Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-55597f9d44-zdfhw Total loading time: 0.603 Render date: 2022-08-14T23:11:11.616Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

10 - Brain differences

from Part III - Hormones and the brain

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  02 November 2009

Paula Shear
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221, USA
Rosemary Fama
Affiliation:
SRI International, 333 Ravenswood Avenue, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA
Martha J. Morrell
Affiliation:
Columbia University, New York
Kerry L. Flynn
Affiliation:
Columbia-Presbyterian Cancer Center, New York
Get access

Summary

Dr Paula Shear is a neuropsychologist who has worked with men and women with epilepsy to study brain functioning. Dr Rosemary Fama is a research associate at SRI International. They bring this knowledge and experience to this chapter, in which they review the differences in brain development, organization, and functioning between men and women. For example, whereas men and women have similar intelligence, men tend to be stronger with visual–spatial and mathematical tasks, and women have stronger verbal abilities. These brain differences mean that men and women with epilepsy may be more or less likely to develop particular types of difficulities. These differences are of particular importance as we consider how epilepsy might affect men and women differently, and also as we think about the potential side effects of epilepsy treatments such as medications and surgery.

MJM

This chapter provides an overview of the differences between men and women in terms of brain development, normal cognitive (thinking) skills, and the cognitive difficulties that may result from epilepsy. Although men and women have more similarities than differences in their brain development and brain functioning, a large body of scientific literature supports the presence of small but meaningful differences between their brains. The emphasis of this chapter is on the biology of sex differences in brain functioning, but there are many ‘nonbiological’ factors that also explain differences in behavior between men and women (Fig. 10.1).

From infancy, boys and girls are socialized differently in our culture.

Type
Chapter
Information
Women with Epilepsy
A Handbook of Health and Treatment Issues
, pp. 101 - 111
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2003

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Basso, A, Capiani, E, Moraschnini, S.Sex differences in recovery from aphasia. Cortex 1982; 18:469–75Google Scholar
Berenbaum, SA, Baxter, L, Seidenbberg, M, Hermann, B.Role of the hippocampus in sex differences in verbal memory: memory outcome following left anterior temporal lobectomy. Neuropsychology 1997; 11:585–91Google Scholar
Christiansen, K, Knussman, R.Sex hormones and cognitive functioning in men. Neuropsychobiology 1987; 18:27–36Google Scholar
Geckler, C, Chelune, G, Trenerry, M, Ivnik, R.Gender related differences in cognitive status following temporal lobectomy. Arch Clin Neuropsychol 1993; 138:226–7Google Scholar
Gorski, RA, Gordon, J, Shryne, JE, Southam, A.Evidence for a morphological difference with the medial preoptic area of the rat brain. Brain Res 1978; 148:333–46Google Scholar
Gur, RC, Mozley, LH, Mcbley, PD. Sex differences in regional cerebral glucose metabolism during a resting state. Science 1995; 267:528–31Google Scholar
Halpern D. Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities. Lawrence Earlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ, 1992
Halpern, DF.Sex difference in intelligence. Am Psychol 1997; 52:1091Google Scholar
Hampson, E.Variations in sex-related cognitive abilities across the menstrual cycle. Brain Cogn 1990; 14:26–43Google Scholar
Hines, M.Prenatal gonadal hormones and sex difference in human behavior. Psychol Bull 1982; 92:56–80Google Scholar
Inglis, J, Lawson, JS.Sex differences in the effects of unilateral brain damage on intelligence. Science 1981; 212:693–5Google Scholar
LeVay, S.A difference in hypothalamic structure between heterosexual and homosexual men. Science 1991; 253:1034–7Google Scholar
MacCoby EE, Jacklin CN. The Psychology of Sex Differences. Stanford University Press, Stanford, 1974
McGlone, J.Sex differences in human brain asymmetry: a critical survey. Behav Brain Sci 1980; 3:2152–3Google Scholar
McGlone, J.Memory complaints before and temporal lobectomy: do they predict memory performance of lesion laterality?Epilepsia 1994; 35:529–39Google Scholar
Resnick, SM, Berenbaum, SA, Gottesman, II, Bouchard, TJ.Early hormonal influences on cognitive functioning in congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Devel Pyschol 1986; 22:191–8Google Scholar
Shaywitz, JA, Shaywitz, SE, Pugh, KR. Sex differences in the functional organization of the brain for language. Nature 1995; 373:604–9Google Scholar
Strauss, E, Wada, J, Hunter, M.Sex-related differences in the cognitive consequences of early left-hemisphere lesions. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 1992; 14:737–48Google Scholar
Sundet, K.Sex differences in cognitive impairment following unilateral brain damage. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 1986; 8:51–61Google Scholar
Toran-Allerand, CD.Sex steroids and the development of the newborn mouse hypothalamus and preoptic area in vitro: implications for sexual differentiation. Brain Res 1976; 106:407–12Google Scholar
Treneny, MR, Clifford, RTJ, Cascino, GD, Sharbrough, FW, Ivnik, RI.Sex differences in the relationship between visual memory and MRI hippocampal volumes. Neuropsychol 1996; 10:343–51Google Scholar
Treneny, MR, Jack, CRI, Cascino, GD, Sharbrough, FW, Ivnik, RI.Gender differences in post-temporal lobectomy verbal memory and relationships between MRI hippocampal volumes and preoperative verbal memory. Epilepsy Res 1995; 2:69–76Google Scholar
Wampson, E, Kimura, D.Reciprocal effects of hormonal fluctuations on human motor and perceptual–spatial skills. Behav Neurosci 1988; 102:456–9Google Scholar

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

  • Brain differences
    • By Paula Shear, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221, USA, Rosemary Fama, SRI International, 333 Ravenswood Avenue, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA
  • Edited by Martha J. Morrell, Columbia University, New York, Kerry L. Flynn, Columbia-Presbyterian Cancer Center, New York
  • Book: Women with Epilepsy
  • Online publication: 02 November 2009
  • Chapter DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511545030.010
Available formats
×

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

  • Brain differences
    • By Paula Shear, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221, USA, Rosemary Fama, SRI International, 333 Ravenswood Avenue, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA
  • Edited by Martha J. Morrell, Columbia University, New York, Kerry L. Flynn, Columbia-Presbyterian Cancer Center, New York
  • Book: Women with Epilepsy
  • Online publication: 02 November 2009
  • Chapter DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511545030.010
Available formats
×

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

  • Brain differences
    • By Paula Shear, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221, USA, Rosemary Fama, SRI International, 333 Ravenswood Avenue, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA
  • Edited by Martha J. Morrell, Columbia University, New York, Kerry L. Flynn, Columbia-Presbyterian Cancer Center, New York
  • Book: Women with Epilepsy
  • Online publication: 02 November 2009
  • Chapter DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511545030.010
Available formats
×