Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-x24gv Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-05-28T23:39:12.031Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Chapter 14 - Reproductive Toxicology

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  16 February 2022

David Mortimer
Oozoa Biomedical Inc., Vancouver
Lars Björndahl
Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm
Christopher L. R. Barratt
University of Dundee
José Antonio Castilla
HU Virgen de las Nieves, Granada
Roelof Menkveld
Stellenbosch University, South Africa
Ulrik Kvist
Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm
Juan G. Alvarez
Centro ANDROGEN, La Coruña
Trine B. Haugen
Oslo Metropolitan University
Get access


This short chapter focusses on studies of semen quality, particularly the standardization of methods, the need for training of technicians, and study design.

Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2022

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Pizzol, D, Foresta, C, Garolla, A. Pollutants and sperm quality: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Environ Sci Pollut Res. Scholar
Semet, M, Paci, M, Saïas-Magnan, J, et al. The impact of drugs on male fertility: a review. Andrology 2017; 5: 640–63.Google Scholar
Mortimer, D, Barratt, CL, Björndahl, L, et al. What should it take to describe a substance or product as ‘sperm-safe’. Hum Reprod Update 2013; 19 Suppl 1: i145.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Arzuaga, X, Smith, MT, Catherine, F Gibbons, CF, et al. Proposed key characteristics of male reproductive toxicants as an approach for organizing and evaluating mechanistic evidence in human health hazard assessments. Environ Health Perspect 2019; 127: 65001.Google Scholar
Rahban, R, Nef, S. Regional difference in semen quality of young men: a review on the implication of environmental and lifestyle factors during fetal life and adulthood. Basic Clin Androl 2020; 30: 16. Scholar
Virtanen, HE, Jørgensen, N, Toppari, J. Semen quality in the 21st century. Nat Rev Urol 2017; 14: 120–30.Google Scholar
Sánchez Pozo, C, Mendiola, J, Serrano, M, et al. Proposal of guidelines for the appraisal of SEMen QUAlity studies (SEMQUA). Hum Reprod 2013; 28: 1021.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Björndahl, L, Barratt, CL, Mortimer, D, Jouannet, P.How to count sperm properly’: checklist for acceptability of studies based on human semen analysis. Hum Reprod 2016; 31: 227–32.Google Scholar
Brazil, C, Shanna, SH, Tollner, CR, et al. Study for Future Families Research Group. Quality control of laboratory methods for semen evaluation in a multicenter research study. J Androl 2004; 25: 645–56.Google Scholar
Cooper, TG, Brazil, C, Swan, SH, Overstreet, JW. Ejaculate volume is seriously underestimated when semen is pipetted or decanted into cylinders from the collection vessel. J Androl 2007; 28: 14.Google Scholar
Douglas-Hamilton, DH, Smith, NG, Kuster, CE, et al. Capillary-loaded particle fluid dynamics: effect on estimation of sperm concentration. J Androl 2005; 26: 115–22.Google Scholar
Stokes-Riner, A, Thurston, SW, Brazil, C, et al. One semen sample or 2? Insights from a study of fertile men. J Androl 2007; 28: 3843.Google Scholar
Rylander, L, Wetterstrand, B, Haugen, TB. Single semen analysis as a predictor of semen quality: clinical and epidemiological implications. Asian J Androl 2009; 11: 723–30.Google Scholar
Auger, J, Eustache, F, Ducot, B, et al. Intra- and inter-individual variability in human sperm concentration, motility and vitality assessment during a workshop involving ten laboratories. Hum Reprod 2000; 15: 2360–8.Google Scholar
Björndahl, L, Barratt, CL, Fraser, LR, et al. ESHRE basic semen analysis courses 1995–1999: immediate beneficial effects of standardized training. Hum Reprod 2002; 17: 1299–305.Google Scholar

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats