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  • Print publication year: 2009
  • Online publication date: October 2009

8 - Pharmacokinetics of Epidural Opioids

from SECTION I - Pain Physiology and Pharmacology

REFERENCES

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15. van den Nieuwenhuyzen MC, Stienstra R, Burm AG, Vletter AA, van Kleef JW. Alfentanil as an adjuvant to epidural bupivacaine in the management of postoperative pain after laparotomies: lack of evidence of spinal action. Anesth Analg. 1998;86:574–578.
16. Scott DA, Blake D, Buckland M, et al. A comparison of epidural ropivacaine infusion alone and in combination with 1, 2, and 4 microg/mL fentanyl for seventy-two hours of postoperative analgesia after major abdominal surgery. Anesth Analg. 1999;88:857–864.
17. Liu SS, Allen HW, Olsson GL. Patient-controlled epidural analgesia with bupivacaine and fentanyl on hospital wards: prospective experience with 1,030 surgical patients. Anesthesiology. 1998;88:688–695.
18. Guinard JP, Carpenter RL, Chassot PG. Epidural and intravenous fentanyl produce equivalent effects during major surgery. Anesthesiology. 1995;82:377–382.
19. Joris JL, Jacob EA, Sessler DI, et al. Spinal mechanisms contribute to analgesia produced by epidural sufentanil combined with bupivacaine for postoperative analgesia. Anesth Analg. 2003;97:1446–1451.
20. Menigaux C, Guignard B, Fletcher D, et al. More epidural than intravenous sufentanil is required to provide comparable postoperative pain relief. Anesth Analg. 2001;93:472–476, 474th contents page.
21. Gambling D, Hughes T, Gould EM, Manvelian G. A pharmacokinetic and phamacodynamic study of a single dose of epidural DepoDur following epidural bupivacaine: a randomized controlled trial in patients undergoing lower abdominal surgery. Paper presented at: American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 2006; Rancho Mirage, CA.
22. Viscusi ER, Martin G, Hartrick CT, Singla N, Manvelian G. Forty-eight hours of postoperative pain relief after total hip arthroplasty with a novel, extended-release epidural morphine formulation. Anesthesiology. 2005;102:1014–1022.
23. Carvalho B, Riley E, Cohen SE, et al. Single-dose, sustained-release epidural morphine in the management of postoperative pain after elective cesarean delivery: results of a multicenter randomized controlled study. Anesth Analg. 2005;100:1150–1158.
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26. Chauvin M, Hongnat JM, Mourgeon E, et al. Equivalence of postoperative analgesia with patient-controlled intravenous or epidural alfentanil. Anesth Analg. 1993;76:1251–1258.
27. van den Nieuwenhuyzen MC, Burm AG, Vletter AA, Stienstra R, van Kleef JW. Epidural vs. intravenous infusion of alfentanil in the management of postoperative pain following laparotomies. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 1996;40:1112–1118.
28. Sandler AN, Stringer D, Panos L, et al. A randomized, double-blind comparison of lumbar epidural and intravenous fentanyl infusions for postthoracotomy pain relief. Analgesic, pharmacokinetic, and respiratory effects. Anesthesiology. 1992;77:626–634.
29. Miguel R, Barlow I, Morrell M, et al. A prospective, randomized, double-blind comparison of epidural and intravenous sufentanil infusions. Anesthesiology. 1994;81:346–352.
30. Lanz E, Theiss D, Riess W, Sommer U. Epidural morphine for postoperative analgesia: a double-blind study. Anesth Analg. 1982;61:236–240.
31. Gambling D, Hughes T, Martin G, Horton W, Manvelian G. A comparison of Depodur, a novel, single-dose extended-release epidural morphine, with standard epidural morphine for pain relief after lower abdominal surgery. Anesth Analg. 2005;100:1065–1074.
32. Hartrick CT, Martin G, Kantor G, Koncelik J, Manvelian G. Evaluation of a single-dose, extended-release epidural morphine formulation for pain after knee arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2006;88:273–281.