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5 - Plagues, Populations and Survival

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  24 March 2017

Steven J. O'brien
Affiliation:
Cornell University
Jonathan L. Heeney
Affiliation:
University of Cambridge
Sven Friedemann
Affiliation:
University of Bristol
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Summary

The rush of whole genome sequences spurred by the human genome project has heralded a new way to explore unknown events in our pre-history. Using gene sequences from the genome we are able to mine the vast amount of genetic information coming out of genome sequences from humans and animal species. Certain genetic patterns or ‘footprints’ allow us to deduce ancient defining events in the natural history of a species. Just as early palaeontologists dug up the fossil remains of extinct species, ‘genetic archaeologists’ are beginning to reconstruct the origins of genomic patterns and to link them to ancient demographic events. Modern diseases that clog wards in the world's hospitals represent a major challenge to human health. Historically, such diseases were a selective regulator on a species, the genetically strong individuals survived an infectious disease outbreak and the weak perished. Those that survived passed on the good, beneficial genes to their descendants who later had the right genetics that gave their immune systems an advantage the next time the same type of disease came along. Past interactions between pathogens which had genes that allowed them to quickly adapt finely tuned ever-evolving immune defences that we and other species have developed to protect us from pathogenic organisms. This represents a biological puzzlement that is only beginning to be deciphered. Here, I illustrate how we learn of the acquired, hidden lessons of survival, adaptation and genome evolution by examining natural history from within the genomes of animals and humans. In so doing, we are able to provide an early glimpse of the coming discipline of genomic archaeology. I will illustrate this with examples from ‘The Plague’ (Yesinia pestis, the cause of the black death), SARS and HIV/AIDS. Furthermore, I will describe how scientists have been able to track the emergence and progression of deadly outbreaks, sometimes revealing unfathomed threats to the very existence of a population or the whole species. Examples will include how this new science is able to unlock medical secrets that someday may be used to prevent the extinction of a species.

Infectious diseases, genomes and the arms race

The delicate balance between host species and their pathogens is akin to a deadly arms race, waged fiercely every day multiplied by individuals and populations in different geographical settings. These events are to a different extent recapitulated over the approximately 62,000 species of vertebrates that survive on earth today.

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Plagues , pp. 114 - 135
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2017

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