Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-55597f9d44-jzjqj Total loading time: 1.507 Render date: 2022-08-09T14:21:10.717Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

Chapter 2 - Basic Physiology

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  16 February 2022

David Mortimer
Affiliation:
Oozoa Biomedical Inc., Vancouver
Lars Björndahl
Affiliation:
Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm
Christopher L. R. Barratt
Affiliation:
University of Dundee
José Antonio Castilla
Affiliation:
HU Virgen de las Nieves, Granada
Roelof Menkveld
Affiliation:
Stellenbosch University, South Africa
Ulrik Kvist
Affiliation:
Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm
Juan G. Alvarez
Affiliation:
Centro ANDROGEN, La Coruña
Trine B. Haugen
Affiliation:
Oslo Metropolitan University
Get access

Summary

Describes the anatomy and physiology of the male reproductive tract and sperm production and maturation, including the genetic and endocine aspects that regulate reprouction in the male. Discusses the role of the spermatozoon as a messenger, not just the delivery vehicle for the male haploid genome at fertiliation. Describes sperm transport and storage in the male tract, including the functions of the accessory sex glands, ejaculation and sperm transport within the female tract to the site of fertilization. Describes sperm functional aspects the regulate fertiliing ability, as well as the fertilization process itself.

Type
Chapter
Information
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2022

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Kvist, U. Genetics, ethics and the gametes – on reproductive biology, multiple pregnancies and ICSI. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2000; 79: 913–20.Google ScholarPubMed
Graves, JA. How to evolve new vertebrate sex determining genes. Dev Dynam 2013; 242: 354–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mortimer, D, Cohen, J, Mortimer, ST, et al. Cairo consensus on the IVF laboratory environment and air quality: report of an expert meeting. Reprod Biomed Online 2018; 36: 658–74.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cairo 2018 Consensus Group. There is only one thing that is truly important in an IVF lab: everything. Reprod Biomed Online 2020; 40: 3359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Neill, JD, ed. Knobil and Neill’s Physiology of Reproduction, 3rd edn. Amsterdam: Elsevier Academic Press, 2005.Google Scholar
Nieschlag, E, Behre, HM, Nieschlag, S, eds. Andrology: Male Reproductive Health and Dysfunction, 2nd edn. Berlin and Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag GmbH, 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Holstein, AF, Schulze, W, Davidoff, M. Understanding spermatogenesis is a prerequisite for treatment. Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2003; 1: 107. ©2003 Holstein et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. www.rbej.com/content/1/1/107CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ehmcke, J, Schlatt, S. A revised model for spermatogonial expansion in man: lessons from non-human primates. Reproduction 2006; 132: 673–80.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Westlander, G, Ekerhovd, E, Bergh, C. Low levels of serum inhibin B do not exclude successful sperm recovery in men with nonmosaic Klinefelter syndrome. Fertil Steril 2003; 79 Suppl 3: 1680–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rosenlund, B, Kvist, U, Ploen, L, et al. Percutaneous cutting needle biopsies for histopathological assessment and sperm retrieval in men with azoospermia. Hum Reprod 2001; 16: 2154–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mortimer, D. The functional anatomy of the human spermatozoon: relating ultrastructure and function. Mol Hum Reprod 2018; 24: 567–92.Google ScholarPubMed
Kvist, U, Björndahl, L, Kjellberg, S. Sperm nuclear zinc, chromatin stability, and male fertility. Scanning Microsc 1987; 1: 1241–7.Google ScholarPubMed
Björndahl, L, Kvist, U. Loss of an intrinsic capacity for human sperm chromatin decondensation. Acta Physiol Scand 1985; 124: 189–94.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Björndahl, L, Kvist, U. Sequence of ejaculation affects the spermatozoon as a carrier and its message. Reprod Biomed Online 2003; 7: 440–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Björndahl, L, Kvist, U. A model for the importance of zinc in the dynamics of human sperm chromatin stabilization after ejaculation in relation to sperm DNA vulnerability. Syst Biol Reprod Med 2011; 57: 8692.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Björndahl, L, Kvist, U. Human sperm chromatin stabilization: a proposed model including zinc bridges. Mol Hum Reprod 2010; 16: 23–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ward, WS. The structure of the sleeping genome: implications of sperm DNA organization for somatic cells. J Cell Biochem 1994; 55: 7782.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ward, WS. Function of sperm chromatin structural elements in fertilization and development. Mol Hum Reprod 2010; 16: 30–6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kvist, U, Afzelius, BA, Nilsson, L. The intrinsic mechanism of chromatin decondensation and its activation in human spermatozoa. Devel Growth Differ 1980; 22: 543–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mudrak, O, Tomilin, N, Zalensky, A. Chromosome architecture in the decondensing human sperm nucleus. J Cell Sci 2005; 118: 4541–50.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bal, W, Dyba, M, Szewczuk, Z, et al. Differential zinc and DNA binding by partial peptides of human protamine HP2. Mol Cell Biochem 2001; 222: 97106.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brewer, L, Corzett, M, Balhorn, R. Condensation of DNA by spermatid basic nuclear proteins. J Biol Chem 2002; 277: 38895–900.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sutovsky, P, Song, W-H. Post-fertilisation sperm mitophagy: the tale of Mitochondrial Eve and Steve. Reprod Fertil Dev 2017; 31: 5663.Google Scholar
Birkhead, TR, Immler, S. Making sperm: design, quality control and sperm competition. Soc Reprod Fertil Suppl 2007; 65: 175–81.Google ScholarPubMed
Johnson, L, Varner, DD. Effect of daily spermatozoan production but not age on transit time of spermatozoa through the human epididymis. Biol Reprod 1988; 39: 812–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Johnson, L. A re-evaluation of daily sperm output of men. Fertil Steril 1982; 37: 811–16.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bedford, JM. Enigmas of mammalian gamete form and function. Biol Rev Camb Phil Soc 2004; 79: 429–60.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Richardson, DW, Short, RV. Time of onset of sperm production in boys. J Biosoc Sci Suppl 1978: 5: 1525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mann, T, Lutwak-Mann, C. Male Reproductive Function and Semen. Berlin and Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag GmbH, 1981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eggert-Kruse, W, Reimann-Andersen, J, Rohr, G, et al. Clinical relevance of sperm morphology assessment using strict criteria and relationship with sperm-mucus interaction in vivo and in vitro. Fertil Steril 1995; 63: 612–24.Google ScholarPubMed
Wagner, G, Sjöstrand, NO. Autonomic pharmacology and sexual function. In: Sjösten, A, ed. The Pharmacology and Endocrinology of Sexual Function. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers, 1988.Google Scholar
Amelar, RD, Hotchkiss, RS. The split ejaculate: its use in the management of male infertility. Fertil Steril 1965; 16: 4660.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Björndahl, L, Kjellberg, S, Kvist, U. Ejaculatory sequence in men with low sperm chromatin-zinc. Int J Androl 1991; 14: 174–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kvist, U. Sperm nuclear chromatin decondensation ability. An in vitro study on ejaculated human spermatozoa. Acta Physiol Scand Suppl 1980; 486: 124.Google ScholarPubMed
Kvist, U. Can disturbances of the ejaculatory sequence contribute to male infertility? Int J Androl 1991; 14: 389–93.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Arver, S. Studies on zinc and calcium in human seminal plasma. Acta Physiol Scand Suppl 1982; 507: 121.Google ScholarPubMed
Kjellberg, S, Björndahl, L, Kvist, U. Sperm chromatin stability and zinc binding properties in semen from men in barren unions. Int J Androl 1992; 15: 103–13.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Houska, P, et al. DTT treatment identifies samples with impaired sperm chromatin stability which have increased risk for DNA strand breaks. In: Flanagan, J, Björndahl, L, Kvist, U, eds. Proceedings of the 13th International Symposium on Spermatology, Stockholm, 2018. New York: Springer, 2021 (in press).Google Scholar
Kvist, U. Common challenges for sperm in vitro – causes and consequences. In: Flanagan, J, Björndahl, L, Kvist, U, eds. Proceedings of the 13th International Symposium on Spermatology, Stockholm, 2018. New York: Springer, 2021 (in press).Google Scholar
Holmes, E, Bjorndahl, L, Kvist, U. Possible factors influencing post-ejaculatory changes of the osmolality of human semen in vitro. Andrologia 2019; 51: e13443.Google ScholarPubMed
Holmes, E, Bjorndahl, L, Kvist, U. Post-ejaculatory increase in human semen osmolality in vitro. Andrologia 2019; 51: e13311.Google ScholarPubMed
Holmes, E, Björndahl, L, Kvist, U. Hypotonic challenge reduces human sperm motility through coiling and folding of the tail. Andrologia 2020; 52: e13859.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Holmes, E, et al. Osmolality changes in human semen in vitro and its implications for sperm density and motility. In: Flanagan, J, Björndahl, L, Kvist, U, eds. Proceedings of the 13th International Symposium on Spermatology, Stockholm, 2018. New York: Springer, 2021 (in press).Google Scholar
Makler, A, David, R, Blumenfeld, Z, Better, OS. Factors affecting sperm motility. VII. Sperm viability as affected by change of pH and osmolarity of semen and urine specimens. Fertil Steril 1981; 36: 507–11.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rossato, M, Balercia, G, Lucarelli, G, et al. Role of seminal osmolarity in the reduction of human sperm motility. Int J Androl 2002; 25: 230–5.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Velazquez, A, Pedron, N, Delgado, NM, Rosado, A. Osmolality and conductance of normal and abnormal human seminal plasma. Int J Fertil 1977; 22: 92–7.Google ScholarPubMed
Jeyendran, RS, Van der Ven, HH, Zaneveld, LJ. The hypoosmotic swelling test: an update. Arch Androl 1992; 29: 105–16.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ahlgren, M. Sperm transport to and survival in the human Fallopian tube. Gynecol Invest 1975; 6: 206–14.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mortimer, D, Templeton, AA. Sperm transport in the human female reproductive tract in relation to semen analysis characteristics and time of ovulation. J Reprod Fertil 1982; 64: 401–8.Google ScholarPubMed
Haugen, TB, Egeland, T, Magnus, O. Semen parameters in Norwegian fertile men. J Androl 2006; 27: 6671.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jouannet, P, Ducot, B, Feneux, D, Spira, A. Male factors and the likelihood of pregnancy in infertile couples. I. Study of sperm characteristics. Int J Androl 1988; 11: 379–94.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bostofte, E, Serup, J, Rebbe, H. Relation between sperm count and semen volume, and pregnancies obtained during a twenty-year follow-up period. Int J Androl 1982; 5: 267–75.Google ScholarPubMed
Bonde, JP, Ernst, E, Jensen, TK, et al. Relation between semen quality and fertility: a population-based study of 430 first-pregnancy planners. Lancet 1998; 352: 1172–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Aitken, RJ, Bakos, HW. Should we be measuring DNA damage in human spermatozoa? New light on an old question. Hum Reprod 2021; 36: 1175–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Evenson, DP, Djira, G, Kasperson, K, Christianson, J. Relationships between the age of 25,445 men attending infertility clinics and sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSAVR) defined sperm DNA and chromatin integrity. Fertil Steril 2020; 114: 311–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vaughan, DA, Tirado, E, Garcia, D, et al. DNA fragmentation of sperm: a radical examination of the contribution of oxidative stress and age in 16 945 semen samples. Hum Reprod 2020; 35: 2188–96.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hong, X, Ma, J, Yin, J, et al. The association between vaginal microbiota and female infertility: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Arch Gynecol Obstet 2020; 302: 569–78.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tsonis, O, Gkrozou, F, Paschopoulos, M. Microbiome affecting reproductive outcome in ARTs. J Gynecol Obstet Hum Reprod 2021; 50: 102036.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Suarez, SS, Pacey, AA. Sperm transport in the female reproductive tract. Hum Reprod Update 2006; 12: 2337.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mortimer, D. Sperm transport in the female genital tract. In: Grudzinskas, JG, Yovich, JL, eds. Gametes – The Spermatozoon. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.Google Scholar
Mortimer, ST. A critical review of the physiological importance and analysis of sperm movement in mammals. Hum Reprod Update 1997; 3: 403–39.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kölle, S. From mouse to human: new aspects of sperm transport and fertilization using cutting edge technologies. In: Flanagan, J, Björndahl, L, Kvist, U, eds. Proceedings of the 13th International Symposium on Spermatology, Stockholm, 2018. New York: Springer, 2021 (in press).Google Scholar
Salicioni, AM, Platt, MD, Wertheimer, EV, et al. Signalling pathways involved in sperm capacitation. Soc Reprod Fertil Suppl 2007; 65: 245–59.Google ScholarPubMed
Gadella, BM, Tsai, PS, Boerke, A, Brewis, IA. Sperm head membrane reorganisation during capacitation. Int J Dev Biol 2008; 52: 473–80.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
De Jonge, C. Biological basis for human capacitation—revisited. Hum Reprod Update 2017; 23: 289–99.Google ScholarPubMed
Puga Molina, LC, Luque, GM, Balestrini, PA, et al. Molecular basis of human sperm capacitation. Front Cell Dev Biol 2018. https://doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2018.00072CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bosakova, T, Tockstein, A, Sebkova, N, et al. New insight into sperm capacitation: a novel mechanism of 17β-estradiol signalling. Int J Mol Sci 2018; 19: 4011.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Suarez, SS. Control of hyperactivation in sperm. Hum Reprod Update 2008; 14: 647–57.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Publicover, S, Harper, CV, Barratt, C. [Ca2+]i signalling in sperm–making the most of what you’ve got. Nat Cell Biol 2007; 9: 235–42.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Florman, HM, Jungnickel, MK, Sutton, KA. Regulating the acrosome reaction. Int J Dev Biol 2008; 52: 503–10.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Raterman, D, Springer, MS. The molecular evolution of acrosin in placental mammals. Mol Reprod Dev 2008; 75: 1196–207.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nagyova, E. The biological role of hyaluronan-rich oocyte-cumulus extracellular matrix in female reproduction. Int J Mol Sci 2018; 19: 283.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mortimer, D, Mortimer, ST. The case against intracytoplasmic sperm injection for all. In: Aitken, J, Mortimer, D, Kovacs, G, eds. Male and Sperm Factors That Maximize IVF Success. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2020, 130–40.Google Scholar
Fishman, EL, Jo, K, Nguyen, QPH, et al. A novel atypical sperm centriole is functional during human fertilization. Nature Commun 2018; 9: 2210. https://doi:10.1038/s41467-018-04678-8CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schatten, G. The centrosome and its mode of inheritance: the reduction of the centrosome during gametogenesis and its restoration during fertilization. Dev Biol 1994; 165: 299335.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lehti, MS, Sironen, A. Formation and function of the manchette and flagellum during spermatogenesis. Reproduction 2016; 151: R4354.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats
×

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats
×

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats
×