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30 - Functional imaging of substance abuse

from Section V - Substance Abuse

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  10 January 2011

Omar M. Mahmood
Affiliation:
Psychology Service VA San Diego Healthcare System and Department of Psychiatry University of California, San Diego San Diego, CA, USA
Susan F. Tapert
Affiliation:
Psychology Service VA San Diego Healthcare System and Department of Psychiatry University of California San Diego San Diego, CA, USA
Martha E. Shenton
Affiliation:
VA Boston Healthcare System and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School
Bruce I. Turetsky
Affiliation:
University of Pennsylvania
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Summary

Introduction

Overview of substance abuse

Substance use disorders (SUD; substance abuse or dependence) are prevalent in both adult and adolescent populations. It is estimated that 8% of the US population aged 12 and older currently uses some formof illicit drug, and that this percentage is slightly higher among youths aged 12–17 (9.5%) (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), 2008). The most commonly used substance is alcohol, and the most frequently used illicit drug is cannabis, followed by non-prescribed medications, cocaine, methamphetamines, and hallucinogens. Given their prevalence and deleterious physical, psychosocial, and financial effects, SUDs have become a major focus of research, with a particular recent emphasis on elucidating the mechanisms of addiction-related dysfunction and implications for treatment.

SUDs, as defined in the DSM-IV, include substance dependence and substance abuse. Substance dependence refers to recurrent use of a substance resulting in a clinically impairing pattern of repeatedly experiencing at least 3 of the following 7 criteria within a 12-month period: (1) tolerance; (2) use to relieve withdrawal; (3) using larger amounts or for more time than intended; (4) inability to cut down or quit; (5) spending excessive time obtaining, using, or recovering from the substance; (6) giving up important activities due to the substance use; and (7) continued use despite negative consequences, such as in medical or psychological health.

Type
Chapter
Information
Understanding Neuropsychiatric Disorders
Insights from Neuroimaging
, pp. 429 - 445
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2010

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  • Functional imaging of substance abuse
    • By Omar M. Mahmood, Psychology Service VA San Diego Healthcare System and Department of Psychiatry University of California, San Diego San Diego, CA, USA, Susan F. Tapert, Psychology Service VA San Diego Healthcare System and Department of Psychiatry University of California San Diego San Diego, CA, USA
  • Edited by Martha E. Shenton, Bruce I. Turetsky, University of Pennsylvania
  • Book: Understanding Neuropsychiatric Disorders
  • Online publication: 10 January 2011
  • Chapter DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511782091.031
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  • Functional imaging of substance abuse
    • By Omar M. Mahmood, Psychology Service VA San Diego Healthcare System and Department of Psychiatry University of California, San Diego San Diego, CA, USA, Susan F. Tapert, Psychology Service VA San Diego Healthcare System and Department of Psychiatry University of California San Diego San Diego, CA, USA
  • Edited by Martha E. Shenton, Bruce I. Turetsky, University of Pennsylvania
  • Book: Understanding Neuropsychiatric Disorders
  • Online publication: 10 January 2011
  • Chapter DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511782091.031
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  • Functional imaging of substance abuse
    • By Omar M. Mahmood, Psychology Service VA San Diego Healthcare System and Department of Psychiatry University of California, San Diego San Diego, CA, USA, Susan F. Tapert, Psychology Service VA San Diego Healthcare System and Department of Psychiatry University of California San Diego San Diego, CA, USA
  • Edited by Martha E. Shenton, Bruce I. Turetsky, University of Pennsylvania
  • Book: Understanding Neuropsychiatric Disorders
  • Online publication: 10 January 2011
  • Chapter DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511782091.031
Available formats
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