Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-55597f9d44-ssw5r Total loading time: 1.02 Render date: 2022-08-08T14:32:53.844Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

31 - Molecular imaging of substance abuse

from Section V - Substance Abuse

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  10 January 2011

Brian C. Schweinsburg
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry Yale University School of Medicine New Haven, CT, USA
Alecia D. Dager Schweinsburg
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry Yale University School of Medicine New Haven, CT, USA
Graeme F. Mason
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry and Department of Diagnostic Radiology Yale University School of Medicine New Haven, CT, USA
Martha E. Shenton
Affiliation:
VA Boston Healthcare System and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School
Bruce I. Turetsky
Affiliation:
University of Pennsylvania
Get access

Summary

Introduction

The use of substances for psychoactive effects dates to antiquity with evidence in archaeological finds of alcohol-related intoxication and possibly ritualistic use of Nymphaea caerulea in ancient Egypt and alcohol abuse in classic Greek and Roman culture. While a variety of legal and illicit substances are used for their mind-altering effects, the misuse of drugs and alcohol can result in a constellation of behavioral and physiologic consequences that comprise addiction, which is often considered to be a cyclic process associated with chronic relapse. Koob and Le Moal (2001) outlined a continuum of allostasis to pathology as an individual experiences the rewarding properties of drugs, transitions to dependence, develops addiction, and enters periods of protracted abstinence. Circuitry including cortical–thalamo-striatal loops, the reward system, and stress system contribute to a reward system allostatic state that reflects long-term deviation from normal brain states that ultimately can lead to pathologic change (Koob and Le Moal, 2001). While there are a number of potential individual and environmental differences associated with vulnerabilities in the transition to drug and alcohol-related brain pathology (allostatic load), a core neurobiological feature of the continuum is altered neurochemistry among neural pathways.

Type
Chapter
Information
Understanding Neuropsychiatric Disorders
Insights from Neuroimaging
, pp. 446 - 462
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2010

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Adams, K M, Gilman, S, Koeppe, R A, et al. 1993. Neuropsychological deficits are correlated with frontal hypometabolism in positron emission tomography studies of older alcoholic patients. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 17, 205–10.Google Scholar
Alhassoon, O M, Dupont, R M, Schweinsburg, B C, Taylor, M J, Patterson, T L and Grant, I. 2001. Regional cerebral blood flow in cocaine- versus methamphetamine-dependent patients with a history of alcoholism. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 4, 105–12.Google Scholar
Alkondon, M, Pereira, E F, Eisenberg, H M and Albuquerque, E X. 2000. Nicotinic receptor activation in human cerebral cortical interneurons: A mechanism for inhibition and disinhibition of neuronal networks. J Neurosci 20, 66–75.Google Scholar
Ariyannura, P S, Madhavaraoa, C N and Namboodiri, A M A. 2008. N-acetylaspartate synthesis in the brain: Mitochondria vs. microsomes. Brain Res 1227, 34–41.Google Scholar
Arstad, E, Gitto, R, Chimirri, A, et al. 2006. Closing in on the AMPA receptor: Synthesis and evaluation of 2-acetyl-1-(4'-chlorophenyl)-6-methoxy-7-[11C]methoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline as a potential PET tracer. Bioorg Med Chem 14, 4712–7.Google Scholar
Behar, K L and Ogino, T. 1993. Characterization of macromolecule resonances in the 1H NMR spectrum of rat brain. Magn Reson Med 30, 38–44.Google Scholar
Bendszus, M, Weijers, H G, Wiesbeck, G, et al. 2001. Sequential MR imaging and proton MR spectroscopy in patients who underwent recent detoxification for chronic alcoholism: Correlation with clinical and neuropsychological data. Am J Neuroradiol 22, 1926–32.Google Scholar
Biegon, A, Gibbs, A, Alvarado, M, Ono, M and Taylor, S. 2007. In vitro and in vivo characterization of [3H]CNS-5161 – A use-dependent ligand for the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor in rat brain. Synapse 61, 577–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blusztajn, J K, Liscovitch, M and Richardson, U I. 2008. Synthesis of acetylcholine from choline derived from phosphatidylcholine in a human neuronal cell line. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84, 5474–7.Google Scholar
Bossong, M G, Berckel, B N, Boellaard, R, et al. 2009. Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol induces dopamine release in the human striatum. Neuropsychopharmacology 34, 759–66.Google Scholar
Bostwick, D G. 1981. Amphetamine induced cerebral vasculitis. Hum Pathol 12, 1031–3.Google Scholar
Braissant, O, Henry, H, Loup, M, Eilers, B and Bachmann, C. 2001. Endogenous synthesis and transport of creatine in the rat brain: An in situ hybridization study. Mol Brain Res 86, 193–201.Google Scholar
Brockerhoff, H and Ballou, C E. 1962. On the metabolism of the brain phosphoinositide complex. J Biol Chem 237, 1764–8.Google Scholar
Brody, A L, Mandelkern, M A, Olmstead, R E, et al. 2009. Ventral striatal dopamine release in response to smoking a regular vs a denicotinized cigarette. Neuropsychopharmacology 34, 282–9.Google Scholar
Brody, A L, Olmstead, R E, London, E D, et al. 2004. Smoking-induced ventral striatum dopamine release. Am J Psychiatry 161, 1211–8.Google Scholar
Buchert, R, Obrocki, J, Thomasius, R, et al. 2001. Long-term effects of “ecstasy” abuse on the human brain studied by FDG PET. Nucl Med Commun 22, 889–97.Google Scholar
Buchert, R, Thomasius, R, Wilke, F, et al. 2004. A voxel-based PET investigation of the long-term effects of “ecstasy” consumption on brain serotonin transporters. Am J Psychiatry 161, 1181–9.Google Scholar
Burns, H D, Laere, K, Sanabria-Bohorquez, S, et al. 2007. [18F]MK-9470, a positron emission tomography (PET) tracer for in vivo human PET brain imaging of the cannabinoid-1 receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104, 9800–05.Google Scholar
Cahill, D W, Knipp, H and Mosser, J. 1981. Intracranial hemorrhage with amphetamine abuse. Neurology 31, 1058–9.Google Scholar
Cass, W A. 1997. Decreases in evoked overflow of dopamine in rat striatum after neurotoxic doses of methamphetamine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 280, 105–13.Google Scholar
Chakraborty, G, Mekala, P, Yahya, D, Wu, G and Ledeen, R W. 2001. Intraneuronal N-acetylaspartate supplies acetyl groups for myelin lipid synthesis: evidence for myelin-associated aspartoacylase. J Neurochem 78. 736–45.Google Scholar
Chang, L, Cloak, C, Yakupov, R and Ernst, T. 2006. Combined and independent effects of chronic marijuana use and HIV on brain metabolites. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 1, 65–76.Google Scholar
Chang, L, Ernst, T, Grob, C S and Poland, R E. 1999. Cerebral (1)H MRS alterations in recreational 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, “ecstasy”) users. J Magn Reson Imaging 10, 521–6.Google Scholar
Choi, C, Coupland, N J, Bhardwaj, P P, Malykhin, N, Gheorghiu, D and Allen, P S. 2006. Measurement of brain glutamate and glutamine by spectrally-selective refocusing at 3 Tesla. Magn Reson Med 55, 997–1005.Google Scholar
Commins, D L and Seiden, L S. 1986. Alpha-methyltyrosine blocks methylamphetamine-induced degeneration in the rat somatosensory cortex. Brain Res 365, 15–20.Google Scholar
Couey, J J, Meredith, R M, Spijker, S, et al. 2007. Distributed network actions by nicotine increase the threshold for spike-timing-dependent plasticity in prefrontal cortex. Neuron 54, 73–87.Google Scholar
Cowan, R L. 2007. Neuroimaging research in human MDMA users: A review. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 189, 539–56.Google Scholar
Cowan, R L, Bolo, N R, Dietrich, M, Haga, E, Lukas, S E and Renshaw, P F. 2007. Occipital cortical proton MRS at 4 Tesla in human moderate MDMA polydrug users. Psychiatry Res 155, 179–88.Google Scholar
Cowan, R L, Joers, J M and Dietrich, M S. 2009. N-acetylaspartate (NAA) correlates inversely with cannabis use in a frontal language processing region of neocortex in MDMA (Ecstasy) polydrug users: A 3 T magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 92, 105–10.Google Scholar
Dao-Castellana, M H, Samson, Y, Legault, F, et al. 1998. Frontal dysfunction in neurologically normal chronic alcoholic subjects: Metabolic and neuropsychological findings. Psychol Med 28, 1039–48.Google Scholar
Daumann, J, Fischermann, T, Pilatus, U, Thron, A, Moeller-Hartmann, W and Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, E. 2004. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in ecstasy (MDMA) users. Neurosci Lett 362, 113–6.Google Scholar
Davison, F D, Sweeney, B J and Scaravilli, F. 1996. Mitochondrial DNA levels in the brain of HIV-positive patients after zidovudine therapy. J Neurol 243, 648–51.Google Scholar
Win, M M, Jager, G, Booij, J, et al. 2008. Sustained effects of ecstasy on the human brain: A prospective neuroimaging study in novel users. Brain 131, 2936–45.Google Scholar
Win, M M, Reneman, L, Reitsma, J B, Heeten, G J, Booij, J and Brink, W. 2004. Mood disorders and serotonin transporter density in ecstasy users – The influence of long-term abstention, dose, and gender. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 173, 376–82.Google Scholar
Eggan, S M and Lewis, D A. 2007. Immunocytochemical distribution of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor in the primate neocortex: A regional and laminar analysis. Cerebral Cortex 17, 175–52.Google Scholar
Eisch, A J, Gaffney, M, Weihmuller, F B, O'Dell, S J and Marshall, J F. 1992. Striatal subregions are differentially vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of methamphetamine. Brain Res 598, 321–6.Google Scholar
Eisch, A J, O'Dell, S J and Marshall, J F. 1996. Striatal and cortical NMDA receptors are altered by a neurotoxic regimen of methamphetamine. Synapse 22, 217–25.Google Scholar
Ellis, G M Jr, Mann, M A, Judson, B A, Schramm, N T and Tashchian, A. 1985. Excretion patterns of cannabinoid metabolites after last use in a group of chronic users. Clin Pharmacol Therap 38, 572–8.Google Scholar
Elsinga, P H, Hatano, K and Ishiwata, K. 2006. PET tracers for imaging of the dopaminergic system. Curr Med Chem 13, 2139–53.Google Scholar
Ernst, T, Chang, L, Leonido-Yee, M and Speck, O. 2000. Evidence for long-term neurotoxicity associated with methamphetamine abuse: A 1H MRS study. Neurology 54, 1344–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Farfel, G M and Seiden, L S. 1995. Role of hypothermia in the mechanism of protection against serotonergic toxicity. II. Experiments with methamphetamine, p-chloroamphetamine, fenfluramine, dizocilpine and dextromethorphan. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 272, 868–75.Google Scholar
Fein, G, Meyerhoff, D J, Discalfani, V, et al. 1994. 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging separates neuronal from glial changes in alcohol-related brain atrophy. In Lancaster, F E (Ed.) Alcohol and Glial Cells. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health, 27, 227–41.
Fleckenstein, A E, Gibb, J W and Hanson, G R. 2000. Differential effects of stimulants on monoaminergic transporters: Pharmacological consequences and implications for neurotoxicity. Eur J Pharmacol 406, 1–13.Google Scholar
Gao, M, Kong, D, Clearfield, A and Zheng, Q-H. 2006. Synthesis of carbon-11 and fluorine-18 labeled N-acetyl-1-aryl-6,7-dimethoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline derivatives as new potential PET AMPA receptor ligands. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 16, 2229–33.Google Scholar
Gazdzinski, S, Durazzo, T C, Yeh, P -H, Hardin, D, Banys, P and Meyerhoff, D J. 2008. Chronic cigarette smoking modulates injury and short-term recovery of the medial temporal lobe in alcoholics. Psychiatry Res 162, 133–45.Google Scholar
Gilman, S, Adams, K, Koeppe, R A, et al. 1990. Cerebellar and frontal hypometabolism in alcoholic cerebellar degeneration studied with positron emission tomography. Ann Neurol 28, 775–85.Google Scholar
Glass, M, Dragunow, M and Faull, R L. 1997. Cannabinoid receptors in the human brain: A detailed anatomical and quantitative autoradiographic study in the fetal, neonatal and adult human brain. Neuroscience 77, 299–318.Google Scholar
Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, E and Daumann, J. 2006. Neurotoxicity of methylenedioxyamphetamines (MDMA; ecstasy) in humans: How strong is the evidence for persistent brain damage? Addiction 101, 348–61.Google Scholar
Gray, R, Rajan, A S, Radcliffe, K A, Yakehiro, M and Dani, J A. 1996. Hippocampal synaptic transmission enhanced by low concentrations of nicotine. Nature 383, 713–6.Google Scholar
Greenwald, M, Johanson, C -E, Bueller, J, et al. 2007. Buprenorphine duration of action: Mu-opioid receptor availability and pharmacokinetic and behavioral indices. Biol Psychiatry 61, 101–10.Google Scholar
Greenwald, M K, Johanson, C-E, Moody, D E, et al. 2003. Effects of buprenorphine maintenance dose on mu-opioid receptor availability, plasma concentrations, and antagonist blockade in heroin-dependent volunteers. Neuropsychopharmacology 28, 2000–9.Google Scholar
Hamill, T G, Lin, L S, Hagmann, W, et al. 2009. PET imaging studies in rhesus monkey with the cannabinoid-1 (CB1) receptor ligand [(11)C]CB-119. Mol Imaging Biol 11, 246–52.Google Scholar
Haselhorst, R, Dursteler-MacFarland, K M, Scheffler, K, et al. 2002. Frontocortical N-acetylaspartate reduction associated with long-term i.v. heroin use. Neurology 58, 305–07.Google Scholar
Henriksen, G and Willoch, F. 2008. Imaging of opioid receptors in the central nervous system. Brain 131, 1171–96.Google Scholar
Herkenham, M, Lynn, A B, Little, M D, et al. 1990. Cannabinoid receptor localization in brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87, 1932–6.Google Scholar
Hermann, D, Sartorius, A, Welzel, H, et al. 2007. Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex N-acetylaspartate/total creatine (NAA/tCr) loss in male recreational cannabis users. Biol Psychiatry 61, 1281–9.Google Scholar
Hesse, S, Barthel, H, Schwarz, J, Sabri, O and Muller, U. 2004. Advances in in vivo imaging of serotonergic neurons in neuropsychiatric disorders. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 28, 547–63. [Erratum, Neurosci Biobehav Rev, 2005, 29, 1119.]Google Scholar
Horti, A G and Laere, K. 2008. Development of radioligands for in vivo imaging of type 1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1) in human brain. Curr Pharmaceut Des 14, 3363–83.Google Scholar
Hurd, R, Sailasuta, N, Srinivasan, R, Vigneron, D B, Pelletier, D and Nelson, S J. 2004. Measurement of brain glutamate using TE-averaged PRESS at 3T. Magn Reson Med 51, 435–40.Google Scholar
Iyo, M, Namba, H, Yanagisawa, M, Hirai, S, Yui, N and Fukui, S. 1997. Abnormal cerebral perfusion in chronic methamphetamine abusers: A study using 99MTc-HMPAO and SPECT. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 21, 789–96.Google Scholar
Jagannathan, N R, Desai, N G, et al. 1996. Brain metabolite changes in alcoholism: An in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) study. Magn Res Imag 14, 553–7.Google Scholar
Johnson-Greene, D, Adams, K M, Gilman, S, et al. 1997. Effects of abstinence and relapse upon neuropsychological function and cerebral glucose metabolism in severe chronic alcoholism. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 19, 378–85.Kao C H, Wang S J and Yeh S H. 1994. Presentation of regional cerebral blood flow in amphetamine abusers by 99Tcm-HMPAO brain SPECT. Nucl Med Commun 15, 94–8.
Katsifis, A and Kassiou, M. 2004. Development of radioligands for in vivo imaging of GABA(A)-benzodiazepine receptors. Mini-Rev Med Chem 4, 909–21.Google Scholar
Kessler, R C, Chiu, W T, Demler, O, Merikangas, K R and Walters, E E. 2005. Prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of 12-month DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry 62, 617–27.Google Scholar
Kling, M A, Carson, R E, Borg, L, et al. 2000. Opioid receptor imaging with positron emission tomography and [(18)F]cyclofoxy in long-term, methadone-treated former heroin addicts. J Pharmacol Exp Therap 295, 1070–6.Google Scholar
Koob, G F and Moal, M. 2001. Drug addiction, dysregulation of reward, and allostasis. Neuropsychopharmacology 24, 97–129.Google Scholar
Lambe, E K, Picciotto, M R and Aghajanian, G K. 2003. Nicotine induces glutamate release from thalamocortical terminals in prefrontal cortex. Neuropsychopharmacology 28, 216–25.Google Scholar
Larsen, K E, Fon, E A, Hastings, T G, Edwards, R H and Sulzer, D. 2002. Methamphetamine-induced degeneration of dopaminergic neurons involves autophagy and upregulation of dopamine synthesis. J Neurosci 22, 8951–60.Google Scholar
Lindsey, K P, Glaser, S T and Gatley, S J. 2005. Imaging of the brain cannabinoid system. Handb Exp Pharmacol 168, 425–43.Google Scholar
Lopez-Moreno, J A, Gonzalez-Cuevas, G, Moreno, G and Navarro, M. 2008. The pharmacology of the endocannabinoid system: Functional and structural interactions with other neurotransmitter systems and their repercussions in behavioral addiction. Addict Biol 13, 160–87.Google Scholar
Mansvelder, H D, Keath, J R and McGehee, D S. 2002. Synaptic mechanisms underlie nicotine-induced excitability of brain reward areas. Neuron 33, 905–19.Google Scholar
Markus, R P, Reno, L A C, Zago, W and Markus, R P. 2004. Release of [(3)H]-L-glutamate by stimulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in rat cerebellar slices. Neuroscience 124, 647–53.Google Scholar
Markus, R P, Santos, J M, Zago, W and Reno, L A C. 2003. Melatonin nocturnal surge modulates nicotinic receptors and nicotine-induced [3H]glutamate release in rat cerebellum slices. J Pharmacol Exp Therap 305, 525–30.Google Scholar
Martin, P R, Gibbs, S J, et al. 1995. Brain proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies in recently abstinent alcoholics. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 19, 1078–82.Google Scholar
Mason, G F, Petrakis, I L, Graaf, R A, et al. 2006. Cortical GABA levels and the recovery from alcohol dependence: Preliminary evidence of modification by cigarette smoking. Biol Psychiatry 59, 85–93.Google Scholar
McCann, U D, Szabo, Z, Seckin, E, et al. 2005. Quantitative PET studies of the serotonin transporter in MDMA users and controls using [11C]McN5652 and [11C]DASB. Neuropsychopharmacology 30, 1741–50.Google Scholar
McCann, U D, Szabo, Z, Vranesic, M, et al. 2008. Positron emission tomographic studies of brain dopamine and serotonin transporters in abstinent (+/–)3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (“ecstasy”) users: Relationship to cognitive performance. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 200, 439–50.Google Scholar
McGehee, D S and Role, L W. 1996. Presynaptic ionotropic receptors. Curr Opin Neurobiol 6, 342–9.Google Scholar
Michel, V, Yuan, Z, Ramsubir, S and Bakovic, M. 2006. Choline transport for phospholipid synthesis. Exp Biol Med 231, 490–504.Google Scholar
Moreno, A, Ross, B D, et al. 2001. Direct determination of the N-acetyl-L-aspartate synthesis rate in the human brain by (13)C MRS and [1-(13)C]glucose infusion. J Neurochem 77, 347–50.Google Scholar
,NIDA and NIAAA. 1998. The economic costs of alcohol and drug abuse in the United States – 1992. NIH Publication Number 98–4327.Google Scholar
Nordahl, T E, Salo, R, Possin, K, et al. 2002. Low N-acetyl-aspartate and high choline in the anterior cingulum of recently abstinent methamphetamine-dependent subjects: A preliminary proton MRS study. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Psychiatry Res 116, 43–52.Google Scholar
Obrocki, J, Buchert, R, Vaterlein, O, Thomasius, R, Beyer, W and Schiemann, T. 1999. Ecstasy – Long-term effects on the human central nervous system revealed by positron emission tomography. Br J Psychiatry 175, 186–8.Google Scholar
Pacheco, M A and Jope, R S. 1996. Phosphoinositide signaling in human brain. Progr Neurobiol 50, 255–73.Google Scholar
Parks, M H, Dawant, B M, Riddle, W R, et al. 2002. Longitudinal brain metabolic characterization of chronic alcoholics with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 26, 1368–80.Google Scholar
Patel, T B and Clark, J B. 1979. Synthesis of N-acetyl-L-aspartate by rat brain mitochondria and its involvement in mitochondrial/cytosolic carbon transport. Biochem J 184, 539–46.Google Scholar
Pfefferbaum, A, Adalsteinsson, E, Bell, R L and Sullivan, E V. 2007. Development and resolution of brain lesions caused by pyrithiamine- and dietary-induced thiamine deficiency and alcohol exposure in the alcohol-preferring rat: A longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy study. Neuropsychopharmacology 32, 1159–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Phelps, M E, Huang, S C, Hoffman, E J, Selin, C, Sokoloff, L and Kuhl, D E. 1979. Tomographic measurement of local cerebral glucose metabolic rate in humans with (F-18)2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose: Validation of method. Ann Neurol 6, 371–88.Google Scholar
Pu, C and Vorhees, C V. 1995. Protective effects of MK-801 on methamphetamine-induced depletion of dopaminergic and serotonergic terminals and striatal astrocytic response: An immunohistochemical study. Synapse 19, 97–104.Google Scholar
Radcliffe, K A and Dani, J A. 1998. Nicotinic stimulation produces multiple forms of increased glutamatergic synaptic transmission. J Neurosci 18, 7075–83.Google Scholar
Radcliffe, K A, Fisher, J L, Gray, R and Dani, J A. 1999. Nicotinic modulation of glutamate and GABA synaptic transmission of hippocampal neurons. Ann N Y Acad Sci 868, 591–610.Google Scholar
Reneman, L, Booij, J, Lavalaye, J, et al. 2002b. Use of amphetamine by recreational users of ecstasy (MDMA) is associated with reduced striatal dopamine transporter densities: A [123I]beta-CIT SPECT study – Preliminary report. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 159, 335–40.Google Scholar
Reneman, L, Endert, E, Bruin, K, et al. 2002a. The acute and chronic effects of MDMA (“ecstasy”) on cortical 5-HT2A receptors in rat and human brain. Neuropsychopharmacology 26, 387–96.Google Scholar
Reneman, L, Majoie, C B, Flick, H and Heeten, G J. 2002c. Reduced N-acetylaspartate levels in the frontal cortex of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (Ecstasy) users: Preliminary results. Am J Neuroradiol 23, 231–7.Google Scholar
Reneman, L, Majoie, C B, Schmand, B, Brink, W and Heeten, G J. 2001. Prefrontal N-acetylaspartate is strongly associated with memory performance in (abstinent) ecstasy users: Preliminary report. Biol Psychiatry 50, 550–4.Google Scholar
Rothman, D L, Petroff, O A, Behar, K L and Mattson, R H. 1993. Localized 1H NMR measurements of gamma-aminobutyric acid in human brain in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90, 5662–6.Google Scholar
Ryan, L J, Linder, J C, Martone, M E and Groves, P M. 1990. Histological and ultrastructural evidence that d-amphetamine causes degeneration in neostriatum and frontal cortex of rats. Brain Res 518, 67–77.Google Scholar
,SAMHSA. 2006. Results from the 2005. National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings. NSDUM Series H-30. Rockville, MD, Office of Applied Studies.
,SAMHSA. 2008. Results from the 2007 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings. NSDUH Series H-34. Rockville, MD, Office of Applied Studies.
Sanchez-Pernaute, R, Wang, J Q, Kuruppu, D, et al. 2008. Enhanced binding of metabotropic glutamate receptor type 5 (mGluR5) PET tracers in the brain of parkinsonian primates. Neuroimage 42, 248–51.Google Scholar
Schweinsburg, B C, Alhassoon, O M, Taylor, M J, et al. 2003. Effects of alcoholism and gender on brain metabolism. Am J Psychiatry 160, 1180–3.Google Scholar
Schweinsburg, B C, Taylor, M J, Alhassoon, O M, et al. 2001. Chemical pathology in brain white matter of recently detoxified alcoholics: A 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy investigation of alcohol-associated frontal lobe injury. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 25, 924–34.Google Scholar
Schweinsburg, B C, Taylor, M J, Videen, J S, et al. 2000. Elevated myo-inositol in gray matter of recently detoxified but not long-term abstinent alcoholics: A preliminary MR spectroscopy study. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 24, 699–705.Google Scholar
Seitz, D, Widmann, U, Seeger, U, et al. 1999. Localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the cerebellum in detoxifying alcoholics. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 23, 158–63.Google Scholar
Sekine, Y, Minabe, Y, Kawai, M, et al. 2002. Metabolite alterations in basal ganglia associated with methamphetamine-related psychiatric symptoms. A proton MRS study. Neuropsychopharmacology 27, 453–61.Google Scholar
Semple, D M, Ebmeier, K P, Glabus, M F, O'Carroll, R E and Johnstone, E C. 1999. Reduced in vivo binding to the serotonin transporter in the cerebral cortex of MDMA (“ecstasy”) users. Br J Psychiatry 175, 63–9.Google Scholar
Sevy, S, Smith, G S, Ma, Y, et al. 2008. Cerebral glucose metabolism and D2/D3 receptor availability in young adults with cannabis dependence measured with positron emission tomography. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 197, 549–56.Google Scholar
Shi, J, Zhao, L-Y, Copersino, M L, et al. 2008. PET imaging of dopamine transporter and drug craving during methadone maintenance treatment and after prolonged abstinence in heroin users. Eur J Pharmacol 579, 160–6.Google Scholar
Silver, S M, Schroeder, B M and Sterns, R H. 2002. Brain uptake of myoinositol after exogenous administration. J Am Soc Nephrol 13, 1255–60.Google Scholar
Sokoloff, L, Reivich, M, Kennedy, C, et al. 1977. The [14C]-deoxyglucose method for the measurement of local cerebral glucose utilization: Theory, procedure, and normal values in the conscious and anesthetized albino rat. J Neurochem 28, 879–916.Google Scholar
Staley, J K, Gottschalk, C, Petrakis, I L, et al. 2005. Cortical gamma-aminobutyric acid type A-benzodiazepine receptors in recovery from alcohol dependence: Relationship to features of alcohol dependence and cigarette smoking. Arch Gen Psychiatry 62, 877–88.Google Scholar
Staley, J K, Krishnan-Sarin, S, Cosgrove, K P, et al. 2006. Human tobacco smokers in early abstinence have higher levels of β2*nicotinic acetylcholine receptors than nonsmokers. J Neurosci 26, 8707–14.Google Scholar
Stephans, S and Yamamoto, B. 1996. Methamphetamines pretreatment and the vulnerability of the striatum to methamphetamine neurotoxicity. Neuroscience 72, 593–600.Google Scholar
Stone, J M, Erlandsson, K, Arstad, E, et al. 2006. Ketamine displaces the novel NMDA receptor SPET probe [(123)I]CNS-1261 in humans in vivo. Nucl Med Biol 33, 239–43.Google Scholar
Taylor, M J, Alhassoon, O M, Schweinsburg, B C, Videen, J S and Grant, I. 2000. MR spectroscopy in HIV and stimulant dependence HNRC Group. HIV Neurobehavioral Research Center. J Int Neuropsychol Soc 6, 83–5.Google Scholar
Thomasius, R, Petersen, K, Buchert, R, et al. 2003. Mood, cognition and serotonin transporter availability in current and former ecstasy (MDMA) users. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 167, 85–96.Google Scholar
Thomasius, R, Zapletalova, P, Petersen, K, et al. 2006. Mood, cognition and serotonin transporter availability in current and former ecstasy (MDMA) users: The longitudinal perspective. J Psychopharmacol 20, 211–25.Google Scholar
Truckenmiller, M E, Namboodiri, M A, Brownstein, M J and Neale, J H. 1985. N-Acetylation of L-aspartate in the nervous system: Differential distribution of a specific enzyme. J Neurochem 45, 1658–62.Google Scholar
Volkow, N D, Chang, L, Wang, G J, et al. 2001a. Loss of dopamine transporters in methamphetamine abusers recovers with protracted abstinence. J Neurosci 21, 9414–8.Google Scholar
Volkow, N D, Chang, L, Wang, G J, et al. 2001b. Higher cortical and lower subcortical metabolism in detoxified methamphetamine abusers. Am J Psychiatry 158, 383–9.Google Scholar
Volkow, N D, Chang, L, Wang, G J, et al. 2001c. Association of dopamine transporter reduction with psychomotor impairment in methamphetamine abusers. Am J Psychiatry 158, 377–82.Google Scholar
Volkow, N D, Gillespie, H, Mullani, N, et al. 1991. Cerebellar metabolic activation by delta-9-tetrahydro-cannabinol in human brain: A study with positron emission tomography and 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose. Psychiatry Res 40, 69–78.Google Scholar
Volkow, N D, Gillespie, H, Mullani, N, et al. 1996. Brain glucose metabolism in chronic marijuana users at baseline and during marijuana intoxication. Psychiatry Res Neuroimag 67, 29–38.Google Scholar
Volkow, N D, Hitzemann, R, Wang, G J, et al. 1992. Decreased brain metabolism in neurologically intact healthy alcoholics. Am J Psychiatry 149, 1016–22.Google Scholar
Volkow, N D, Hitzemann, R, Wolf, A P, et al. 1990. Acute effects of ethanol on regional brain glucose metabolism and transport. Psychiatry Res 35, 39–48.Google Scholar
Volkow, N D, Wang, G J, Hitzemann, R, et al. 1994. Recovery of brain glucose metabolism in detoxified alcoholics. Am J Psychiatry 151, 178–83.Google Scholar
Voruganti, L N, Slomka, P, Zabel, P, Mattar, A and Awad, A G. 2001. Cannabis induced dopamine release: An in-vivo SPECT study. Psychiatry Res 107, 173–7.Google Scholar
Wang, G J, Volkow, N D, Chang, L, et al. 2004. Partial recovery of brain metabolism in methamphetamine abusers after protracted abstinence. Am J Psychiatry 161, 242–8.Google Scholar
Wang, J-Q, Tueckmantel, W, Zhu, A, Pellegrino, D and Brownell, A-L. 2007. Synthesis and preliminary biological evaluation of 3-[(18)F]fluoro-5-(2-pyridinylethynyl)benzonitrile as a PET radiotracer for imaging metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5. Synapse 61, 951–61.Google Scholar
Wang, G J, Volkow, N D, Fowler, J S, et al. 2003. Alcohol intoxication induces greater reductions in brain metabolism in male than in female subjects. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 27, 909–17.Google Scholar
Waterhouse, R N, Slifstein, M, Dumont, F, et al. 2004. In vivo evaluation of [11C]N-(2-chloro-5-thiomethylphenyl)-N'-(3-methoxy-phenyl)-N'-methylguanidine ([11C]GMOM) as a potential PET radiotracer for the PCP/NMDA receptor. Nucl Med Biol 31, 939–48.Google Scholar
Watkins, S S, Koob, G F and Markou, A. 2000. Neural mechanisms underlying nicotine addiction: Acute positive reinforcement and withdrawal. Nicotine Tobacco Res 2, 19–37.Google Scholar
Wik, G, Borg, S, Sjogren, I, et al. 1988. PET determination of regional cerebral glucose metabolism in alcohol-dependent men and healthy controls using 11C-glucose. Acta Psychiatr Scand 78, 234–41.Google Scholar
Yamamoto, H, Kitamura, N, Lin, X H, et al. 1999. Differential changes in glutamatergic transmission via N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors in the hippocampus and striatum of rats behaviourally sensitized to methamphetamine. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 2, 155–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zahr, N M, Mayer, D, Vinco, S, et al. 2009. In vivo evidence for alcohol-induced neurochemical changes in rat brain without protracted withdrawal, pronounced thiamine deficiency, or severe liver damage. Neuropsychopharmacology 34, 1427–42.Google Scholar
Zubieta, J, Greenwald, M K, Lombardi, U, et al. 2000. Buprenorphine-induced changes in mu-opioid receptor availability in male heroin-dependent volunteers: A preliminary study. Neuropsychopharmacology 23, 326–34.Google Scholar
Zubieta, J K, Gorelick, D A, Stauffer, R, Ravert, H T, Dannals, R F and Frost, J J. 1996. Increased mu opioid receptor binding detected by PET in cocaine-dependent men is associated with cocaine craving. Nat Med 2, 1225–9.Google Scholar

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats
×

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats
×

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats
×