. 2000b. Reproducing Gender: Politics, Publics, and Everyday Life after Socialism. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Gawaya-Tegulle, Tom, and Kemigisha, Rose Mary. 2000. “Gender Ministry Remains Skeleton.” Other Voice, 3 (2): 1–8.
Gayflor, Hon. Vabah. 2005. Comments made at the conference Women and Political Participation in Africa: Lessons from Southern and Eastern Africa. Organized by International IDEA, Abantu for Development, Centre Pour Gouvernance Democratique Burkina Faso, 24–25 November, at Accra, Ghana.
Gberie, Lansana. 2003. “Sankoh, the Warlord Is Dead.” Concord Times (Sierra Leone). 6 August 2003.
Geiger, Susan. 1982. “Umoja wa Wanawake wa Tanzania and the Needs of the Rural Poor.” African Studies Review, 25 (2, 3): 45–65.
Geiger, Susan. 1987. “Women in Nationalist Struggle: TANU Activists in Dar es Salaam.” International Journal of African Historical Studies, 20 (1): 1–26.
Geiger, Susan. 1990. “Woman and African Nationalism.” Journal of Women's History 2 (1): 227–44.
Geisler, Gisela. 1987. “Sisters under the Skin: Women and the Women's League in Zambia.” Journal of Modern African Studies 25 (1): 43–66.
Geisler, Gisela. 1995. “Troubled Sisterhood: Women and Politics in Southern Africa.” African Affairs 94: 545–78.
Geisler, Gisela. 2004. Women and the Remaking of Politics in Southern Africa: Negotiating Autonomy, Incorporation and Representation. Uppsala: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
Gelb, Joyce, and Palley, Marian Lief. 1982. Women and Public Policies. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
“Gender Activists Protest MP's Anti-Women Remarks,” 2006. UN Integrated Regional Information Networks, 11 October.
Ghai, Yash. 2005. “The Constitution Making Process in Kenya.” Paper presented at African Politics Colloquium, 11 October 2005 at University of Wisconsin–Madison.
Gilmartin, Christina K. 1995. Engendering the Chinese Revolution: Radical Women, Communist Politics, and Mass Movements in the 1920s. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Goetz, Anne Marie, and Hassim, Shireen. 2003. No Shortcuts to Power: African Women in Politics and Policy Making. London: Zed.
Gouws, Amanda. 2006. “The State of the National Machinery: Structural Problems and Personalised Politics.” In State of the Nation: South Africa, ed. Buhlungu, Sakhela, Daniel, John, Southall, Roger, and Lutchman, Jessica. Cape Town: HSRC Press (Human Science Research Council Press).
Gray, L., and Kevane, M.. 1999. “Diminished Access, Diverted Exclusion: Women and Land Tenure in Sub-Saharan Africa.” African Studies Review 42 (2): 15–39.
Haffajee, Ferial. 1999. “Women Peace It Together.” Addis Ababa: FLAME/FLAMME (daily newsletter of the Sixth African Regional Conference on Women, 25 November 1999 at Addis Ababa).
Hassim, Shireen. 2005. “Terms of Engagement: South African Challenges.” Feminist Africa (4): 10–28.
Hassim, Shireen. 2006. Women's Organizations and Democracy in South Africa Contesting Authority. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
Hauser, Ellen. 1999. “Ugandan Relations with Western Donors and the 1990s: What Impact on Democratisation?Journal of Modern African Studies 37 (4): 622.
Henry, Joanne. 2005. “Mobilising Tanzania's Women: Joanne Henry Speaks with Fatma Alloo.” Feminist Africa (4): 139–50.
Hipsher, Patty, and Darcy, R. 2000. “Women Policies in Asia.” In Democracy and the Status of Women in East Asia, ed. Lee, R. J. and Clark, C.. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.
Hirschmann, David. 1991. “Women and Political Participation in Africa: Broadening the Scope of Research.” World Development 19 (12): 1679–94.
Hollier-Larousse, Juliette. 2000. “Somali Women Win Political Emancipation with Parliamentary Quota.” Agence France Presse. 1 August.
Holm, John. 1989. “Rolling Back Autocracy in Africa: The Botswana Case.” In Beyond Autocracy in Africa, ed. Joseph, R.. Atlanta: Carter Center.
Htun, Mala. 2003. Sex and the State: Abortion, Divorce, and the Family under Latin American Dictatorships and Democracies. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Hughes, Melanie. 2004. “Another Road to Power? Armed Conflict, International Linkages, and Women's Parliamentary Representation in Developing Nations.” Paper presented at the Ninety-Ninth American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, 14–17 August 2004 at San Francisco.
Hunt, Nancy. 1989. “Placing African Women's History and Locating Gender,” Journal of Social History 14 (3): 359–79.
Hunt, Nancy. 1990. “Domesticity and Colonialism in Belgian Africa; Usumbura's Foyer Social, 1946–1960.” Signs 15 (31): 447–74.
Hunt, Nancy. 1999. A Colonial Lexicon of Birth Ritual, Medicalization, and Mobility in the Congo. Durham: Duke University Press.
Ibrahim, Jibrin. 2004. “The First Lady Syndrome and the Marginalisation of Women from Power: Opportunities or Compromises for Gender Equality?” Available online at, accessed 22 May 2008.
Ibraimo, Maimuna A. 2003. “The Gender Dimension of Mozambique's Budget: An Assessment Report.” Report for UNIFEM–Southern Africa Regional Office.
Ifeka-Moller, Caroline. 1973. “‘Sitting on a Man: Colonialism and the Lost Political Institutions of Ibo Women’: A Reply to Judith Van Allen.” Canadian Journal of African Studies 7: 317–18.
Imam, Ayesha. 1996. “The Dynamics of WINning: An Analysis of Women in Nigeria (WIN).” In Feminist Genealogies, Colonial Legacies, Democratic Futures, ed. Alexander, M. J. M. and Talpade, Chandra. New York and London: Routledge.
Inglehart, Ronald, Norris, Pippa, and Welzel, Chris. 2002. “Gender Equality and Democracy.” Comparative Sociology 1 (3–4): 321–45.
Jacobson, Ruth. 1995. “Women's Political Participation: Mozambique's Democratic Transition.” Gender and Development 3 (3): 29–35.
Jain, Devaki. 2005. Women, Development, and the UN – A Six-Year Quest for Equality and Justice. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Jaquette, Jane S., and Wolchik, Sharon L.. 1998. Women and Democracy: Latin America and Central and Eastern Europe. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Jenje-Makwenda, Joyce. 1998. “The Republic of Dongo: Parliamentarian Margaret Dongo.” WIN (Women International Net) Magazine. Available online at, accessed 22 May 2008.
Jirira, K. Ona. 1995. “Gender, Politics and Democracy: Kuvaka Patsva (Reconstructing) the Discourse.” Safere 1 (2): 1–29.
Johnson, Cheryl. 1982. “Grass Roots Organizing: Women in Anticolonial Activity in Southwestern Nigeria.” African Studies Review 25 (2/3): 137–57.
Kabira, Wanjiku Mukabi, and Nzioki, Elizabeth Akinyi. 1993. Celebrating Women's Resistance. Nairobi: New Earth Publishing.
Kamau, Jean N. 1999. “Assessment Report on Women's Participation in the Peace Process: Mid-Decade Review of the Implementation of the Dakar and Beijing Platforms for Action in the African Region.” Paper presented at the Economic Commission for Africa Sixth African Conference on Women, 22–26 November, at Addis Ababa.
Kante, M., Hobgood, H., Lewis, B. and Coulibaly, C.. 1994. Governance in Democratic Mali: An Assessment of Transition and Consolidation and Guidelines for Near-Term Action. Washington: Associates in Rural Development.
Kanyinga, Karuti. 1993. “NGOs in Kenya.” In Social Change and Economic Reform in Africa, ed. Gibbon, P.. Uppsala: Scandinavian Institute of African Studies.
Kapinga, Marithe. 2003. “Africa: Women in Congo Form Common Front for Peace.” Ms. Magazine, (Spring) 25–6. Available online at, accessed 22 May 2008.
Kemp, Amanda, Madlala, Nozizwe, Moodley, Asha, and Salo, Elaine. 1995. “The Dawn of a New Day: Redefining South African Feminism.” In Challenge of Local Feminisms, ed. Basu, Amrita. Boulder: Westview Press.
Khadiagala, Lynn. 2001. “The Failure of Popular Justice in Uganda: Local Councils and Women's Property Rights.” Development and Change 32 (1): 55–76.
Kibwana, Kivutha. 2001. “Women, Politics and Gender Politicking: Questions from Kenya.” In Constitutionalism in Africa: Creating Opportunities, Facing Challenges, ed. Joe Oloka-Onyango. Kampala: Fountain.
Kivamwo, Simon. 1997. “Keep Off Politics, Kigoda Advises Women Miners.” Daily News, 30 December, 2.
Kolawole, Yinka. 2006. “Provide for Women in Purdah, INEC Urged.” This Day (Nigeria), 12 November.
Konopo, Joel. 2005. “Women Hopeful about Gender Parity.” Mmegi/The Reporter, 22 September.
,KULIMA. 1997. “Directório das Organizações Não Governamentais (ONG's) em Moçambique” [Directory of Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) in Mozambique]. Maputo: Ministério da Cooperação, Departamentos de Documentação e Informação e de ONG's.
Kwesiga, J. C. 2003. “The National Machinery for Gender Equality in Uganda: Institutionalised Gesture Politics?” In Mainstreaming Gender, Democratizing the State?: Institutional Mechanisms for the Advancement of Women, ed. Rai, S.. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Kwesiga, Joy C., Madanda, Aramanzan, Tanzarn, Nite Baza, and Ward, Eilís. 2003. “Women's Political Space: the Experience of Affirmative Action in Eritrea, Tanzania and Uganda.” London: British Council and Department for International Development (DFID).
Kwesiga, Joy C. and Ssendiwala, Elizabeth N.. Forthcoming. “Gender Mainstreaming in the University Context: Prospects and Challenges at Makerere University, Uganda.” Women's Studies International Forum 29 (6): 592–605.
Lacina, Bethany, and Gleditsch, Nils P.. 2005. “Monitoring Trends in Global Combat: A New Dataset of Battle Deaths.” European Journal of Population 21 (2–3): 145–66.
“Lack of Legal Status Hinders the Progress of Women.” 2005. UN Integrated Regional Information Networks. 18 August. Available online at, accessed 22 May 2008.
“Learning to Live without Husbands: Upper East Single Mothers Show the Way.” 2005. Public Agenda, 8 August.
Lee, Rose J. 2000a. “Democratic Consolidation and Gender Politics in South Korea.” In Democracy and the Status of Women in East Asia, ed. Lee, R. J. and Clark, C.. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.
Lee, Rose J.. 2000b. “Electoral Reform and Women's Empowerment: Taiwan and South Korea.” In Democracy and the Status of Women in East Asia, ed. Lee, R. J. and Clark, C.. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.
Leith-Ross, Sylvia. 1965. African Women. London: Routledge and Paul Kegan.
Lemarchand, Réné. 1994. Burundi: Ethnocide as Discourse and Practice. Washington: Woodrow Wilson Center Press and Cambridge University Press.
“Liberia Politics: Peace Isn't Enough.” 2006. EIU ViewsWire. 15 December.
Lindberg, Staffan I. 2004. “Women's Empowerment and Democratization: The Effects of Electoral Systems, Participation and Experience in Africa.” Studies in Comparative International Development 39 (1): 28–53.
Lister, Sarah. 2000. “Power in Partnership? An Analysis of an NGO's Relationships with Its Partners.” Journal of International Development 12: 227–39.
Longwe, Sara, and Clarke, Roy. 1991. “A Gender Perspective on the Zambian General Election of October 1991.” Working paper, Zambia Association for Research and Development, Lusaka, Zambia.
Lueker, Lorna L. 1998. “Fighting for Human Rights: Women, War, and Social Change in Zimbabwe.” Instraw News 28: 34–44.
Maathai, Wangari. 2006. Unbowed: A Memoir. New York: Alfred Knopf.
Madunagu, Bene E. 2001. “Reflections on New Directions for African Women.” Paper presented at the Joint Meeting of the Society for Development (SID) and Development Alternatives with Women for a New Era (DAWN), African Chapter, 13–16 December, at Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
Makanya, Stella. 1999. “Situation Analysis of Women in Politics in Selected SADC Countries.” Paper presented at Women in Politics and Decision Making in SADC: Beyond 30% in 2005, 28 March–1 April, at Gaborone, Botswana.
Mama, Amina. 1995. “Feminism or Femocracy? State Feminism and Democratisation in Nigeria.” Africa Development 20 (1): 37–58.
Mama, Amina. 1996. “Women's Studies and Studies of Women in Africa during the 1990s.” In CODESRIA Working Paper Series 5/96. Dakar: CODESRIA.
Mama, Amina. 2004. “Critical Capacities: Facing the Challenges of Intellectual Development in Africa.” Inaugural Address as Professor to the Prince Claus Chair in Development and Equity, 28 April 2004. The Hague: Institute of Social Studies.
Mama, Amina. 2005. “The Ghanaian Women's Manifesto Movement: Amina Mama Speaks with Dzodzi Tsikata, Rose Mensah-Kutin and Hamida Harrison.” Feminist Africa (4): 124–38.
Manuh, Takyiwaa. 1998. “Women in Africa's Development: Overcoming Obstacles, Pushing for Progress.” In Africa Recovery Briefing Paper 11 (April).
Masemann, Vandra Lea. 1974. “The Hidden Curriculum of a West African Girls' Boarding School.” Canadian Journal of African Studies 8 (February): 479–94.
Matembe, Miria. 2002. Gender, Politics, and Constitution Making in Uganda. Kampala: Fountain.
Mbaku, John 2002Cameroon's Stalled Transition to Democratic Governance: Lessons for Africa's New Democrats.” African and Asian Studies 1 (2): 125–63.
“Mbarara Stages Demo against Defilement.” 2002. New Vision (Kampala), 13 March.
Mbikusita-Lewanika, Inonge. 1995. Paper presented at USAID Gender and Democracy in Africa Workshop, 28 July 1995 at Washington.
Mbire-Barungi, Barbara. 1999. “Ugandan Feminism: Political Rhetoric or Reality.” Women's Studies Forum International 22 (4): 435–9.
Mbunwe, Chris. 2007. “We're Bored with Singsongs by CPDM Resource Persons – Bali Fon.” Post. Available online at, accessed 16 November 2007.
McEwan, Cheryl. 2000. “Engendering Citizenship: Gendered Spaces of Democracy in South Africa.” Political Geography 19 (5): 627–51.
McFadden, Patricia. 1997. “Challenges and Prospects for the African Women's Movement into the 21st Century.” Women in Action, 1.
McKinley, James C. 1996. “In Peace, Warrior Women Rank Low.” New York Times, 4 May, 4.
,Media Monitoring Project. 1999. “Biased? Gender, Politics and the Media.” In Redefining Politics: South African Women and Democracy, ed. Boezak, S.. Johannesburg: Commission on Gender Equality, Parliamentary Women's Group, Gender Equity Unit (University of the Western Cape), Gender Advocacy Programme, School of Public and Development Management (University of Witwatersrand), and Women'sNet.
Meena, Ruth, ed. 1992. Gender in Southern Africa – Conceptual and Theoretical Issue. Harare: Sapes.
Mianda, Gertrude. 2002. “Colonialism, Education, and Gender Relations in the Belgian Congo: The Évolué Case.” In Women in African Colonial Histories, ed. Allman, Jean, Geiger, Susan, and Musisi, Nakanyike. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press.
Mikell, Gwendolyn. 1984. “Filiation, Economic Crisis and the Status of Women in Rural Ghana.” Canadian Journal of African Studies 18 (1): 195–218.
Molyneux, Maxine. 1985. “Mobilisation without Emancipation? Women's Interests, the State, and Revolution in Nicaragua.” Feminist Studies 2 (2): 227–54.
Molyneux, Maxine. 1998. “Analysing Women's Movements.” Development and Change 29 (1): 219–45.
Moran, Mary H., and Pitcher, M. Anne. 2004. “The ‘Basket Case’ and the ‘Poster Child’: Explaining the End of Civil Conflicts in Liberia and Mozambique.” Third World Quarterly, 25 (3): 501–19.
Morna, Colleen Lowe. 2003. “Beyond Numbers – Quotas in Practise.” In Parliamentary Forum Conference. Pretoria: International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (IDEA)/Electoral Institute of Southern Africa (EISA)/Southern African Development Community (SADC).
Morna, Colleen Lowe. 2004. Ringing Up the Changes: Gender in Southern African Politics. Johannesburg: Gender Links.
Mtintso, Thenjiwe. 1999. “The Contribution of Women Parliamentarians to Gender Equality.” Unpublished thesis of an M.D. in public and development management, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg.
Mucunguzi, Julius, “NGOs ask Govt to Ammend [sic] Land Law.” Monitor, 19 December.
Mugabe, Robert. 1984. “An Opening Address by the President of ZANU(PF).” Presented at Women's League Conference, 15–17 March, at Harare, Zimbabwe.
Mumba, Tafadzwa. 1997. “Shattering the Glass Ceiling in Politics.” Woman Plus. May–August, 3–6.
Munachonga, Monica. 1989. “Women and the State: Zambia's Development Policies and Their Impact on Women.” In Women and the State in Africa, ed. Parpart, Jane L. and Staudt, Kathleen A.. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.
Murphy, Emma C. 2003. “Women in Tunisia: Between State Feminism and Economic Reform.” In Women and Globalization in the Arab Middle East: Gender, Economy, and Society, ed. Doumato, Eleanor A. and Posusney, Marsha P.. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.
Mwaniki, Nyaga. 1986. “Against Many Odds: The Dilemmas of Women's Self-Help Groups in Mbeere, Kenya.” Africa 56 (2): 210–28.
Mwavita, Yvette B., 2002. “Violence against Women during the War: The Case of the Southern Kivu Province in Democratic Republic of Congo.” Women's Global Network for Reproductive Rights: Newsletter 77 (October).
Negrão, José. 1998. “Terra e Desenvolvimento Rural em Moçambique” [Land and Rural Development in Mozambique]. Paper presented at Memórias do V Congresso Luso-Afro-Brasileiro de Ciências Sociais, at Maputo.
Ngugi, Mumbi. c. 2001. “The Women's Rights Movement and Democratization in Kenya.” Unpublished paper.
Nkwi, Paul, and Socpa, Antoine. 1997. “Ethnicity and Party Politics in Cameroon: The Politics of Divide and Rule,” in Regional Balance and National Integration in Cameroon: Lessons Learned and the Uncertain Future, Nkwi, P. and Nyamnjoh, F., eds. Leiden: African Studies Center, 139–49.
Nordstrom, Carolyn. 1997. A Different Kind of War Story (Ethnography of Political Violence). Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Nyangoro, Julius, ed. 1999. Civil Society and Democratic Development in Africa: Perspectives from Eastern and Southern Africa. Harare: Mwengo.
Nzegwu, Nkiru. 1995. “Recovering Igbo Traditions: A Case for Indigenous Women's Organizations in Development.” In Women, Culture and Development: A Study of Human Capabilities, ed. Nussbaum, M. and Glover, J.. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Nzomo, Maria. 1994. “Empowering Women for Democratic Change in Kenya: Which Way Forward?” In Empowerment of Women in the Process of Democratisation – Experiences of Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania, ed. Klemp, D. L.: Friedrich Ebert Stiftung.
Nzomo, Maria. 1995. Presentation to USAID Gender and Democracy in Africa Workshop, 28 July, at Washington.
O'Barr, Jean. 1976. “Pare Women: A Case of Political Involvement.” Rural Africana 29: 121–34.
Obiorah, Ndubisi. 2001. “To the Barricades or the Soapbox: Civil Society and Democratization in Nigeria.” Paper presented at Berkeley-Stanford Joint Center for African Studies Conference, 28 April, at Stanford University, Palo Alto.
O'Connor, Julia S., Orloff, Ann Shola, and Shaver, Sheila. 1999. States, Markets, Families: Gender, Liberalism and Social Policy in Australia, Canada, Great Britain and the United States. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ogundipe-Leslie, Molara. 1994. Re-creating Ourselves: African Women & Critical Transformations. Trenton: Africa World Press.
Ojiambo Ochieng, Ruth. 1998. “Information Services: Tools for Politicians and Policy Makers.” Impact Magazine (Uganda) 1 (1): 33–6.
Okeke-Ihejirika, Philomina E., and Franceschet, Susan. 2002. “Democratization and State Feminism: Gender Politics in Africa and Latin America.” Development and Change 33: 439–66.
Okonjo, Kamene. 1994. “Reversing the Marginalization of the Invisible and Silent Majority: Women in Politics in Nigeria.” In Women and Politics Worldwide, ed. Nelson, B. J. and Chowdhury, N.. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.
Okurut, Mary Karooro. 2006. “Thank You Women for the Peace Torch,” New Vision, 11 November.
Olojede, Iyabo. 1999. Women Interest Organizations: Encounters with the State on Issues of Good Governance. Kano: Centre for Research and Documentation.
“OMM Returns to FRELIMO.” 1996. Mozambiquefile 1 (August 24): 4–5.
Osei-Hwedie, Bertha Z. 1998. “Women's Role in Post-Independence Zambian Politics.” Atlantis 22.2 (Spring/Summer): 85–96.
Ottaway, Marina, and Carothers, Thomas. 2000. “Toward Civil Society Realism.” In Funding Virtue: Civil Society Aid and Democracy Promotion, ed. Ottaway, M. and Carothers, T.. Washington: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
Otu, Martin Luther. 2004. “Govt Urged to Strengthen Institutions That Promote Women's Rights.” Public Agenda (Accra), 5 July.
Owiti, Jeremiah. 2000. Political Aid and the Making and Re-Making of Civil Society. Brighton: Civil Society and Governance Programme, Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, Brighton.
Oyewumi, Oyeronke, ed. 2003. African Women and Feminism: Reflecting on the Politics of Sisterhood. Lawrenceville, NJ: Africa World Press.
Packard, Gabriel. 2003. “Somalian Seeks to Become Africa's First Female President,” Inter Press Service, 15 July.
Palmer, Robin. 1998. “Oxfam GB's Land Advocacy Work in Tanzania and Uganda: The End of an Era?” Oxford: Oxfam.
“Paper Hails Liberian Women for Holding Peace Talks Delegates ‘Hostage.’” 2003. Accra Mail, 24 July.
Parpart, Jane. 1988. “Women and the State in Africa.” In The Precarious Balance: State and Society in Africa, ed. Rothchild, D. and Chazan, N.. Boulder: Westview Press.
Parpart, Jane L., and Staudt, Kathleen A.. 1989. “Women and the State in Africa.” In Women and the State in Africa, ed. Parpart, J. L. and Staudt, K. A.. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.
Pennell, C. Richard. 1987. “Women and Resistance to Colonialism in Morocco: The Rif 1916–1926.” Journal of African History 28 (1): 107–18.
Peter, Chris Maina. 1999. “The State and Independent Civil Organisations: The Case of Tanzania Women Council (BAWATA).” Unpublished case study provided for the Civil Society and Governance in East Africa Project (Tanzania Side).
Phiri, Brighton. 2006. “Ministry of Women's Affairs Was Created for a Party Cadre – Sikazwe.” The Post, 2 April.
Pineau, Carol. 2005. “The Africa You Never See.” Washington Post, 17 April, B02.
Pitamber, Sunita, and Hanoomanjee, Esther. 2004. “Mozambique. Multi-Sector Country Gender Profile. Agriculture and Rural Development North and East and South Region (ONAR).” African Development Bank report.
Polgreen, Lydia. 2008. “Congo's Death Rate Unchanged since War Ended,” New York Times, 23 January. Available online at, accessed 31 January 2008.
“Polygamy Somewhat Out of Bounds – If Not Out of Fashion.” 2004. Inter Press Service, 21 June.
Pool, David. 2001. From Guerrillas to Government: The Eritrean People's Liberation Front. Oxford: James Currey.
Predelli, Line Nyhagen. 2000. “Sexual Control and the Remaking of Gender: The Attempt of Nineteenth-Century Protestant Norwegian Women to Export Western Domesticity to Madagascar.” Journal of Women's History 12 (2): 81–103.
Primo, Natasha. 2003. “Gender Issues in the Information Society.” UNESCO Publications for the World Summit on the Information Society, 10–12 December, Geneva.
Proceedings of the Constituent Assembly (Uganda). 1994. “Official Report.” (3 August): 1490.
Radloff, Jennifer. 2005. “Claiming Cyberspace: Communication and Networking for Social Change and Women's Empowerment.” Feminist Africa (4): 85–98.
Rai, Shirin. 2003. “Institutional Mechanisms for the Advancement of Women: Mainstreaming Gender, Democratizing the State?” In Mainstreaming Gender, Democratizing the State?: Institutional Mechanisms for the Advancement of Women, ed. , S. Rai. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Ranchod-Nilsson, Sita. 2006. “Gender Politics and the Pendulum of Political and Social Transformation in Zimbabwe.” Journal of Southern African Studies 32 (1): 49–67.
Razavi, Shahra, and Miller, Carol. 1995. Gender Mainstreaming: A Study of Efforts by the UNDP, the World Bank, and the ILO to Institutionalise Gender Issues. Geneva: UNRISD.
Rees, Teresa. 2000. “Mainstreaming Gender Equality in Science in the European Union: The ‘ETAN Report.’” Paper prepared for the Mainstreaming Gender in European Public Policy Workshop, 14–15 October, at the University of Wisconsin–Madison.
Robertson, Claire. 1986. “Women's Education and Class Formation in Africa, 1950–1980.” In Women and Class in Africa, ed. Robertson, C. and Berger, I.. New York: Africana.
Rogers, Susan G. 1980. “Anti-Colonial Protest in Africa: A Female Strategy Reconsidered.” Heresies 3: 22–5.
Rogers, Susan G. 1983. “Efforts toward Women's Development in Tanzania: Gender Rhetoric vs. Gender Realities.” In Women in Developing Countries: A Policy Focus, ed. Staudt, K. and Jaquette, J.. New York: Haworth Press.
Rweyemamu, Robert. 1997. “The Women Who Scared the Men of Power.” East African (Nairobi), 11 June.
Sahle, Eunice Njeri. 1998. “Women and Political Participation in Kenya: Evaluating the Interplay of Gender, Ethnicity, Class and State.” In Multiparty Democracy and Political Change: Constraints to Democratization in Africa, ed. Mbaku, J. M. and Ihonvebere, J. O.. Brookfield, Singapore, and Sydney: Ashgate.
Sall, Ebrima, ed. 2000. Women in Academia: Gender and Academic Freedom in Africa. Dakar: CODESRIA.
Santos, Boaventura de Sousa, and Trindade, João Carlos, eds. 2003. Conflito e Transformação Social: Uma Paisagem das Justiças em Moçambique [Conflict and Social Transformation: An Overview of Justice in Mozambique] (2 volumes). Porto: Edições Afrontamento.
,SARDC. 2004. The African Gender and Development Index, Mozambique. Maputo: Economic Commission for Africa and African Centre for Gender and Development.
Schild, Veronica. 1998. “New Subjects of Rights? Women's Movements and the Construction of Citizenship in the ‘New Democracies.’” In Cultures of Politics, Politics of Cultures: Revisioning Latin American Social Movements, ed. Alvarez, Sonia, Dagnino, Evelina, and Escobar, Arturo. Boulder: Westview Press.
Schmidt, Elizabeth. 2002. “‘Emancipate Your Husbands!’ Women and Nationalism in Guinea, 1953–1958.” In Women in African Colonial Histories, ed. Jean Allman, Susan Geiger, and Nakanyike Musisi. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press.
Schmidt, Elizabeth. 2005a. “Top Down or Bottom Up? Nationalist Mobilization Reconsidered, with Special Reference to Guinea (French West Africa).” American Historical Review 110 (4): 975–1014.
Schmidt, Elizabeth. 2005b. Mobilizing the Masses: Gender, Ethnicity, and Class in the Nationalist Movement in Guinea, 1939–1958. Portsmouth: Heinemann.
Schuster, Ilsa. 1983. “Constraints and Opportunities in Political Participation: The Case of Zambian Women.” Genévè-Afrique 21 (2): 13–9.
Selolwane, Onalenna Doo. 2004. “The Emang Basadi Women's Association.” Available online at, accessed 22 May 2008.
Semu, L. 2002. “Kamuzu's Mbumba: Malawi Women's Embeddedness to Culture in the Face of International Political Pressure and Internal Legal Change.” Africa Today 49 (2): 77–99.
,Swedish International Development Agency. 2007. A Profile on Gender Relations Update 2006. Towards Gender Equality in Mozambique. Paper prepared for SIDA by Edda Collier. Available online at, accessed 22 May 2008.
Silva, Benedita da, Nhalivilo, Benilde, Nobela, Celeste, Osório, Conceição, Machungo, Fernanda, Carrilho, Lara da Silva, Amaral, Lucia Maximiano, Mejia, Margarita, Arthur, Maria José, and Silva, Terezinha da. 2005. Beyond Inequalities: Women in Mozambique. Maputo: Fórum Mulher and Women in Development Southern Africa Awareness (WIDSAA) Programme of the Southern African Research and Documentation Centre (SARDC).
Slackman, Michael. 2007. “A Quiet Revolution in Algeria: Gains by Women.” New York Times, 26 May, 1.
Smyth, Rosaleen. 2004. “The Roots of Community Development in Colonial Office Policy and Practice in Africa.” Social Policy and Administration 38 (4): 418–36.
Snyder, Margaret C. 2000. Women in African Economies: From Burning Sun to Boardroom. Kampala: Fountain.
Snyder, Margaret C. 2003. “African Contributions to the Global Women's Movement.” Paper presented at National Feminisms, Transnational Arenas, Universal Human Rights, Havens Center Colloquium Series, 14 April, at Madison, Wisconsin.
Snyder, Margaret C. 2004. “Women Determine Development: The Unfinished Revolution.” Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 29 (2): 619–32.
Snyder, Margaret C.. 2006. “Unlikely Godmother: The UN and the Global Women's Movement.” In Global Feminism: Transnational Women's Activism, Organizing, and Human Rights, ed. Ferree, Myra Marx and Tripp, Aili Mari. New York: New York University Press.
Snyder, Margaret, and Tadesse, Mary. 1995. African Women and Development. Atlantic Highlands: Zed.
Soiri, Ilina. 1996. The Radical Motherhood: Namibian Women's Independence Struggle. Research Report No. 99. Uppsala: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
Staudt, Kathleen. 1985. “Women's Political Consciousness in Africa: A Framework for Analysis.” In Women as Food Producers in Developing Countries, ed. Monson, Jamie and Kalb, Marion. Los Angeles: UCLA African Studies Centre.
Staunton, Irene. 1990. Mothers of the Revolution: The War Experiences of Thirty Zimbabwean Women. London: James Currey.
Steady, Filomina. 1975. Female Power in African Politics: The National Congress of Sierre Leone Women. Pasadena: Munger Africana Library, California Institute of Technology.
Steady, Filomina. 2006. Women and Collective Action in Africa. New York: Palgrave.
Strobel, Margaret. 1979. Muslim Women in Mombasa, 1890–1975. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Strobel, Margaret. 1991. European Women and the Second British Empire. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press.
Summers, Carol. 1991. “Intimate Colonialism: The Imperial Production of Reproduction in Uganda, 1907–1925.” Signs 16 (4): 787–807
Sylvester, Christine. 1989. “Patriarchy, Peace, and Women Warriors.” In Peace: Meanings, Politics, Strategies, ed. Forcey, L. R.. New York: Praeger.
Tamale, Sylvia. 1999. When Hens Begin to Crow: Gender and Parliamentary Politics in Uganda. Boulder: Westview Press.
Tandon, Yash. 1991. “Foreign NGOs, Uses and Abuses: An African Perspective.” Associations Transnationales 3: 141–5.
Terretta, Meredith. Forthcoming. “A Miscarriage of Nation: Cameroonian Women and Revolution, 1949–1971.” Stichproben: Vienna Journal of African Studies, special issue on Fracturing Binarisms: Gender and Colonialisms in Africa.
Tibbetts, Alexandra. 1994. “Mamas Fighting for Freedom in Kenya.” Africa Today 41 (4): 27–48.
Tobar, Marcela Ríos. 2003. “Paradoxes of an Unfinished Revolution.” International Feminist Journal of Politics 5 (2): 256–80.
Toyo, Nkoyo. 2006. “Revising Equality as a Right: The Minimum Age of Marriage Clause in the Nigerian Child Rights Act, 2003.” Third World Quarterly 27 (7): 1299–1312.
Tripp, Aili Mari. 2000. Women and Politics in Uganda: Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, James Currey, and Fountain Press.
Tripp, Aili Mari. 2001a. “Women and Democracy: The New Political Activism in Africa.” Journal of Democracy 12 (3): 141–55.
Tripp, Aili Mari. 2001b. “Women's Movements and Challenges to Neopatrimonial Rule: Preliminary Observations from Africa.” Development and Change. 32 (1): 33–54.
Tripp, Aili Mari. 2002. “Women's Mobilization in Uganda (1945–1962): Non-Racial Ideologies within Colonial-African-Asian Encounters.” International Journal of African Historical Studies 35 (1): 1–22.
Tripp, Aili Mari. 2004. “A New Look at Colonial Women: British Teachers and Activists in Uganda (1898–1962),” Canadian Journal of African Studies. 38 (1): 123–56.
Tripp, Aili Mari. 2006. “The Evolution of Transnational Feminisms: Consensus, Conflict and New Dynamics.” In Global Feminism: Transnational Women's Activism, Organizing, and Human Rights, ed. Ferree, Myra Marx and Tripp, Aili Mari. New York: New York University Press.
Tripp, Aili Mari. 2007. “Women's Rights and Legislative and Constitutional Reform in Post-Conflict Africa.” Paper presented at UNESCO conference on “Women's rights, peace and security in post-conflict democracies in Africa,” 29–30 August, at Pretoria.
Tripp, Aili Mari. 2008. “Gender, Power and Peacemaking in Africa.” Presentation to Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, 15 January.
Tripp, Aili Mari, and Kang, Alice. 2008. “The Global Impact of Quotas: On the Fast Track to Increased Female Legislative Representation.” Comparative Political Studies 41 (3): 338–61.
Tripp, Aili Mari, and Kwesiga, Joy, eds. 2002. The Women's Movement in Uganda: History, Challenges and Prospects. Kampala: Fountain.
True, Jacqui. 2003. Gender, Globalization, and Postsocialism: The Czech Republic after Communism. New York: Columbia University Press.
True, Jacqui and Mintrom, Michael. 2001. “Transnational Networks and Policy Diffusion: The Case of Gender Mainstreaming.” International Studies Quarterly 45 (1): 27–57.
Tsikata, Dzodzi. 2001. “National Machineries for the Advancement of Women in Africa: Are They Transforming Gender Relations?” Available online at, accessed 22 May 2008.
Tsikata, Edzodzinam. 1989. “Women's Political Organisations 1951–1987.” In The State, Development and Politics in Ghana, ed. Hanson, Emmanuel and Ninsin, Kwame. Oxford: African Books Collective.
Turrittin, Jane. 1993. “Aoua Kéita and the Nascent Women's Movement in the French Soudan.” African Studies Review 36 (1): 59–89.
Turshen, Meredeth. 2002. “Algerian Women in the Liberation Struggle and the Civil War: From Active Participants to Passive Victims?” Social Research (Fall). Available online at, accessed 22 May 2008.
,Uganda, Government of. 2003. “Progress on Implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action (1995) and the Commonwealth Plan of Action on Gender and Development (1995) and its Update (2000–2005) Submitted to the Commonwealth Secretariat. Available at, accessed 22 May 2008.
,United Nations Development Programme. 2005. “International Cooperation at a Crossroads: Aid, Trade, and Security in an Unequal World.” In Human Development Report 2005. New York: United Nations Development Programme.
Urdang, Stephanie. 1978. “‘Precondition for Victory’: Women's Liberation in Mozambique and Guinea-Bissau.” Issue: A Journal of Opinion 8 (1): 25–31.
Allen, Judith. 1972. “‘Sitting on a Man’: Colonialism and the Lost Political Institutions of Igbo Women.” Canadian Journal of African Studies 6 (2): 165–82.
Allen, Judith. 1976. “‘Aba Riots’ or Igbo Women's War? Ideology, Stratification and the Invisibility of Women.” In Women in Africa: Studies in Social and Economic Change, ed. Hafkin, N. H. and Bay, E.. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Allen, Judith. 2000. “Must A Woman (Politician) Be More Like A Man? Constructing Female Political Power and Agency in Botswana.” Paper presented at the Forty-Third Annual Meeting of the African Studies Association, 16–19 November, at Nashville, Tennessee.
Verloo, Mieke. 2005. “Displacement and Empowerment: Reflections on the Concept and Practice of the Council of Europe Approach to Gender Mainstreaming and Gender Equality.” Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State and Society 12 (3): 344–65.
Wallerstein, Immanuel. 1964. “Voluntary Associations.” In Political Parties and National Integration in Tropical Africa, ed. Coleman, J. and Rosberg, C.. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Wanyeki, L. Muthoni. 2005. “The African Women's Development and Communication Network (FEMNET): Experiences of Feminist Organising.” Feminist Africa (4): 105–15.
Warioba, Christine. 2004. “The Role of National Mechanisms in Promoting Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women: SADC Experience.” In The Role of National Mechanisms in Promoting Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women: Achievements, Gaps and Challenges. Rome, Italy: United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women (DAW).
Watson, Catherine. 1988. “Uganda's Women: A Ray of Hope.” Africa Report (July–August): 26–33.
Waylen, Georgina. 1994. “Women and Democratisation: Conceptualising Gender Relations in Transition Politics.” World Politics 46 (3): 327–54.
Waylen, Georgina. 2007a. Engendering Transitions: Women's Mobilization, Institutions, and Gender Outcomes. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.
Waylen, Georgina. 2007b. “Women's Mobilization and Gender Outcomes in Transitions to Democracy – The Case of South Africa.” Comparative Political Studies 40 (5): 521–46.
“We're Capable of Fighting MMD Women – Chipeta.” 2002. Post. 11 January.
,White, Carolyn Day. 1973. “The Role of Women as an Interest Group in the Ugandan Political System.” M.A., Makerere University.
Wicken, Joan E. 1958. “African Contrasts.” Unpublished report of Alice Horsman Travelling Fellow, 1956–7. Bodleian Library of Commonwealth and African Studies at Rhodes House, Oxford University, Mss.Afr.s172b.
Wilson, Amrit. 1993. “Eritrean Women: The Beginning of a New Struggle.” Africa World Review (May-October): 12–3.
Wilson, Gretchen. 2007. “African Female Scholars Share Virtual Lifeline.” Women's eNews 2007 (cited 23 January 2007). Available online at, accessed 22 May 2008.
Wing, Susanna D. 2002. “Women Activists in Mali: The Global Discourse on Human Rights.” In Women's Activism and Globalization: Linking Local Struggles and Transnational Politics, ed. Naples, N. A. and Desai, M.. New York: Routledge.
Wipper, Audrey. 1975. “The Maendeleo ya Wanawake Movement: Some Paradoxes and Contradictions.” African Studies Review 18 (3): 99–120.
“Women Legislators Fall below Target Figure.” 2007. Inter Press Service 26 March.
“Women's Unequal Rights.” 2006. Standard Times (Sierra Leone). 2 June.
Wunsch, James S. 1991. “Centralization and Development in Post-Independence Africa.” In The Failure of the Centralized State: Institutions and Self-Governance in Africa, ed. Wunsch, J. S. and Olowu, D.. Boulder: Westview Press.
Yates, Barbara A. 1982. “Colonialism, Education, and Work: Sex Differentiation in Colonial Zaire.” In Women and Work in Africa, ed. Bay, E. G.. Boulder: Westview Press.
Yoon, Mi Yung. 2004. “Explaining Women's Legislative Representation in Sub-Saharan Africa.” Legislative Studies Quarterly 29 (3): 447–68.
Zaffiro, James J. 2000. “Women's Political Empowerment in Botswana.” Unpublished paper.
“Zim's Marriage Laws Not Harmonised – Official.” 2006. Herald. 19 May.
Zwingel, Susanne. 2005. “From Intergovernmental Negotiations to (Sub)national Change.” International Feminist Journal of Politics 7 (3): 400–24.
Zziwa, Hassan Badru. 1996. “Women Soccer Should Be Supported.” Monitor, 29 April–1 May, 15.


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Book summary page views

Total views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between #date#. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.