Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-55597f9d44-mm7gn Total loading time: 0.543 Render date: 2022-08-17T11:31:41.694Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

Six - Societies against the Chief? Re-Examining the Value of “Heterarchy” as a Concept for Studying European Iron Age Societies

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  08 October 2021

T. L. Thurston
Affiliation:
University at Buffalo, State University of New York
Manuel Fernández-Götz
Affiliation:
University of Edinburgh
Get access

Summary

Carole Crumley’s (1979; 1995a; 1995b; 2015) explorations on the applicability of heterarchy as a concept within archaeology have been highly influential in Anglo-American discourse on social organization. Despite largely emerging from Crumley’s work on Iron Age France (Crumley, 1979), however, the relevance of heterarchy as a concept for challenging hierarchical models of European Iron Age societies has largely been restricted to Britain (e.g. Moore, 2007a; Hill, 2011), where evidence for “elites” seems most obviously lacking. Northwestern Iberia has also been a locus for discussion of acephalous and nonhierarchical social forms (Fernández-Posse & Sánchez-Palencia, 1998; González-García et al., 2011; González-Ruibal, 2012; Sastre-Prats, 2011), but one where explicit discussions of heterarchy have rarely featured. More recently, it has been argued that almost all European Iron Age societies can be regarded as “broadly heterarchical” (e.g. Bradley et al., 2015: 260), although the wider implications of this have yet to be explored. What is the place, then, of heterarchy in Iron Age studies? Has it merely become a label for all nonhierarchical models (Fernández-Götz, 2014: 36), creating various Iron Age “societies against the state” (Clastres, 1977), or does it offer ways of exploring not just alternatives to hierarchies but thicker descriptions of how all Iron Age societies worked?

Type
Chapter
Information
Power from Below in Premodern Societies
The Dynamics of Political Complexity in the Archaeological Record
, pp. 125 - 156
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2021

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Álvarez-Peña, A. (2002) Celtas en Asturias. Gijón, Picu Urriellu.Google Scholar
Ayán-Vila, X. M. (2013) Todo queda en casa: Espacio doméstico, poder y división social en la Edad del Hierro del North-western de la península ibérica. In Gutiérrez-Lloret, S. & Grau-Mira, I. (eds.) De la estructura doméstica al espacipo social. Lecturas arqueológicas del uso social del espacio, 3956. Alicante, Universidad de Alicante.Google Scholar
Ayán-Vila, X. M. (2015) Territorios en fuga: estudios críticos sobre las fortificaciones de la Edad del Hierro del Noroeste. In Rodríguez, O., Portilla, R., Sastre, J. C., & Fuentes, P. (eds.) Fortificaciones en la Edad del Hierro: Control de los recursos y el territorio, 3150. Valladolid, Glyphos.Google Scholar
Bermejo-Barrera, J. C. (1981) La función guerrera en la mitología de la Gallaecia antigua. Contribución a la sociología de la cultura castreña. Zephyrus 32–33, 263275.Google Scholar
Bevan, B. 1999. Northern Exposure: Interpretative Devolution and the Iron Age in Britain. Leicester, Leicester Monograph 4.Google Scholar
Bevan, A., College, S., Fuller, D., et al. (2017) Holocene fluctuations in human population demonstrate repeated links to food production and climate. Proceedings National Academy of Sciences of the USA 114 (49), E10524-E10531.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Boehm, C. (1984) Blood Revenge. The Anthropology of Feuding in Montenegro and other Tribal Societies. Lawrence, University Press of Kansas.Google Scholar
Boehm, C. (1993) Egalitarian behavior and reverse dominance hierarchy. Current Anthropology 34 (3), 227254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bradley, R., Haselgrove, C., Vander Linden, M., & Webley, L. (2015) The Later Prehistory of North-Western Europe: The Evidence of Development-Led Fieldwork. Oxford, Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brañas, R. (1995) Indíxenas e Romanos na Galicia Céltica. Santiago de Compostela, Librería Follas Novas.Google Scholar
Bruck, J. & Goodman, M. (1999) Introduction. In Brück, J. & Goodman, M. (eds.), Making Places in the Prehistoric World: Themes in Settlement Archaeology. UCL Press, London, 119.Google Scholar
Camino-Mayor, J. (2000) Las murallas compartimentadas en los castros de Asturias: bases para un debate. Archivo Español de Arqueología 73, 2742.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Camino-Mayor, J. (2003) Los castros de la Ría de Villaviciosa: contribución a las interpretaciones de la Edad del Hierro en Asturias. Trabajos de Prehistoria 60, 159171.Google Scholar
Carballo-Arceo, L. X. & Fábregas-Valcarce, R. (2006) Variacións rexionais nas sociedades pre e protohistóricas galaicas. In Álvarez, R., Dubert, F., & Sousa, X. (eds.) Lingua e Territorio, 6791. Santiago de Compostela, Consello da Cultura Galega.Google Scholar
Celis-Sánchez, J. (1996) Origen, desarrollo y cambio en la Edad de Hierro de las tieras leonesas. In ArqueoLeón. Historia de León a través de la arqueología, 4167. León, Junta de Castilla y León.Google Scholar
Chayanov, A. (1981) [1924] Sobre la teoría de los sistemas económicos no capitalistas. In Chayanov y la teoría de la economía campesina, 4979. México DF, Fondo de Cultura Económica.Google Scholar
Clastres, P. (1977) Society against the State (trans. by Robert Hurley). Oxford, Blackwell.Google Scholar
Collis, J. (2000) “Celtic” oppida. In Hansen, M. H. (ed.) A Comparative Study of Thirty City-State Cultures. An Investigation Conducted by the Copenhagen Polis Centre, 229240. Copenhagen, CA, Reitzels Forlag.Google Scholar
Collis, J. (2007) The polities of Gaul, Britain and Ireland in the Late Iron Age. In Haselgrove, C. & Moore, T. (eds.) The Later Iron Age in Britain and Beyond, 523528. Oxford, Oxbow Books.Google Scholar
Costa-García, J. M. (2018) Rediscovering the Roman Conquest of the North-Western Iberian Peninsula. In Fernández-Götz, M. & Roymans, N. (eds.) Conflict Archaeology: Materialities of Collective Violence from Prehistory to Late Antiquity, 141151. New York, Routledge.Google Scholar
Creighton, J. (2000) Coins and Power in Late Iron Age Britain. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Criado-Boado, F. (1993) Límites y posibilidades de la arqueología del paisaje. SPAL 2, 955.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cripps, L. (2007) Resituating the Iron Age in Cornwall and Devon: New perspectives from the settlement record. In Haselgrove, C. & Moore, T. (eds.), Later Iron Age in Britain and Beyond, 140155. Oxford, Oxbow Books.Google Scholar
Crowder, M. (1964) Indirect rule: French and British style. Africa: Journal of the International African Institute 34 (3), 197205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Crumley, C. (1979) Three locational models: An epistemological assessment for Anthropology and Archaeology. Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory 2, 141173.Google Scholar
Crumley, C. (1995a) Heterarchy and the analysis of complex societies. Archaeological Papers of the American Anthropological Association 6, 15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Crumley, C. (1995b) Building an historical ecology of Gaulish polities. In Arnold, B. & Gibson, D. B. (eds.) Celtic Chiefdom, Celtic State: The Evolution of Complex Social Systems in Prehistoric Europe, 2633. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Crumley, C. (2015) Heterarchy. In Scott, R. A. & Kosslyn, S. M. (eds.) Emerging Trends in the Social and Behavioral Sciences: An Interdisciplinary, Searchable, and Linkable Resource. Hoboken, Wiley.Google Scholar
Cunliffe, B. (1984) Danebury. An Iron Age hillfort in Hampshire. Vol 2. York, CBA Research Report 52.Google Scholar
Cunliffe, B. (1988) Greeks, Romans and Barbarians. London, Batsford.Google Scholar
Cunliffe, B. (1991) Iron Age Communities in Britain (3rd ed.). London, Routledge.Google Scholar
DeMarrais, E. (2013) Understanding heterarchy: Crafting and social projects in pre-Hispanic northwest Argentina. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 23 (3), 345362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Demoule, J.-P. (1999) Chronologie et société dans les nécropolis celtiques de la culture Aisne-Marne du Vie au IIIe siècle avant notre ère. Revue Archeologie de Picardie Numero special 15.Google Scholar
Erskine, A. (1991) Hellenistic monarchy and Roman political invective. The Classical Quarterly 41 (1), 106120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fábrega-Álvarez, P. (2005) Tiempo para el espacio. Poblamiento y territorio en la Edad del Hierro en la comarca de Ortegal (A Coruña, Galicia). Complutum 16, 125148.Google Scholar
Farci, C., Martinón-Torres, M., & González-Álvarez, D. (2017) Bronze production in the Iron Age of the Iberian Peninsula: The case of El Castru, Vigaña (Asturias, North-western Spain). Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 11, 338–51.Google Scholar
Fernández-Götz, M. (2014) Identity and Power: The Transformation of Iron Age Societies in Northeast Gaul. Amsterdam, Amsterdam University Press.Google Scholar
Fernández-Ochoa, C. & Morillo-Cerdán, A. (2015) La romanización atlántica: modelo o modelos de implantación romana en el noroeste peninsular. Portugalia, Nova Série 36, 183197.Google Scholar
Fernández-Posse, M. D. (1998) La Investigación Protohistórica en la Meseta y Galicia. Madrid, Síntesis.Google Scholar
Fernández-Posse, M. D., Montero-Ruiz, I., Sánchez-Palencia, F. J., & Rovira-Llorens, S. (1993) Espacio y metalurgia en la Cultura Castreña: La zona arqueológica de Las Médulas. Trabajos de Prehistoria 50, 197220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fernández-Posse, M. D. & Sánchez-Palencia, F. J. (1988) La Corona y El Castro de Corporales II. Madrid, Ministerio de Cultura (Excavaciones Arqueológicas en España 153).Google Scholar
Fernández-Posse, M. D. & Sánchez-Palencia, F. J. (1998) Las comunidades campesinas en la Cultura Castreña. Trabajos de Prehistoria 55, 127150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fitzpatrick, A. (2001) Cross-Channel exchange, Hengistbury Head, and the end of hillforts. In Collis, J (ed.) Society and Settlement in Iron Age Europe. Actes du XVIIIe colloque de l’AFEAF, Winchester 1994, 8297. Sheffield, JR Collis Publications.Google Scholar
Fortes, M. & Pritchard, E. E. (1940) Introduction. In Fortes, M. & Pritchard, E. E. (eds.) African Political Systems, 1–24. Oxford, Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
García-Quintela, M. V. (1993) Viriato y la ideología trifuncional indoeuropea. Polis: Revista de ideas y formas políticas de la Antigüedad clásica 5, 111138.Google Scholar
García-Quintela, M. V. (2002) La Organización Socio-Política de los Populi del Noroeste de la Península Ibérica: Un Estudio de Antropología Política Histórica Comparada. Santiago de Compostela, Laboratorio de Arqueoloxía e Formas Culturais (TAPA 28).Google Scholar
Geertz, C. (1973) The Interpretation of Cultures: Selected Essays, 330. New York, Basic Books.Google Scholar
Gilman, A. (1993) Cambio cultural y contacto en la Prehistoria de la Europa mediterránea. Trabajos de Prehistoria 50, 103111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gilman, A. (1997) Cómo valorar los sistemas de propiedad a partir de los datos arqueológicos. Trabajos de Prehistoria 54, 8192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
González-Álvarez, D. (2016) Poblamiento y Antropización de la Montaña Occidental Cantábrica Durante la Prehistoria Reciente: Una Aproximación desde la Arqueología del Paisaje. Madrid, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (PhD dissertation available at: http://eprints.ucm.es/39363/).Google Scholar
González-Álvarez, D. & Alonso-González, P. (2013) The “Celtic-Barbarian Assemblage”: Archaeology and cultural memory in the Fiestas de Astures y Romanos, Astorga, Spain. Public Archaeology 12 (3), 155180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
González-García, F. J. (2009) Between warriors and champions: Warfare and social change in the later prehistory of the North-Western Iberian Peninsula. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 28 (1), 5976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
González-García, F. J. (2017) Exploring alternative pathways to social complexity in the European Iron Age: The Northwestern Iberian peninsula as a case study. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 27 (2), 295311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
González-García, F. J., Parcero-Oubiña, C., & Ayán-Vila, X. M. (2011) Iron Age Societies against the State: An Account of the Emergence of the Iron Age in North-western Iberia. In Moore, T. & Armada-Pita, X. L. (eds.) Atlantic Europe in the First Millennium bc: Crossing the Divide, 285301. Oxford, Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
González-Ruibal, A. (2003) Restoring Ontological Security: Roman and Native Objects in Early Roman Gallaecia (North-western Iberia). In Carr, G., Swift, E., & Weekes, J. (eds.), TRAC 2002: Proceedings of the Twelfth Annual Theoretical Roman Archaeology Conference, 2947. Oxford, Oxbow Books.Google Scholar
González-Ruibal, A. (2004) Facing two seas: Mediterranean and Atlantic contacts in the North-West of Iberia in the First Millennium bc. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 23(3), 287317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
González-Ruibal, A. (2006a) House societies vs. kinship-base societies: An archaeological case from Iron Age Europe. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 25 (1), 144173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
González-Ruibal, A. (2006b) Past the last outpost: Punic merchants in the Atlantic Ocean (5th–1st centuries bc). Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 19 (1), 121150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
González-Ruibal, A. (2006–2007) Galaicos: Poder y Comunidad en el Noroeste de la Península Ibérica (1200 a.C. – 50 d.C.). A Coruña, Museu Arqueolóxico e Histórico Castelo de San Antón (Brigantium; 18–19).Google Scholar
González-Ruibal, A. (2012) The politics of identity: Ethnicity and the economy of power in Iron Age northern Iberia. In Cifani, G. & Stoddart, S. (eds.) Landscape, Ethnicity and Identity in the Archaic Mediterranean Area, 245266. Oxford, Oxbow Books.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harris, O. (2014) (Re)assembling communities. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 21, 7697.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haselgrove, C. & Moore, T. (2007) New narratives of the Later Iron Age. In Haselgrove, C. & Moore, T. (eds.), The Later Iron Age in Britain and Beyond, 115. Oxford, Oxbow Books.Google Scholar
Hill, J. D. (1989) Re-thinking the Iron Age. Scottish Archaeological Review 6, 1624.Google Scholar
Hill, J. D. (1995) How should we understand Iron Age societies and hillforts? A contextual study from Southern Britain. In Hill, J. D. & Cumberpatch, C. G. (eds.) Different Iron Ages. Studies on the Iron Age in Temperate Europe, 4566. Oxford, Tempvs Reparatvm (BAR International Series 602).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hill, J. D. (1996) Hillforts and the Iron Age of Wessex. In Champion, T. & Collis, J. (eds.), The Iron Age in Britain and Ireland: Recent Trends, 95116. Sheffield, Sheffield University Press.Google Scholar
Hill, J. D. (2006) Are we any closer to understanding how later Iron Age societies worked (or did not work)? In Haselgrove, C. (ed.) Celtes et Gaulois, l’Archéologie face à l’Histoire, 4: les mutations de la fin de l’âge du Fer. Actes de la table ronde de Cambridge, 7–8 juillet 2005, 169179. Glux-en-Glenne: Bibracte, Centre archéologique européen.Google Scholar
Hill, J. D. (2007) The dynamics of social change in Later Iron Age eastern and south-eastern England c 300 BC - AD 43. In Haselgrove, C and Moore, T (eds.) The Later Iron Age in Britain and Beyond, 1640. Oxford, Oxbow Books.Google Scholar
Hill, J. D. (2011) How did British Middle and Late Pre-Roman Iron Age societies work (if they did)? In Moore, T. & Armada-Pita, X. L. (eds.) Atlantic Europe in the First Millennium bc. Crossing the Divide, 242263. Oxford, Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Hingley, R. (1984) Towards a social analysis in archaeology: Celtic society in the Iron Age of the upper Thames valley. In Cunliffe, B. & Miles, D. (eds.) Aspects of the Iron Age in Central Southern Britain, 7288. Oxford, OUCA Monograph 2.Google Scholar
Hunter, F. (2005) The image of the warrior in the British Iron Age. Coin iconography in context. In Haselgrove, C. & Wigg-Wolf, D. (eds.) Iron Age Coinage and Ritual Practices, 4368. Mainz, Verlag Phillip Von Zabern (Studien zu Fundmünzen der Antike band 20).Google Scholar
James, S. (1993) Exploring the World of the Celts. London, Thames and Hudson.Google Scholar
Jedrej, M. C. (1995) Ingessana: The Religious Institutions of a People of the Sudan-Ethiopian Borderland. Leiden, Brill.Google Scholar
Jordá-Pardo, J. F., Rey, J., Picón, I., Abad, E., & Marín-Suárez, C. (2009) Radiocarbon and chronology of the Iron Age hillforts of northwestern Iberia. In Karl, R. & Leskovar, J. (eds.) Interpretierte Eisenzeiten. Fallstudien, Methoden, Theorie. Tagungsbeiträge der 3 Linzer Gespräche zur interpretativen Eisenzeitarchäologie, 6986. Linz, Oberösterreichischen Landesmuseum.Google Scholar
Karl, R. (2011) Becoming Welsh: Modelling first millennium bc societies in Wales and the Celtic context. In Moore, T. & Armada-Pita, X. L. (eds.) Atlantic Europe in the First Millennium bc Crossing the Divide, 336357. Oxford, Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Kohring, S. & Wynne-Jones, S. (2007) Socialising Complexity: Structure, Interaction and Power in Archaeological Discourse. Oxford, Oxbow Books.Google Scholar
Kohring, S. (2012) A scalar perspective to social complexity: Complex relations and complex questions. In Kienlin, T. L. & Zimmerman, A. (eds.) Beyond Elites: Alternatives to Hierarchical Systems in Modelling Social Formations, 327338. Bonn, R. Habelt.Google Scholar
Leins, I. (2008) What can be inferred from the regional stylistic diversity of Iron Age coinage? In Garrow, D., Gosden, C., & Hill, J. D. (eds.) Rethinking Celtic Art, 100112. Oxford, Oxbow Books.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lock, G. (2011) Hillforts, emotional metaphors and the good life: A response to Armit, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 77, 355362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marín-Suárez, C. (2011a) De nómadas a castreños. Arqueología del primer milenio antes de la era en el sector centro-occidental cantábrico. Madrid, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (PhD dissertation available at: http://eprints.ucm.es/14435/).Google Scholar
Marín-Suárez, C. (2011b) La Edad del Hierro en el occidente cantábrico: de la cultura arqueológica al grupo arqueológico. Férvedes 7, 123132.Google Scholar
Marín-Suárez, C. & González-Álvarez, D. (2011) La romanización del Occidente Cantábrico: de la violencia física a la violencia simbólica. Férvedes 7, 197206.Google Scholar
McIntosh, S. (1995) Pathways to complexity: An African perspective. In McIntosh, S. (ed.) Beyond Chiefdoms. Pathways to Complexity in Africa, 930. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Moore, T. (2007a) Perceiving communities: Exchange, landscapes and social networks in the later Iron Age of western Britain. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 26(1), 79102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moore, T. (2007b) The early to later Iron Age transition in the Severn-Cotswolds: enclosing the household? In Haselgrove, C. & Pope, R. (eds.) The Earlier Iron Age in Britain and the Near Continent, 259278. Oxford, Oxbow Books.Google Scholar
Moore, T. (2011) Detribalizing the later prehistoric past: Concepts of tribes in Iron Age and Roman studies. Journal of Social Archaeology 11(2), 334360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moore, T. (2017) Alternatives to urbanism? Reconsidering oppida and the urban question in Late Iron Age Europe. Journal of World Prehistory 30(3), 281300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moore, T. & Armada-Pita, X. L. (2011) Crossing the divide: Opening a dialogue on approaches to Western European first millennium bc studies. In Moore, T. & Armada-Pita, X. L. (eds.) Atlantic Europe in the First Millennium bc. Crossing the Divide, 377. Oxford, Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Mytum, H. (2018) The Iron Age today. Internet Archaeology 48.Google Scholar
Oosthuizen, S. (2016) Beyond hierarchy: Archaeology, common rights and social identity. World Archaeology 48 (3), 381394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Parcero-Oubiña, C. (1995) Elementos para el estudio de los paisajes castreños del Noroeste peninsular. Trabajos de Prehistoria 52, 127144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Parcero-Oubiña, C. (2000) Tres para dos. Las formas de poblamiento en la Edad del Hierro del Noroeste ibérico. Trabajos de Prehistoria 57, 7595.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Parcero-Oubiña, C. (2002) La construcción del paisaje social en la Edad del Hierro del Noroeste ibérico. Ortigueira, F. M. Ortegalia.Google Scholar
Parcero-Oubiña, C. (2003) Looking forward in anger: Social and political transformations in the Iron Age of the north-western Iberian Peninsula. European Journal of Archaeology 6 (3), 267299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Parcero-Oubiña, C. & Ayán-Vila, X. M. (2009) Almacenamiento, unidades domésticas y comunidades en el Noroeste prerromano. In García-Huerta, R. & Rodríguez-González, D. (eds.), Sistemas de almacenamiento entre los pueblos prerromanos peninsulares, 367422. Cuenca, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha.Google Scholar
Parcero-Oubiña, C., Ayán-Vila, X. M., Fábrega-Álvarez, P. & Teira-Brión, A. M. (2007) Arqueología, Paisaje y Sociedad. In González-García, F. J. (ed.) Los pueblos de la Galicia céltica, 131258. Madrid, Akal.Google Scholar
Pauketat, T. (2007) Chiefdoms and Other Archaeological Delusions. Lanham, Altamira Press.Google Scholar
Peralta-Labrador, E. (1993) La tesera cántabra de Monte Cildá (Olleros de Pisuerga, Palencia). Complutum 4, 223226.Google Scholar
Prieto-Martínez, M. P., Álvarez-González, Y., Fernández-Götz, M. A., et al.(2017) The contribution of Bayesian analysis to the chronology of Iron Age north-western Iberia: New data from San Cibrán de Las (Galicia, Spain). Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 16, 397408.Google Scholar
Radcliffe-Brown, A. R. (1940) Preface. In Fortes, M. & Pritchard, E. E. (eds.) African Political Systems, xixxiii. Oxford, Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Romero-Carnicero, F., Sanz-Mínguez, C., & Álvarez-Sanchís, J. R. (2008) El primer milenio A.C. en las tierras del interior peninsular. In Gracia-Alonso, F. (ed.) De Iberia a Hispania, 649731. Madrid, Ariel.Google Scholar
Roscoe, P. (2012) Before elites: the political capacities of Big Men. In Kienlin, T. L. & Zimmerman, A. (eds.), Before Elites: Alternatives to Hierarchical Systems in Modelling Social Formations, 4154. Bonn, Verlag Dr. Rudolf Habelt GmbH.Google Scholar
Rouse, J. (2006) Power/Knowledge. In Gutting, G. (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Foucault, 95122. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Ruiz-Zapatero, G. (2009) Casas, comunidades y tipos de sociedad en el área céltica de la Peninsula Ibérica. In Belarte, M. C. (ed.) L’espai domèstic i l’organització de la societat a la protohistòria de la Mediterrània Occidental (Ier mil·leni aC), 225243. Barcelona, Universitat de Barcelona.Google Scholar
Sánchez-Palencia, F. J. & Fernández-Posse, M. D. (1985) La Corona y El Castro de Corporales I. Truchas (León). Madrid, Ministerio de Cultura (Excavaciones Arqueológicas en España 141).Google Scholar
Sastre-Prats, I. (2001) Las Formaciones Sociales Rurales de la Asturia Romana. Madrid, Ediciones Clásicas.Google Scholar
Sastre-Prats, I. (2002) Forms of social inequality in the Castro Culture. European Journal of Archaeology 5 (2), 213248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sastre-Prats, I. (2008) Community, identity, and conflict. Iron Age warfare in the Iberian northwest. Current Anthropology 49 (6), 10211051.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sastre-Prats, I. (2011) Social inequality during the Iron Age: Interpretation models. In Moore, T. & Armada-Pita, X. L. (eds.) Atlantic Europe in the First Millennium bc. Crossing the Divide, 264284. Oxford, Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Schorman, E. M. (2014) Networks of power in archaeology. Annual Review of Anthropology 43, 167182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schulten, A. (1943) Los cántabros y astures y su guerra con Roma. Madrid, Espasa-Calpe.Google Scholar
Shanin, T. (1972) The Awkward Class. Political Sociology of Peasantry in a Developing Society: Russia 1910–1925. Oxford, Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
Sharples, N. (2007) Building communities and creating identities in the first millennium bc. In Haselgrove, C. & Pope, R. (eds.) The Earlier Iron Age in Britain and the Near Continent, 174184. Oxford, Oxbow Books.Google Scholar
Sharples, N. (2010) Social Relations in Later Prehistory. Wessex in the First Millennium bc. Oxford, Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
da Silva, A. C. F. (2003) Expressões Guerreiras da Sociedade Castreja. Madrider Mitteilungen 44, 4150.Google Scholar
Souvatzi, S. (2007) Social complexity is not the same as hierarchy. In Kohring, S. & Wynne-Jones, S. (eds.) Socialising Complexity: Structure, Interaction and Power in Archaeological Discourse, 3759. Oxford, Oxbow Books.Google Scholar
Swartz, M. J., Turner, V. W., & Tuden, A. (1966) Political anthropology: An introduction. In Swartz, M. J., Turner, V. W., & Tuden, A. (eds.) Political Anthropology, 141. Chicago, Aldine Publishing.Google Scholar
Thurston, T. (2010) Bitter arrows and generous gifts: What was a king in the European Iron Age? In Price, T. D and Feinman, G (eds.) Pathways to Power. New Perspectives on the Emergence of Social Inequality, 193254. New York, Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Torres-Martínez, J. F. (2011) El Cantábrico en la Edad del Hierro. Medio Ambiente, Economía, Territorio y Sociedad. Madrid, Real Academia de la Historia (Bibliotheca Archaeologica Hispana 35).Google Scholar
Tullett, A. (2010) Community – finding the middle ground in studies of prehistoric social organisation. In Sterry, M., Tullett, A., & Ray, N. (eds.) In Search of the Iron Age. Proceedings of the Iron Age Research Student Seminar 2008, 6182. Leicester, Leicester Archaeology Monograph.Google Scholar
Vicent, J. M. (1991) Fundamentos teórico-metodológicos para un programa de investigación arqueo-geográfica. In López, P. (ed.) El Cambio Cultural del IV al II Milenios a.C. en la Comarca Noroeste de Murcia, vol. I, 31117. Madrid, CSIC.Google Scholar
Villa-Valdés, A. (2007a) El Chao Samartín (Grandas de Salime) y el paisaje fortificado en la Asturias Protohistórica. In Moret, P. & Berrocal-Rangel, L. (eds.), Paisajes fortificados en la Protohistoria de la Península Ibérica, 191212. Madrid, Real Academia de la Historia.Google Scholar
Villa Valdés, A. (2007b) Mil años de poblados fortificados en Asturias (siglos IX a.C.-II d.C.). In Fernández-Tresguerres, J. (ed.) Astures y romanos: nuevas perspectivas, 2760. Oviedo, RIDEA.Google Scholar
Weber, M. (1978) Economy and Society. Trans./edited by Guenther Roth and Claus Wittich. Berkeley, University of California Press.Google Scholar
Wigley, A. (2007) Rooted to spot: the “smaller enclosures” of the later first millennium bc in the central Welsh Marches. In Haselgrove, C. & Moore, T. (eds.) Later Iron Age in Britain and Beyond, 173189. Oxford, Oxbow Books.Google Scholar
Wolf, E. (1966) Peasants. Englewood Cliffs, Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
Wolf, E. (1990) Distinguished lecture: Facing power-old insights, new questions. American Anthropologist 92, 586595.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wolf, E. (1999) Envisioning Power. Ideologies of Dominance and Crisis. Berkeley, University of California Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats
×

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats
×

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats
×