Published online by Cambridge University Press: 22 May 2022
In this session, diaphragmatic breathing is taught to illustrate that normal breathing relieves anxiety, and hyperventilation is used to show that abnormal breathing can induce symptoms but that those symptoms are not dangerous. The patient is educated about breathing and educated about trauma associations to and catastrophic cognitions about symptoms caused by hyperventilation and chest breathing, such as chest tightness, dizziness, and cold extremities. The patient is made to hyperventilate to educate about breathing-induced symptoms, to create positive reassociations to dizziness and other sensations, to address trauma associations to the symptoms, to reduce fear of the hyperventilation-induced symptoms, and to act as interoceptive exposure that creates new nonthreating associations to the symptoms.
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