Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-4hhp2 Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-05-26T17:23:39.564Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Section 5 - Dissecting the Clinical Picture

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  26 July 2018

Evelyn J. Bromet
Affiliation:
State University of New York, Stony Brook
Elie G. Karam
Affiliation:
St George Hospital University Medical Center, Lebanon
Karestan C. Koenen
Affiliation:
Harvard University, Massachusetts
Dan J. Stein
Affiliation:
University of Cape Town
Get access
Type
Chapter
Information
Trauma and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
Global Perspectives from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys
, pp. 253 - 308
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2018

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

References

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision. DSM-IV-TR. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. DSM-5. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
Breslau, N., & Alvarado, G. F. (2007). The clinical significance criterion in DSM-IV post-traumatic stress disorder. Psychological Medicine, 37, 1437–44.Google Scholar
Brewin, C. R., Lanius, R. A., Novac, A., Schnyder, U., & Galea, S. (2009). Reformulating PTSD for DSM-V: life after Criterion A. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 22, 366–73.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cloitre, M., Garvert, D. W., Brewin, C. R., Bryant, R. A., & Maercker, A. (2013). Evidence for proposed ICD-11 PTSD and complex PTSD: a latent profile analysis. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 4, 20706.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Elhai, J. D., Grubaugh, A. L., Kashdan, T. B., & Frueh, B. C. (2008). Empirical examination of a proposed refinement to DSM-IV posttraumatic stress disorder symptom criteria using the National Comorbidity Survey Replication data. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 69, 597602.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
First, M. B., Spitzer, R. L., Gibbon, M., & Williams, J. B. W. (1994). Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders. New York, NY: Biometrics Research Department, New York State Psychiatric Institute.Google Scholar
Forbes, D., Fletcher, S., Lockwood, E., et al. (2011). Requiring both avoidance and emotional numbing in DSM-V PTSD: will it help? Journal of Affective Disorders, 130, 483–6.Google Scholar
Franklin, C. L., & Zimmerman, M. (2001). Posttraumatic stress disorder and major depressive disorder: investigating the role of overlapping symptoms in diagnostic comorbidity. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 189, 548–51.Google Scholar
Friedman, M. J. (2013). Finalizing PTSD in DSM-5: getting here from there and where to go next. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 26, 548–56.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Friedman, M. J., Resick, P. A., Bryant, R. A., & Brewin, C. R. (2011). Considering PTSD for DSM-5. Depression and Anxiety, 28, 750–69.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Grubaugh, A. L., Long, M. E., Elhai, J. D., Frueh, B. C., & Magruder, K. M. (2010). An examination of the construct validity of posttraumatic stress disorder with veterans using a revised criterion set. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 48, 909–14.Google Scholar
Hafstad, G. S., Thoresen, S., Wentzel-Larsen, T., Maercker, A., & Dyb, G. (2017). PTSD or not PTSD? Comparing the proposed ICD-11 and the DSM-5 PTSD criteria among young survivors of the 2011 Norway attacks and their parents. Psychological Medicine, 48, 1283–91.Google Scholar
Hansen, M., Hyland, P., Armour, C., Shevlin, M., & Elklit, A. (2015). Less is more? Assessing the validity of the ICD-11 model of PTSD across multiple trauma samples. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 6, 28766.Google Scholar
Haro, J. M., Arbabzadeh-Bouchez, S., Brugha, T. S., et al. (2006). Concordance of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview Version 3.0 (CIDI 3.0) with standardized clinical assessments in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 15, 167–80.Google Scholar
Hayton, J. C., Allen, D. G., & Scarpello, V. (2004). Factor retention decisions in exploratory factor analysis: a tutorial on parallel analysis. Organizational Research Methods, 7, 191205.Google Scholar
Hyland, P., Shevlin, M., McNally, S., Murphy, J., Hansen, M., & Elklit, E. (2016). Exploring differences between the ICD-11 and DSM-5 models of PTSD: does it matter which model is used? Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 37, 4853.Google Scholar
International Advisory Group for the Revision of ICD-10 Mental and Behavioural Disorders. (2011). A conceptual framework for the revision of the ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders. World Psychiatry, 10, 8692.Google Scholar
Kessler, R. C., & Üstün, T. B. (2004). The World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative version of the World Health Organization (WHO) Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 13, 93121.Google Scholar
Kilpatrick, D. G. (2013). The DSM-5 got PTSD right: comment on Friedman (2013). Journal of Traumatic Stress, 26, 563–66.Google Scholar
King, D. W., Leskin, G. A., King, L. A., & Weathers, F. W. (1998). Confirmatory factor analysis of the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale: evidence for the dimensionality of posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychological Assessment, 10, 90–6.Google Scholar
Knäuper, B., Cannell, C. F., Schwarz, N., Bruce, M. L., & Kessler, R. C. (1999). Improving accuracy of major depression age-of-onset reports in the US National Comorbidity Survey. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 8, 3948.Google Scholar
Maercker, A., Brewin, C. R., Bryant, R. A., et al. (2013a). Proposals for mental disorders specifically associated with stress in the International Classification of Diseases-11. The Lancet, 381, 1683–5.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Maercker, A., Brewin, C. R., Bryant, R. A., et al. (2013b). Diagnosis and classification of disorders specifically associated with stress: proposals for ICD-11. World Psychiatry, 12, 198206.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Maercker, A., & Perkonigg, A. (2013). Applying an international perspective in defining PTSD and related disorders: comment on Friedman (2013). Journal of Traumatic Stress, 26, 560–2.Google Scholar
O'Donnell, M. L., Alkemade, N., Nickerson, A., et al. (2014). Impact of the diagnostic changes to post-traumatic stress disorder for DSM-5 and the proposed changes to ICD-11. British Journal of Psychiatry, 205, 230–5.Google Scholar
Peters, L., Slade, T., & Andrews, G. (1999). A comparison of ICD10 and DSM-IV criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 12, 335–43.Google Scholar
Rosellini, A. J., Stein, M. B., Colpe, L. J., et al. (2015). Approximating a DSM-5 diagnosis of PTSD using DSM-IV criteria. Depression and Anxiety, 32, 493501.Google Scholar
Simms, L. J., Watson, D., & Doebbeling, B. N. (2002). Confirmatory factor analyses of posttraumatic stress symptoms in deployed and nondeployed veterans of the Gulf War. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 111, 637–47.Google Scholar
Spitzer, R. L., First, M. B., & Wakefield, J. C. (2007). Saving PTSD from itself in DSM-V. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 21, 233–41.Google Scholar
Stein, D. J., Seedat, S., Iversen, A., & Wessely, S. (2007). Post-traumatic stress disorder: medicine and politics. The Lancet, 369, 139–44.Google Scholar
Tol, W. A., Barbui, C., Galappatti, A., et al. (2011). Mental health and psychosocial support in humanitarian settings: linking practice and research. The Lancet, 378, 1581–91.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
van Ameringen, M., Mancini, C., & Patterson, B. (2011). The impact of changing diagnostic criteria in posttraumatic stress disorder in a Canadian epidemiologic sample. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 72, 1034–41.Google Scholar
van Emmerik, A. A., & Kamphuis, J. H. (2011). Testing a DSM-5 reformulation of posttraumatic stress disorder: impact on prevalence and comorbidity among treatment-seeking civilian trauma survivors. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 24, 213–17.Google Scholar
Wisco, B. E., Miller, M. W., Wolf, E. J., et al. (2016). The impact of proposed changes to ICD-11 on estimates of PTSD prevalence and comorbidity. Psychiatry Research, 240, 226–33.Google Scholar
Wolter, K. (2007). Introduction to Variance Estimation. New York, NY: Springer New York.Google Scholar
World Health Organization. (1993). The ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders: Diagnostic Criteria for Research. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO.Google Scholar
Yehuda, R., & McFarlane, A. C. (1995). Conflict between current knowledge about posttraumatic stress disorder and its original conceptual basis. American Journal of Psychiatry, 152, 1705–13.Google Scholar
Yufik, T., & Simms, L. J. (2010). A meta-analytic investigation of the structure of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 119, 764–76.Google Scholar
Zimmerman, M., Chelminski, I., & Young, D. (2004). On the threshold of disorder: a study of the impact of the DSM-IV clinical significance criterion on diagnosing depressive and anxiety disorders in clinical practice. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 65, 1400–5.Google Scholar

References

Adler, A. B., Wright, K. M., Bliese, P. D., Eckford, R., & Hoge, C. W. (2008). A2 diagnostic criterion for combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 21, 301–8.Google Scholar
American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. DSM-IV. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. DSM-5. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
Andrews, G., Slade, T., Sunderland, M., & Anderson, T. (2007). Issues for DSM-V: simplifying DSM-IV to enhance utility: the case of major depressive disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 164, 1784–5.Google Scholar
Breslau, N., & Kessler, R. C. (2001). The stressor criterion in DSM-IV posttraumatic stress disorder: an empirical investigation. Biological Psychiatry, 50, 699704.Google Scholar
Brewin, C. R., Andrews, B., & Rose, S. (2000). Fear, helplessness, and horror in posttraumatic stress disorder: investigating DSM-IV Criterion A2 in victims of violent crime. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 13, 499509.Google Scholar
Brunet, A., Weiss, D. S., Metzler, T. J., et al. (2001). The Peritraumatic Distress Inventory: a proposed measure of PTSD criterion A2. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 1480–5.Google Scholar
Creamer, M., McFarlane, A. C., & Burgess, P. (2005). Psychopathology following trauma: the role of subjective experience. Journal of Affective Disorders, 86, 175–82.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Duckers, M. L., Alisic, E., & Brewin, C. R. (2016). A vulnerability paradox in the cross-national prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry, 209, 300–5.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Efron, B. (1988). Logistic regression, survival analysis, and the Kaplan-Meier curve. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 83, 414–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ehring, T., Ehlers, A., Cleare, A. J., & Glucksman, E. (2008). Do acute psychological and psychobiological responses to trauma predict subsequent symptom severities of PTSD and depression? Psychiatry Research, 161, 6775.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Friedman, M. J., Resick, P. A., Bryant, R. A., & Brewin, C. R. (2011). Considering PTSD for DSM-5. Depression and Anxiety, 28, 750–69.Google Scholar
Hosmer, D. W., & Lemeshow, S. (2000). Applied Logistic Regression, 2nd edn. New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
Janoff-Bulman, R., & Frantz, C. M. (1996). The loss of illusions: the potent legacy of trauma. Journal of Personal and Interpersonal Loss, 1, 133–50.Google Scholar
Kilpatrick, D. G., Resnick, H. S., Freedy, J. R., et al. (1998). The posttraumatic stress disorder field trial: evaluation of the PTSD construct – Criteria A through E. In Widiger, T. A., Frances, A. J., Pincus, H. A., et al., eds., DSM-IV Sourcebook, Volume 4. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press, pp. 803–44.Google Scholar
McNally, R. J. (2004). Conceptual problems with the DSM-IV criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder. In Rosen, G. M., ed., Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Issues and Controversies. New York, NY: Wiley, pp. 114.Google Scholar
O'Donnell, M. L., Creamer, M., McFarlane, A. C., Silove, D., & Bryant, R. A. (2010). Should A2 be a diagnostic requirement for posttraumatic stress disorder in DSM-V? Psychiatry Research, 176, 257–60.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pereda, N., & Forero, C. G. (2012). Contribution of criterion A2 to PTSD screening in the presence of traumatic events. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 25, 587–91.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rauch, S. A., Hembree, E. A., & Foa, E. B. (2001). Acute psychosocial preventive interventions for posttraumatic stress disorder. Advances in Mind-Body Medicine, 17, 187–91.Google Scholar
Research Triangle Institute. (2002). SUDAAN: Professional Software for Survey Data Analysis, Version 8.0.1. Research Triangle Park, NC: Research Triangle Institute.Google Scholar
Roemer, L., Litz, B. T., Orsillo, S. M., Ehlich, P. J., & Friedman, M. J. (1998). Increases in retrospective accounts of war-zone exposure over time: the role of PTSD symptom severity. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 11, 597605.Google Scholar
Rosellini, A. J., Stein, M. B., Colpe, L. J., et al. (2015). Approximating a DSM-5 diagnosis of PTSD using DSM-IV criteria. Depression and Anxiety, 32, 493501.Google Scholar
Schnurr, P. P., Spiro, A., III, Vielhauer, M. J., Findler, M. N., & Hamblen, J. L. (2002). Trauma in the lives of older men: findings from the Normative Aging Study. Journal of Clinical Geropsychology, 8, 175–87.Google Scholar
Stein, D. J., Cloitre, M., Nemeroff, C. B., et al. (2009). Cape Town consensus on posttraumatic stress disorder. CNS Spectrums, 14, 52–8.Google Scholar
Weathers, F. W., & Keane, T. M. (2007). The Criterion A problem revisited: controversies and challenges in defining and measuring psychological trauma. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 20, 107–21.Google Scholar
Williams, N. L., Reardon, J. M., Murray, K. T., & Cole, T. M. (2005). Anxiety disorders: a developmental vulnerability-stress perspective. In Hankin, B. L., & Abela, J. R. Z., eds., Development of Psychopathology: A Vulnerability-Stress Perspective. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, pp. 289327.Google Scholar
Wolter, K. M. (1985). Introduction to Variance Estimation. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
Wortman, C. B., & Silver, R. C. (1989). The myths of coping with loss. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 57, 349–57.Google Scholar
Zatzick, D. F., Kang, S. M., Muller, H. G., et al. (2002). Predicting posttraumatic distress in hospitalized trauma survivors with acute injuries. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 941–6.Google Scholar
Zimmerman, M., Chelminski, I., McGlinchey, J. B., & Young, D. (2006). Diagnosing major depressive disorder X: can the utility of the DSM-IV symptom criteria be improved? The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 194, 893–7.Google Scholar

References

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition.DSM-5. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
Blanchard, E. B., Hickling, E. J., Taylor, A. E., Loos, W. R., & Gerardi, R. J. (1994). Psychological morbidity associated with motor vehicle accidents. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 32, 283–90.Google Scholar
Blanchard, E. B., Hickling, E. J., Vollmer, A. J., et al. (1995). Short-term follow-up of post-traumatic stress symptoms in motor vehicle accident victims. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 33, 369–77.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Breslau, N., Lucia, V. C., & Davis, G. C. (2004). Partial PTSD versus full PTSD: an empirical examination of associated impairment. Psychological Medicine, 34, 1205–14.Google Scholar
Carlier, I. V., & Gersons, B. P. (1995). Partial posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD): the issue of psychological scars and the occurrence of PTSD symptoms. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 183, 107–9.Google Scholar
Cukor, J., Wyka, K., Jayasinghe, N., & Difede, J. (2010). The nature and course of subthreshold PTSD. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 24, 918–23.Google Scholar
Favaro, A., Tenconi, E., Colombo, G., & Santonastaso, P. (2006). Full and partial post-traumatic stress disorder among World War II prisoners of war. Psychopathology, 39, 187–91.Google Scholar
Gellis, L. A., Mavandadi, S., & Oslin, D. W. (2010). Functional quality of life in full versus partial posttraumatic stress disorder among veterans returning from Iraq and Afghanistan. Primary Care Companion to the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 12, e16.Google Scholar
Jakupcak, M., Conybeare, D., Phelps, L., et al. (2007). Anger, hostility, and aggression among Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans reporting PTSD and subthreshold PTSD. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 20, 945–54.Google Scholar
Jeon, H. J., Suh, T., Lee, H. J., et al. (2007). Partial versus full PTSD in the Korean community: prevalence, duration, correlates, comorbidity, and dysfunctions. Depression and Anxiety, 24, 577–85.Google Scholar
Jones, E., & Wessely, S. (2007). A paradigm shift in the conceptualization of psychological trauma in the 20th century. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 21, 164–75.Google Scholar
Kulka, R. A., Schlenger, W. E., Fairbank, J. A., et al. (1990). Trauma and the Vietnam War Generation: Report of Findings from the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study. New York, NY: Bruner/Mazel.Google Scholar
Lai, T. J., Chang, C. M., Connor, K. M., Lee, L. C., & Davidson, J. R. (2004). Full and partial PTSD among earthquake survivors in rural Taiwan. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 38, 313–22.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lipschitz, D. S., Rasmusson, A. M., Anyan, W., Cromwell, P., & Southwick, S. M. (2000). Clinical and functional correlates of posttraumatic stress disorder in urban adolescent girls at a primary care clinic. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 39, 1104–11.Google Scholar
Maia, D. B., Marmar, C. R., Metzler, T., et al. (2007). Post-traumatic stress symptoms in an elite unit of Brazilian police officers: prevalence and impact on psychosocial functioning and on physical and mental health. Journal of Affective Disorders, 97, 241–5.Google Scholar
Marshall, R. D., Olfson, M., Hellman, F., et al. (2001). Comorbidity, impairment, and suicidality in subthreshold PTSD. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 1467–73.Google Scholar
McLeer, S. V., Deblinger, E., Henry, D., & Orvaschel, H. (1992). Sexually abused children at high risk for post-traumatic stress disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 31, 875–79.Google Scholar
McNally, R. J. (2003). Progress and controversy in the study of posttraumatic stress disorder. Annual Review of Psychology, 54, 229–52.Google Scholar
Mylle, J., & Maes, M. (2004). Partial posttraumatic stress disorder revisited. Journal of Affective Disorders, 78, 3748.Google Scholar
Naylor, J. C., Dolber, T. R., Strauss, J. L., et al. (2013). A pilot randomized controlled trial with paroxetine for subthreshold PTSD in Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom era veterans. Psychiatry Research, 206, 318–20.Google Scholar
Patterson, D. R., Carrigan, L., Questad, K. A., & Robinson, R. (1990). Post-traumatic stress disorder in hospitalized patients with burn injuries. Journal of Burn Care and Research, 11, 181–4.Google Scholar
Pietrzak, R. H., Schechter, C. B., Bromet, E. J., et al. (2012). The burden of full and subsyndromal posttraumatic stress disorder among police involved in the World Trade Center rescue and recovery effort. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 46, 835–42.Google Scholar
Rosellini, A. J., Stein, M. B., Colpe, L. J., et al. (2015). Approximating a DSM-5 diagnosis of PTSD using DSM-IV criteria. Depression and Anxiety, 32, 493501.Google Scholar
SAS Institute Inc. (2008). SAS Software Version 9.2. Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc.Google Scholar
Schnurr, P. P., Ford, J. D., Friedman, M. J., et al. (2000). Predictors and outcomes of posttraumatic stress disorder in World War II veterans exposed to mustard gas. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 258–68.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schnurr, P. P., Friedman, M. J., & Rosenberg, S. D. (1993). Premilitary MMPI scores as predictors of combat-related PTSD symptoms. American Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 479–83.Google Scholar
Schnurr, P. P., Lunney, C. A., & Sengupta, A. (2004). Risk factors for the development versus maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 17, 8595.Google Scholar
Schutzwohl, M., & Maercker, A. (1999). Effects of varying diagnostic criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder are endorsing the concept of partial PTSD. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 12, 155–65.Google Scholar
Stein, M. B., Hofler, M., Perkonigg, A., et al. (2002). Patterns of incidence and psychiatric risk factors for traumatic events. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 11, 143–53.Google Scholar
Stein, M. B., Walker, J. R., Hazen, A. L., & Forde, D. R. (1997). Full and partial posttraumatic stress disorder: findings from a community survey. American Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 1114–9.Google ScholarPubMed
Strain, J. J., & Friedman, M. J. (2011). Considering adjustment disorders as stress response syndromes for DSM-5. Depression and Anxiety, 28, 818–23.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Weiss, D. S., Marmar, C. R., Schlenger, W. E., et al. (1992). The prevalence of lifetime and partial post-traumatic stress disorder in Vietnam theatre veterans. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 5, 365–76.Google Scholar
Wolter, K. M. (1985). Introduction to Variance Estimation. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
Zlotnick, C., Franklin, L., & Zimmerman, M. (2002). Does “subthreshold” posttraumatic stress disorder have any clinical relevance? Comprehensive Psychiatry, 43, 413–19.Google Scholar

References

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision. DSM-IV-TR. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition.DSM-5. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
Bernstein, E. M., & Putnam, F. W. (1986). Development, reliability, and validity of a dissociation scale. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 174, 727–35.Google Scholar
Bremner, J. D., Southwick, S., Brett, E., et al. (1992). Dissociation and posttraumatic stress disorder in Vietnam combat veterans. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 149, 328–32.Google ScholarPubMed
Brown, R. J., & Lewis-Fernandez, R. (2011). Culture and conversion disorder: implications for DSM-5. Psychiatry, 74, 187206.Google Scholar
Bryant, R. A. (2007). Does dissociation further our understanding of PTSD? Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 21, 183–91.Google Scholar
Cloitre, M., Koenen, K. C., Cohen, L. R., & Han, H. (2002). Skills training in affective and interpersonal regulation followed by exposure: a phase-based treatment for PTSD related to childhood abuse. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70, 1067–74.Google Scholar
Cloitre, M., Miranda, R., Stovall-McClogh, K. C., & Han, H. (2005). Beyond PTSD: emotion regulation and interpersonal problems as predictors of functional impairment in survivors of childhood abuse. Behavior Therapy, 36, 119–24.Google Scholar
Cloitre, M., Petkova, E., Wang, J., & Lu Lassell, F. (2012). An examination of the influence of a sequential treatment on the course and impact of dissociation among women with PTSD related to childhood abuse. Depression and Anxiety, 29, 709–17.Google Scholar
Cloitre, M., Stolbach, B. C., Herman, J. L., et al. (2009). A developmental approach to complex PTSD: childhood and adult cumulative trauma as predictors of symptom complexity. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 22, 399408.Google Scholar
Dalenberg, C. J., Brand, B. L., Gleaves, D. H., et al. (2012). Evaluation of the evidence for the trauma and fantasy models of dissociation. Psychological Bulletin, 138, 550–88.Google Scholar
Evren, C., Sar, V., Dalbudak, E., et al. (2011). Lifetime PTSD and quality of life among alcohol-dependent men: impact of childhood emotional abuse and dissociation. Psychiatry Research, 186, 8590.Google Scholar
Foote, B., Smolin, Y., Neft, D. I., & Lipschitz, D. (2008). Dissociative disorders and suicidality in psychiatric outpatients. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 196, 2936.Google Scholar
Friedman, M. J., Resick, P. A., Bryant, R. A., et al. (2011). Classification of trauma and stressor-related disorders in DSM-5. Depression and Anxiety, 28, 737–49.Google Scholar
Ginzburg, K., Koopman, C., Butler, L. D., et al. (2006). Evidence for a dissociative subtype of post-traumatic stress disorder among help-seeking childhood sexual abuse survivors. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 7, 727.Google Scholar
Hansen, M., Ross, J., Armour, C. (2017). Evidence of the dissociative PTSD subtype: a systematic literature review of latent class and profile analytic studies of PTSD. Journal of Affective Disorders, 213, 5969.Google Scholar
Herman, J. L. (1992). Complex PTSD: a syndrome in survivors of prolonged and repeated trauma. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 5, 377–91.Google Scholar
Hinton, D. E., & Lewis-Fernandez, R. (2011). The cross-cultural validity of posttraumatic stress disorder: implications for DSM-5. Depression and Anxiety, 28, 783801.Google Scholar
Hosmer, D. W., & Lemeshow, S. (2000). Applied Logistic Regression, 2nd edn. New York, NY: Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
Janet, P. (1907). The Major Symptoms of Hysteria: Fifteen Lectures Given in the Medical School of Harvard University. New York, NY: MacMillan.Google Scholar
Kamen, C., Bergstrom, J., Koopman, C., Lee, S., & Gore-Felton, C. (2012). Relationships among childhood trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder, and dissociation in men living with HIV/AIDS. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 13, 102–14.Google Scholar
Lanius, R. A., Frewen, P. A., Vermetten, E., & Yehuda, R. (2010a). Fear conditioning and early life vulnerabilities: two distinct pathways of emotional dysregulation and brain dysfunction in PTSD. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 1, 5467.Google Scholar
Lanius, R. A., Vermetten, E., Loewenstein, R. J., et al. (2010b). Emotion modulation in PTSD: clinical and neurobiological evidence for a dissociative subtype. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 167, 640–7.Google Scholar
Lanius, R. A., Brand, B., Vermetten, E., Frewen, P. A., & Spiegel, D. (2012). The dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder: rationale, clinical and neurobiological evidence, and implications. Depression and Anxiety, 29, 701–8.Google Scholar
Leon, A. C., Olfson, M., Portera, L., Farber, L., & Sheehan, D. V. (1997). Assessing psychiatric impairment in primary care with the Sheehan Disability Scale. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 27, 93105.Google Scholar
Lochner, C., Seedat, S., Hemmings, S. M., et al. (2004). Dissociative experiences in obsessive-compulsive disorder and trichotillomania: clinical and genetic findings. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 45, 384–91.Google Scholar
Nock, M. K., Hwang, I., Sampson, N., et al. (2009). Cross-national analysis of the associations among mental disorders and suicidal behavior: findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. PLOS Medicine, 6, e1000123.Google Scholar
Nugent, N. R., Koenen, K. C., & Bradley, B. (2012). Heterogeneity of posttraumatic stress symptoms in a highly traumatized low income, urban, African American sample. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 46, 1576–83.Google Scholar
Putnam, F. W., Carlson, E. B., Ross, C. A., et al. (1996). Patterns of dissociation in clinical and nonclinical samples. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 184, 673–9.Google Scholar
Resick, P. A., Suvak, M. K., Johnides, B. D., Mitchell, K. S., & Iverson, K. M. (2012). The impact of dissociation on PTSD treatment with cognitive processing therapy. Depression and Anxiety, 29, 718–30.Google Scholar
Spiegel, D., Loewenstein, R. J., Lewis-Fernandez, R., et al. (2011). Dissociative disorders in DSM-5. Depression and Anxiety, 28, E1745.Google Scholar
Steuwe, C., Lanius, R. A., & Frewen, P. A. (2012). Evidence for a dissociative subtype of PTSD by latent profile and confirmatory factor analyses in a civilian sample. Depression and Anxiety, 29, 689700.Google Scholar
Strachey, J. (1955). The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, Volume II (1893–1895): Studies on Hysteria. London, England: The Hogarth Press and the Institute of Psycho-Analysis.Google Scholar
van der Hart, O., Nijenhuis, E., Steele, K., & Brown, D. (2004). Trauma-related dissociation: conceptual clarity lost and found. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 38, 906–14.Google Scholar
van Ijzendoorn, M. H., & Schuengel, C. (1996). The measurement of dissociation in normal and clinical populations: meta-analytic validation of the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES). Clinical Psychology Review, 16, 365–82.Google Scholar
Waelde, L. C., Silvern, L., & Fairbank, J. A. (2005). A taxometric investigation of dissociation in Vietnam veterans. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 18, 359–69.Google Scholar
Waller, N., Putnam, F. W., & Carlson, E. B. (1996). Types of dissociation and dissociative types: a taxometric analysis of dissociative experiences. Psychological Methods, 1, 300–21.Google Scholar
Watson, D. (2003). Investigating the construct validity of the dissociative taxon: stability analyses of normal and pathological dissociation. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 112, 298305.Google Scholar
Wolf, E. J., Lunney, C. A., Miller, M. W., et al. (2012a). The dissociative subtype of PTSD: a replication and extension. Depression and Anxiety, 29, 679–88.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wolf, E. J., Miller, M. W., Reardon, A. F., et al. (2012b). A latent class analysis of dissociation and posttraumatic stress disorder: evidence for a dissociative subtype. Archives of General Psychiatry, 69, 698705.Google Scholar
Zucker, M., Spinazzola, J., Blaustein, M., & van der Kolk, B. A. (2006). Dissociative symptomatology in posttraumatic stress disorder and disorders of extreme stress. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 7, 1931.Google Scholar

References

Arata, C. M. (2000). From child victim to adult victim: a model for predicting sexual revictimization. Child Maltreatment, 5, 2838.Google Scholar
Briere, J., Kaltman, S., & Green, B. L. (2008). Accumulated childhood trauma and symptom complexity. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 21, 223–6.Google Scholar
Bromet, E., Sonnega, A., & Kessler, R. C. (1998). Risk factors for DSM-III-R posttraumatic stress disorder: findings from the National Comorbidity Survey. American Journal of Epidemiology, 147, 353–61.Google Scholar
Cloitre, M., Koenen, K. C., Cohen, L. R., & Han, H. (2002). Skills training in affective and interpersonal regulation followed by exposure: a phase-based treatment for PTSD related to childhood abuse. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70, 1067–74.Google Scholar
Cloitre, M., Stolbach, B. C., Herman, J. L., et al. (2009). A developmental approach to complex PTSD: childhood and adult cumulative trauma as predictors of symptom complexity. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 22, 399408.Google Scholar
Cloitre, M., Stovall-McClough, K. C., Nooner, K., et al. (2010). Treatment for PTSD related to childhood abuse: a randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Psychiatry, 167, 915–24.Google Scholar
Cloitre, M., Courtois, C. A., Charuvastra, A., et al. (2011). Treatment of complex PTSD: results of the ISTSS expert clinician survey on best practices. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 24, 615–27.Google Scholar
Cloitre, M., Petkova, E., Wang, J., & Lu, F. (2012). An examination of the influence of a sequential treatment on the course and impact of dissociation among women with PTSD related to childhood abuse. Depression and Anxiety, 29, 709–17.Google Scholar
Cohen, P., & Cohen, J. (1984). The clinician's illusion. Archives of General Psychiatry, 41, 1178–82.Google Scholar
Darves-Bornoz, J. M., Alonso, J., de Girolamo, G., et al. (2008). Main traumatic events in Europe: PTSD in the European study of the epidemiology of mental disorders survey. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 21, 455–62.Google Scholar
Foa, E. B., Hembree, E. A., Cahill, S. P., et al. (2005). Randomized trial of prolonged exposure for posttraumatic stress disorder with and without cognitive restructuring: outcome at academic and community clinics. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73, 953–64.Google Scholar
Follette, V. M., Polusny, M. A., Bechtle, A. E., & Naugle, A. E. (1996). Cumulative trauma: the impact of child sexual abuse, adult sexual assault, and spouse abuse. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 9, 2535.Google Scholar
Herman, J. L. (1992). Complex PTSD: a syndrome in survivors of prolonged and repeated trauma. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 5, 377–91.Google Scholar
Lanius, R. A., Vermetten, E., Loewenstein, R. J., et al. (2010). Emotion modulation in PTSD: clinical and neurobiological evidence for a dissociative subtype. American Journal of Psychiatry, 167, 640–7.Google Scholar
Leon, A. C., Olfson, M., Portera, L., Farber, L., & Sheehan, D. V. (1997). Assessing psychiatric impairment in primary care with the Sheehan Disability Scale. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 27, 93105.Google Scholar
McLaughlin, K. A., Fairbank, J. A., Gruber, M. J., et al. (2010). Trends in serious emotional disturbance among youths exposed to Hurricane Katrina. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 49, 9901000.Google Scholar
Nelson, C., Cyr, K. S., Corbett, B., et al. (2011). Predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and suicidal ideation among Canadian Forces personnel in a National Canadian Military Health Survey. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 45, 1483–8.Google Scholar
Resick, P. A., Nishith, P., Weaver, T. L., Astin, M. C., & Feuer, C. A. (2002). A comparison of cognitive-processing therapy with prolonged exposure and a waiting condition for the treatment of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder in female rape victims. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70, 867–79.Google Scholar
Resick, P. A., Bovin, M. J., Calloway, A. L., et al. (2012). A critical evaluation of the complex PTSD literature: implications for DSM-5. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 25, 241–51.Google Scholar
Roberts, A. L., Austin, S. B., Corliss, H. L., Vandermorris, A. K., & Koenen, K. C. (2010). Pervasive trauma exposure among US sexual orientation minority adults and risk of posttraumatic stress disorder. American Journal of Public Health, 100, 2433–41.Google Scholar
Schnurr, P. P., Friedman, M. J., Engel, C. C., et al. (2007). Cognitive behavioral therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder in women: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA, 297, 820–30.Google Scholar
Smith, P. H., White, J. W., & Holland, L. J. (2003). A longitudinal perspective on dating violence among adolescent and college-age women. American Journal of Public Health, 93, 1104–9.Google Scholar
Suliman, S., Mkabile, S. G., Fincham, D. S., et al. (2009). Cumulative effect of multiple trauma on symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and depression in adolescents. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 50, 121–7.Google Scholar
Turner, H. A., Finkelhor, D., & Ormrod, R. (2010). Poly-victimization in a national sample of children and youth. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 38, 323–30.Google Scholar

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats
×

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats
×

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats
×