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  • Print publication year: 2009
  • Online publication date: October 2009

SECTION V - Pain Management and Patient Outcomes

REFERENCES

1. Phillips DM. JCAHO pain management standards are unveiled. JAMA. 2000;284:428–429.
2. Pham DC, Gautheron E, Guilley J, et al. The value of adding sciatic block to continuous femoral block for analgesia after total knee replacement. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2005;30:128–133.
3. Beaussier M, Weickmans H, Parc Y, et al. Postoperative analgesia and recovery course after major colorectal surgery in elderly patients: a randomized comparison between intrathecal morphine and intravenous PCA morphine. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2006;31:531–538.
4. Williams BA, Kentor ML, Vogt MT, et al. Economics of nerve block pain management after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: potential hospital cost savings via associated postanesthesia care unit bypass and same-day discharge. Anesthesiology. 2004;100:697–706.
5. Ilfeld BM, Mariano ER, Williams BA, Woodard JN, Macario A. Hospitalization costs of total knee arthroplasty with a continuous femoral nerve block provided only in the hospital versus on an ambulatory basis: a retrospective, case-control, cost-minimization analysis. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2007;32:46–54.
6. Williams BA. For outpatients, does regional anesthesia truly shorten the hospital stay, and how should we define postanesthesia care unit bypass eligibility. Anesthesiology. 2004;101:3–6.
7. Macario A, Vitez TS, Dunn B, McDonald T. Where are the costs in perioperative care? Analysis of hospital costs and charges for inpatient surgical care. Anesthesiology. 1995:83:1138–1144.
8. Watcha MF, White PF. Economics of anesthetic practice. Anesthesiology. 1997:86:1170–1196.
9. Sperry RJ. Principles of economic analysis. Anesthesiology. 1997:86:1197–1205.
10. Abouleish AE, Prough DS, Whitten CW, Zornow MH. The effects of surgical case duration and type of surgery on hourly clinical productivity of anesthesiologists. Anesth Analg. 2003;97:833–838.
11. Rivero-Arias O, Campbell H, Gray A, Fairbank J, Frost H, Wilson-MacDonald J. Surgical stabilisation of the spine compared with a programme of intensive rehabilitation for the management of patients with chronic low back pain: cost utility analysis based on a randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2005;330:1239–1245.
12. Perkins FM, Kehlet H. Chronic pain as an outcome of surgery: a review of predictive factors. Anesthesiology. 2000;93:1123–1133.
13. Macario A, Fleisher LA. Is there a value in obtaining a patient's willingess to pay for a particular anesthetic intervention. Anesthesiology. 2006;104:906–909.

REFERENCES

1. Dolin SJ, Cashman JN, Bland JM. Effectiveness of postoperative pain management: I. Evidence from published data. Br J Anaesth. 2002;89(3):409–423.
2. Brennan F, Cousins MJ. Pain relief as a human right. IASP Pain Clinical Updates 2004;XII(5).
3.Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists Professional Document. Statement on Patients’ Rights to Pain Management. PS45 (2001). www.anzca.edu.au/publications/profdocs/profstandards/index.htm.
4. Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists, Faculty of Pain Medicine. Acute Pain Management: Scientific Evidence. Melbourne: Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists; 2005.
5. Donald A. Evidence-based medicine: Key concepts. MedGenMed. 2002;4(2). Available at: http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/430709.
6. Cook DJ, Levy MM. Evidence-based medicine: a tool for enhancing critical care practice. Crit Care Clin. 1998;14(3):353–358.
7. Swinglehurst D. Evidence-based guidelines: the theory and the practice. Evidence-Based Healthcare Public Health. 2005;9:308–314.
8. Woolf SH. Evidence-based medicine and practice guidelines – an overview. Cancer Control. 2000;7(4):362–367.
9. Guyatt G, Rennie D. User's Guides to the Medical Literature: A Manual for Evidence-Based Clinical Practice. Washington, DC: AMA Press; 2002.
10. Holte K, Kehlet H. Epidural analgesia and risk of anastomotic leakage. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2001;26:111–117.
11. Muir Gray JA. Evidence-based and value-based healthcare. Evidence-Based Healthcare Public Health. 2005;9:317–318. [Editorial]
12. Columb MO, Lalkhen A-G. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Curr Anaesth Crit Care. 2005;6:391–394.
13. Barker FG, Carter BS. Synthesizing medical evidence: systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Neurosurg Focus. 2005;19(4). Available at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/515632
14. Herbert RD, K. Analysis of quality of interventions in systematic reviews. BMJ. 2005;331:507–509.
15. Oulos J, Kam PCA. “Number needed to treat”: a tool for summarizing treatment effect, and its application in anaesthesia and pain management. Curr Anaesth Crit Care. 2005;16:173–179.
16. Holdcroft A, Jaggar S. Core Topics in Pain. Cambridge, UK; Cambridge University Press; 2005.
17. Eysenck HJ. Meta-analysis and its problems. BMJ. 1994;309:789–792.
18. Needleman I. Editorial: Is this good research? Look for CONSORT and QUORUM. Evid Based Dent. 2000;2:61–62.
19. Moher D, Cook D J, Eastwood S, Olkin I, Rennie D, Stroup D. Improving the quality of reports of meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials: the QUOROM statement. Lancet. 1999;354:1896–1900.
20. Moher D, Schulz KF, Altman DG for the CONSORT group. The CONSORT statement: revised recommendations for improving the quality of reports of parallel-group randomized trials. Lancet. 2001;357:1191–1194.
21. Linklater D R, Pemberton L, Taylor S, Zeger W. Painful dilemmas: an evidence-based look at challenging clinical scenarios. Emerg Med Clin N Am. 2005;23:367–392.
22. Giordano J. Techniques, technology and tekne: the ethical use of guidelines in the practice of interventional pain management. Pain Physician. 2007;10:1–5.
23. Bazian Ltd. Do evidence-based guidelines improve the quality of care? Evidence-Based Healthcare Public Health. 2005;9:270–275.
24. Cronje RJ, Freeman JR, Williamson OD, Gutsch CJ. Evidence-based medicine: recognising and managing clinical uncertainty. Lab Med. 2004;35(12):724–731.
25. Tan TY, Schug SA. Safety aspects of postoperative pain management. Rev Analg. 2006;9:45–53.
26. Marret E, Flahault A, Samama C M, Bonnet F. Effects of postoperative, nonsteroidal, anti-inflammatory drugs on bleeding risk after tonsillectomy. Anesthesiology. 2003;V98:1497–1502.
27. Møiniche S, Rømsing J, Dahl JB, Tramèr MR. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and the risk of operative site bleeding after tonsillectomy: a quantitative systematic review. Anesth Analg. 2003;96:68–77.
28.Australian Acute Musculoskeletal Pain Guidelines Group. Evidence-based management of acute musculoskeletal pain: a guide for clinicians. Bowen Hills, Queensland: Australian Academic Press; 2004.
29. Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. Control of Pain in Patients with Cancer: A National Clinical Guideline. Edinburgh, UK: SIGN Publication; 2000.
30. Macintyre PE, Walker S, Power I, Schug SA. Acute pain management: scientific evidence revisited. Br J Anaesth. 2006;96(1):1–4.
31. Macintyre PE, Schug SA, Scott DA. Acute pain management: the evidence grows. An Australian document now has an important role in acute pain management worldwide. Med J Aust. 2006;184(3):101–102.
32. Schug SA, Macintyre P, Power I, Scott D, Visser E, Walker S. The scientific evidence in acute pain management. Acute Pain. 2005;7(4):161–165.
33. Barden J, Edwards JE, McQuay HJ, Moore AR. Pain and analgesic response after third molar extraction and other postsurgical pain. Pain. 2004;107(1–2):86–90.
34. McQuay HJ, Moore RA. An Evidence-Based Resource for Pain Relief. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press; 1998.
35. Gray A, Kehlet H, Bonnet F, Rawal N. Predicting postoperative analgesia outcomes: NNT league tables or procedure-specific evidence? Br J Anaesth. 2005;94(6):710–714.
36. Schug SA, Kehlet H, Bonnet F, et al. Procedure specific pain management after surgery – “PROSPECT.” Acute Pain. 2007;9(2):55–57.
37. Kehlet H, Wilkinson RC, Fischer HB, Camu F. PROSPECT: evidence-based, procedure-specific postoperative pain management. Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol. 2007;21(1):149–159.
38. Neugebauer EA, Wilkinson RC, Kehlet H, Schug SA. PROSPECT: a practical method for formulating evidence-based expert recommendations for the management of postoperative pain. Surg Endosc. 2007;21(7):1047–1053.
39. Neugebauer E, Wilkinson R, Kehlet H, on behalf of the PROSPECT Working Group. Transferable evidence in support of reaching a consensus. Z ärztl Fortbild Qual Gesundh. 2007;101:103–107.
40. Kehlet H, Gray A, Bonnet F, et al. A procedure-specific systematic review and consensus recommendations for postoperative analgesia following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Surg Endosc. 2005;19(10):1396–1415.
41. Fischer HB, Simanski CJ. A procedure-specific systematic review and consensus recommendations for analgesia after total hip replacement. Anaesthesia. 2005;60(12):1189–1202.
42. Mulrow CD, Cook DJ, Davidoff F. Systematic reviews: critical links in the great chain of evidence. Ann Intern Med. 1997;126(5):389–391. [Editorial]
43. Cook DJ, Mulrow CD, Haynes RB. Systematic reviews: synthesis of best evidence for clinical decisions. Ann Intern Med. 1997;126(5):376–380.

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5. Beattie WS, Badner NH, Choi P. Epidural analgesia reduces postoperative myocardial infarction: a meta-analysis. Anesth Analg. 2001;93:853–858.
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22. Peyton PJ, Myles PS, Silbert BS, Rigg JA, Jamrozik K, Parsons R. Perioperative epidural analgesia and outcome after major abdominal surgery in high-risk patients. Anesth Analg. 2003;96:548–554.
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