Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Hostname: page-component-7479d7b7d-wxhwt Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-07-15T14:56:52.896Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Part I - Migration

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  12 November 2021

Tesseltje de Lange
Affiliation:
Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen
Willem Maas
Affiliation:
York University, Toronto
Annette Schrauwen
Affiliation:
Universiteit van Amsterdam
Get access

Summary

Image of the first page of this content. For PDF version, please use the ‘Save PDF’ preceeding this image.'
Type
Chapter
Information
Money Matters in Migration
Policy, Participation, and Citizenship
, pp. 17 - 146
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2021

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

References

Aleinikoff, T. A. (2007). International legal norms on migration: Substance without architecture. In Cholewinski, R., Perruchoud, R., & Macdonald, E., eds., International Migration Law: Developing Paradigms and Key Challenges, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 467479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Andrew, J. & Eden, D. (2011). Offshoring and outsourcing the ‘unauthorised’: The annual reports of an anxious state. Policy and Society, 30(3), 221234.Google Scholar
Andrijasevic, R. & Walters, W. (2010). The International Organization for Migration and the international government of borders. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 28(6), 977999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bayram, A. B. & Graham, E. R. (2017). Financing the United Nations: Explaining variation in how donors provide funding to the UN. The Review of International Organizations, 12(3), 421459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Betts, A. (2011). Introduction: Global migration governance. In Betts, A., ed., Global Migration Governance, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 234.Google Scholar
Bourdieu, P. (1991). Language and Symbolic Power, Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
Brachet, J. (2016). Policing the desert: The IOM in Libya beyond war and peace. Antipode, 48(2), 272292.Google Scholar
Bradley, M. (2020). The International Organization for Migration: Challenges, Commitments, Complexities, New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Broome, A. & Seabrooke, L. (2012). Seeing like an international organisation. New Political Economy, 17(1), 116.Google Scholar
Browne, S. (2017). Vertical funds: New forms of multilateralism. Global Policy, 8, 3645.Google Scholar
Caillault, C. (2012). The implementation of coherent migration management through IOM programs in Morocco, in Geiger, M., & Pécoud, A. (eds.), The New Politics of International Mobility. Migration Management and Its Discontents, pp. 133156. Osnabrück: Institut für Migrationsforschung und Interkulturelle Studien (IMIS)Google Scholar
Carlin, J. A. (1989). Refugee Connection: Lifetime of Running a Lifeline, Basingstoke: Macmillan Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chamie, J. & Mirkin, B.. (2013). Dodging international migration at the United Nations. PassBlue. Retrieved from www.passblue.com/2013/01/29/dodging-international-migration-at-the-united-nations.Google Scholar
Chief Executives Board for Coordination (CEB). (2018). Agency Revenue by Revenue Type | United Nations System Chief Executives Board for Coordination. Retrieved from www.unsystem.org/content/FS-A00-01.Google Scholar
Collyer, M. (2012). Deportation and the micropolitics of exclusion: The rise of removals from the UK to Sri Lanka. Geopolitics, 17(2), 276292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dingwerth, K. & Pattberg, P. (2009). Actors, arenas, and issues in global governance. In Whitman, J. (ed.), Palgrave Advances in Global Governance, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 4165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ege, J. & Bauer, M. W. (2017). How financial resources affect the autonomy of international public administrations. Global Policy, 8, 7584.Google Scholar
Elie, J. (2010). The historical roots of cooperation between the UN High Commissioner for Refugees and the International Organization for Migration. Global Governance: A Review of Multilateralism and International Organizations, 16(3), 345360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Frowd, P. M. (2014). The field of border control in Mauritania. Security Dialogue, 45(3), 226241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Frowd, P. M. (2018a). Developmental borderwork and the International Organization for Migration. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 44(10), 16561672.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Frowd, P. M. (2018b). Security at the Borders: Transnational Practices and Technologies in West Africa, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. DOI: 10.1017/9781108556095.Google Scholar
Gabriel, C. & Macdonald, L. (2018). After the International Organization for Migration: Recruitment of Guatemalan temporary agricultural workers to Canada. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 44(10), 17061724.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Geiger, M. (2010). Mobility, development, protection, EU-integration! The IOM’s national migration strategy for Albania. In Geiger, M. & Pécoud, A. (eds.), The Politics of International Migration Management, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 141159.Google Scholar
Goetz, K. H. & Patz, R. (2017). Resourcing international organizations: Resource diversification, organizational differentiation, and administrative governance. Global Policy, 8, 514.Google Scholar
Graham, E. R. (2015). Money and multilateralism: How funding rules constitute IO governance. International Theory, 7(1), 162194.Google Scholar
Graham, E. R. (2017a). Follow the money: How trends in financing are changing governance at international organizations. Global Policy, 8, 1525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Graham, E. R. (2017b). The institutional design of funding rules at international organizations: Explaining the transformation in financing the United Nations. European Journal of International Relations, 23(2), 365390.Google Scholar
Gray, J. (2014). Donor Funding and Institutional Expansions in International Organizations: Failures of Legitimacy and Efficiency. Unpublished Manuscript, University of Pennsylvania. https://scholar.google.com/scholar_lookup?hl=en&publication_year=2014&author=J+Gray&title=Donor+funding+and+institutional+expansions+in+international+organizations%3A+Failures+of+legitimacy+and+efficiencyGoogle Scholar
Hall, N. (2015). Money or mandate? Why international organizations engage with the climate change regime. Global Environmental Politics, 15(2), 7997.Google Scholar
Heldt, E. & Schmidtke, H. (2017). Measuring the empowerment of international organizations: The evolution of financial and staff capabilities. Global Policy, 8, 5161.Google Scholar
Hüfner, K. (2017). The financial crisis of UNESCO after 2011: Political reactions and organizational consequences. Global Policy, 8, 96101.Google Scholar
IOM. (2002). Programme and Budget for 2003, MC/2083.Google Scholar
IOM. (2003a). IOM – UN Relationship: Summary Report of the Working Group on Institutional Arrangements, MC/INF/263.Google Scholar
IOM. (2003b). Review of the Organizational Structure of the International Organization for Migration, MC/2287.Google Scholar
IOM. (2005) Financial Report for the Year Ended 31 December 2005, MC/2196Google Scholar
IOM. (2018). Financial Report for the Year Ended 31 December 2017, C/109/3.Google Scholar
Kahler, M. (1992). Multilateralism with small and large numbers. International Organization, 46(3), 681708.Google Scholar
Keohane, R. O. (1990). Multilateralism: An agenda for research. International Journal, 45(4), 731.Google Scholar
Koch, A. (2014). The politics and discourse of migrant return: The role of UNHCR and IOM in the governance of return. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 40(6), 905923.Google Scholar
Koser, K. (2010). Introduction: International migration and global governance. Global Governance: A Review of Multilateralism and International Organizations, 16(3), 301315.Google Scholar
Lebon-McGregor, E. (forthcoming) Bringing about the “perfect storm” in migration governance: A History of the IOM. In Pécoud, A. & Thiollet, H., eds., The Institutions of Global Migration Governance, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
MADE Network. (2019). Open Civil Society Briefing on UN Network on Migration and IMRF Modalities. Retrieved from www.youtube.com/watch?v=sElfj66u0dU&feature=youtu.be.Google Scholar
McGregor, E. (2019) Money Matters: The Role of Funding in Migration Governance. International Migration Institute Working Paper 149.Google Scholar
McGregor, E. (2020). Migration, the MDGs and the SDGs: Context and complexity. In Bastia, T. & Skeldon, R., eds., Routledge Handbook of Migration and Development, New York: Routledge, 284297Google Scholar
Michaelowa, K. (2017). Resourcing international organisations: So what? Global Policy, 8, 113123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Morris, T. (2005). IOM: Trespassing on others’ humanitarian space. Forced Migration Review, 22, 43.Google Scholar
Naím, M. (29 June 2009). Minilateralism. Retrieved 11 October 2020, from https://foreignpolicy.com/2009/06/21/minilateralism.Google Scholar
Nieuwenhuys, C. & Pécoud, A. (2007). Human trafficking, information campaigns, and strategies of migration control. American Behavioral Scientist, 50(12), 16741695.Google Scholar
Pécoud, A. (2018). What do we know about the international organization for migration? Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 44(10), 16211638.Google Scholar
Perruchoud, R. (1989). From the intergovernmental committee for European migration to the international organization for migration. International Journal of Refugee Law, 1(4), 501517.Google Scholar
Rosengaertner, S. (2017). Who will pay for safe, orderly and regular migration? In Jenks, B. & Topping, J., Financing the UN Development System: Pathways to Reposition for Agenda 2030, New York: Dag Hammarskjöld Foundation and the United Nations Multi-Partner Trust Fund Office (UN MPTFO), 141146.Google Scholar
Ruggie, J. G. (1992). Multilateralism: The anatomy of an institution. International Organization, 46(3), 561598.Google Scholar
Schatral, S. (2011). Categorisation and instruction: The IOM’s role in preventing human trafficking in the Russian Federation. In Bhambry, T., Griffin, C., Hjelm, J. T. O., Nicholson, C. & Voronina, O. G. (eds.), Perpetual Motion? Transformation and Transition in Central and Eastern Europe & Russia. London: School of Slavonic and East European Studies, UCL, 2-15.Google Scholar
Seitz, K. & Martens, J. (2017). Philanthrolateralism: Private funding and corporate influence in the United Nations. Global Policy, 8, 4650.Google Scholar
Siegel, M., McGregor, E.W., van der Vorst, V., & Frouws, B. (2013). Independent Evaluation of the ILO’s Work on International Labour Migration. Retrieved from http://ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/-ed_mas/-eval/documents/publication/wcms_421232.pdf.Google Scholar
Sridhar, D. & Woods, N. (2013). Trojan multilateralism: Global cooperation in health. Global Policy, 4(4), 325335.Google Scholar
Thorvaldsdottir, S. (2016). How to Win Friends and Influence the UN: Donor Influence on the United Nations’ Bureaucracy, Presented at the Political Economy of International Organizations PEIO, University of Utah. Retrieved from www.svanhildur.com/uploads/3/0/2/2/30227211/howtowinfriends.pdf.Google Scholar
Thouez, C. (2019). Strengthening migration governance: The UN as ‘wingman’. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 45(8), 12421257.Google Scholar
United Nations. (2017). Report of the Special Representative of the Secretary – General on Migration, A/71/728, United Nations General Assembly. Retrieved from www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/migration/events/coordination/15/documents/Report%20of%20SRSG%20on%20Migration%20-%20A.71.728_ADVANCE.pdf.Google Scholar
United Nations. (22 January 2018). UN Chief Outlines Reforms that ‘Put Member States in Driver’s Seat’ on Road to Sustainable Development. Retrieved 11 October 2020, from https://news.un.org/en/story/2018/01/1000931.Google Scholar
Valarezo, G. (2015). Offloading migration management: The institutionalized authority of non-state agencies over the Guatemalan Temporary Agricultural Worker to Canada project. Journal of International Migration and Integration, 16(3), 661677.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wunderlich, D. (2012). Europeanization through the grapevine: Communication gaps and the role of international organizations in implementation networks of EU external migration policy. Journal of European Integration, 34(5), 485503.Google Scholar

References

Ackrill, Robert and Kay, Adrian. 2006. ‘Historical-Institutionalist Perspectives on the Development of the EU Budget System’. Journal of European Public Policy 13, no. 1: 113–33Google Scholar
Bauder, Harald. 2011. ‘Toward a Critical Geography of the Border: Engaging the Dialectic of Practice and Meaning’. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 101, no. 5: 1126–39Google Scholar
Carrera, Sergio. 2016. Implementation of EU Readmission Agreements: Identity Determination Dilemmas and the Blurring of Rights. London: Springer InternationalGoogle Scholar
Carrera, Sergio and Allsopp, Jennifer. 2018. ‘The Irregular Immigration Policy Conundrum’. In Servent, Ariadna Ripoll and Trauner (eds), Florian, The Routledge Handbook of Justice and Home Affairs Research, London: Routledge, pp. 7082.Google Scholar
Carrera, Sergio, Den Hertogh, Leonhard, Ferrer, Jorge Núñez, Musmeci, Roberto, Vosyliūtė, Lina, and Pilati, Marta. 2018. ‘Oversight and Management of the EU Trust Funds: Democratic Accountability Challenges and Promising Practices’. European Parliament’s Committee on Budgetary ControlGoogle Scholar
Castillejo, Clare. 2017a. ‘The European Union Trust Fund for Africa: What Implications for Future EU Development Policy?’. Briefing Paper. Bonn: German Development InstituteGoogle Scholar
Castillejo, Clare. 2017b. ‘The EU Migration Partnership Framework: Time for a Rethink?’. Discussion Paper 28/2017. Bonn: German Development InstituteGoogle Scholar
Concord and CINI. 2018. ‘Partnership or Conditionality? Monitoring the Migration Compacts and EU Trust Fund for Africa’. Brussels: Concord EuropeGoogle Scholar
Conte, Carmine and Cortinovis, Roberto. 2018. ‘Migration-Related Conditionality in EU External Funding’. Discussion Brief, Brussels: ReSOMAGoogle Scholar
Crowe, Richard. 2017. ‘The European Budgetary Galaxy’. European Constitutional Law Review 13, no. 3: 428–52Google Scholar
Csuros, Gabriella. 2013. ‘Characteristics, Functions and Changes (?) Of the EU Budget’. Curentul Juridic, 59, no. 4: 92107Google Scholar
Dabrowski, Marek. 2010. ‘The Global Financial Crisis: Lessons for European Integration’. Economic Systems 34, no. 1: 3854Google Scholar
De Genova, Nicholas. 2013. ‘Spectacles of Migrant “Illegality”: The Scene of Exclusion, the Obscene of Inclusion’. Ethnic and Racial Studies 36, no. 7: 1180–98Google Scholar
Duvell, Franck. 2011. ‘Paths into Irregularity: The Legal and Political Construction of Irregular Migration The Pathways in and out of Irregular Migration’. European Journal of Migration and Law 13: 275–96Google Scholar
Ferdoush, Md Azmeary. 2018. ‘Seeing Borders through the Lens of Structuration: A Theoretical Framework’. Geopolitics 23, no. 1: 180200Google Scholar
Funk, Marco, Mc Namara, Frank, Pardo, Romain, and Rose, Norma. 2017. ‘Tackling Irregular Migration through Development – a Flawed Approach?’. Discussion Paper. European Policy Center, 12Google Scholar
Gkliati, Mariana. 2018. ‘The Next Phase of the European Border and Coast Guard: Towards Operational Effectiveness’. EU Law Analysis (blog)Google Scholar
Heinemann, Friedrich, Mohl, Philipp, and Osterloh, Steffen. 2010. ‘Reforming the EU Budget: Reconciling Needs with Political- Economic Constraints’. Journal of European Integration 32, no. 1: 5976Google Scholar
den Hertog, Leonhard. 2016a. ‘EU Budgetary Responses to the “Refugee Crisis”: Reconfiguring the Funding Landscape’. CEPS Paper in Liberty & Security in Europe No. 93Google Scholar
den Hertog, Leonhard. 2016b. ‘Money Talks: Mapping the Funding for EU External Migration Policy’. CEPS Paper in Liberty & Security in Europe No. 95Google Scholar
Horga, Ioan and Brie, Mircea. 2010. ‘Europe between Exclusive Borders and Inclusive Frontiers’. MPRA Paper No. 44309Google Scholar
Jones, Chris. 2017. ‘Frontex: Cooperation with Non-EU States’. Briefing. StatewatchGoogle Scholar
Kamarás, Éva, Saunier, Mathieu, and Todaro, Laura. 2016. ‘Overview on the Use of EU Funds for Migration Policies’. European Parliament’s Committee on BudgetsGoogle Scholar
Latek, Marta. 2017. ‘Growing Impact of EU Migration Policy on Development Cooperation’. European Parliament Members’ Research ServiceGoogle Scholar
Montani, Guido. 2009. ‘Which European Response to the Financial Crisis?’. Perspectives on Federalism 1: 4067Google Scholar
Neframi, Eleftheria. 2011. ‘Division of Competences between the European Union and Its Member States Concerning Immigration’. European Parliament’s Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home AffairsGoogle Scholar
Neville, Darren, Sy, Sarah, and Rigon, Amalia. 2016. ‘On the Frontline: The Hotspot Approach to Managing Migration’. European Parliament’s LIBE CommitteeGoogle Scholar
Newman, David. 2003. ‘On Borders and Power: A Theoretical Framework’. Journal of Borderlands Studies 18, no. 1: 1325Google Scholar
Parry, Matthew and Sapala, Magdalena. 2018. ‘2021–2027 Multiannual Financial Framework and New Own Resources: Analysis of the Commission’s Proposal’. In Depth Analysis. European Parliamentary Research ServiceGoogle Scholar
Paul, Regine. 2015. The Political Economy of Border Drawing Arranging Legality in European Labor Migration Policies. New York: Berghahn BooksGoogle Scholar
Perkowski, Nina and Squire, Vicki. 2018. ‘The Anti-Policy of European Anti-Smuggling as a Site of Contestation in the Mediterranean Migration “Crisis”’. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 45: 118Google Scholar
Polanco, Geraldina and Zell, Sarah. 2017. ‘English as a Border-Drawing Matter: Language and the Regulation of Migrant Service Worker Mobility in International Labor Markets’. Journal of International Migration and Integration 18, no. 1: 267–89Google Scholar
Rumford, Chris. 2008. ‘Introduction: Citizens and Borderwork in Europe’. Space and Polity 12, no. 1: 112Google Scholar
Scott, James Wesley. 2006. ‘Wider Europe as a Backdrop’. In Scott, J. W., ed., EU Enlargement, Region Building and Shifting Borders of Inclusion and Exclusion. Burlington: Ashgate, pp. 314Google Scholar
Trauner, Florian and Angelescu, Irina. 2018. ‘10,000 Border Guards for Frontex: Why the EU Risks Conflated Expectations’. Policy Brief. European Policy CenterGoogle Scholar
Triandafyllidou, Anna. 2018. ‘A “Refugee Crisis” Unfolding: “Real” Events and Their Interpretation in Media and Political Debates’. Journal of Immigrant & Refugee Studies 16, no. 1–2: 198216Google Scholar
UNHCR and ECRE (European Council on Refugees and Exiles). 2018. ‘Follow the Money: A Critical Analysis of the Implementation of the EU Asylum, Migration & Integration Fund | ALNAP’.Google Scholar

References

Afailal, Hafsa. 2016. “Las Migraciones Inesperadas: Marruecos y Turquía Entre Diversidad y Seguridad.” PhD Thesis, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Unpublished.Google Scholar
Alioua, Mehdi. 2011. “L’étape Marocaine Des Transmigrants Subsahariens En Route Vers l’Europe: L’épreuve de La Construction Des Réseaux et de Leurs Territoires.” PhD Thesis, Université Toulouse II Le Mirail.Google Scholar
Andersson, Ruben. 2014. Illegality, Inc.: Clandestine Migration and the Business of Bordering Europe. 1 ed. Oakland, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Bartels, Inken. 2017. “‘We Must Do It Gently.’ The Contested Implementation of the IOM’s Migration Management in Morocco.” Migration Studies 5 (3): 315–36. https://doi.org/10.1093/migration/mnx054.Google Scholar
Belguendouz, Abdelkrim. 2009. “Le Maroc et La Migration Irrégulière: Une Analyse Sociopolitique.” CARIM AS, 2009/07, Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies, San Domenico di Fiesole (FI): Institut universitaire européen.Google Scholar
Bloodgood, Elizabeth and Tremblay-Boire, Joannie. 2017. “Does Government Funding Depoliticize Non-Governmental Organizations? Examining Evidence from Europe.European Political Science Review 9 (3): 401–24. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1755773915000430.Google Scholar
Capelli, Irene. 2016. “Cibler Les Mères Célibataires: La Production Bureaucratique et Morale d’un Impensable Social.” In Béatrice, Hibou and Irene, Bono eds., Le Gouvernement Du Social Au Maroc, 199232. Paris: Karthala.Google Scholar
Casas-Cortes, Maribel, Cobarrubias, Sebastian, and Pickles, John. 2014. “‘Good Neighbours Make Good Fences’: Seahorse Operations, Border Externalization and Extra-Territoriality.” European Urban and Regional Studies 23 (3): 231251. http://eur.sagepub.com/content/early/2014/08/12/0969776414541136.abstract.Google Scholar
Cherti, Myriam and Collyer, Michael. 2015. “Immigration and Pensée d’Etat: Moroccan Migration Policy Changes as Transformation of ‘Geopolitical Culture’.The Journal of North African Studies 20 (4): 590604. https://doi.org/10.1080/13629387.2015.1065043.Google Scholar
Coleman, Nils. 2009. European Readmission Policy: Third Country Interests and Refugee Rights. Leiden and Boston: Martinus Jinhoff Publishers.Google Scholar
Collett, Elizabeth. 2007. “The ‘Global Approach to Migration’: Rhetoric or Reality?” European Policy Centre.Google Scholar
Collyer, Michael. 2012. “Migrants as Strategic Actors in the European Union’s Global Approach to Migration and Mobility.Global Networks 12 (4): 505–24. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-0374.2012.00370.x.Google Scholar
Duffield, Mark. 2013. Development, Security and Unending War: Governing the World of Peoples. Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
El Qadim, Nora. 2015. Le gouvernement asymétrique des migrations. Maroc/Union européenne. Paris: Dalloz.Google Scholar
Ferguson, James and Gupta, Akhil. 2002. “Spatializing States: Toward an Ethnography of Neoliberal Governmentality.American Ethnologist 29 (4): 9811002.Google Scholar
Gabrielli, Lorenzo. 2016. “Multilevel Inter-Regional Governance of Mobility between Africa and Europe. Towards a Deeper and Broader Externalisation.” GRITIM Working Paper Series – Universitat Pompeu Fabra 30.Google Scholar
GADEM. 2013. “Rapport Sur l’application Par Le Maroc de La Convention Internationale Sur La Protection Des Droits de Tous Les Travailleurs Migrants et Des Membres de Leur Famille. Résumé Exécutif.”Google Scholar
GADEM 2018. “Coûts et Blessures. Rapport Sur Les Opérations Des Forces de l’ordre Menées Dans Le Nord Du Maroc Entre Juillet et Septembre 2018 – Éléments Factuels et Analyse.”Google Scholar
Gammeltoft-Hansen, Thomas and Sørensen, Ninna Nyberg, eds. 2013. “The Migration Industry and the Commercialization of International Migration,” Routledge Global Institutions Series, xviii, 278.Google Scholar
García Andrade, Paula and Ivàn, Martìn. 2015. “EU Cooperation with Third Countries in the Field of Migration.” Study for the LIBE Committee, European Parliament, www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/STUD/2015/536469/IPOL_STU%282015%29536469_EN.pdfGoogle Scholar
Gazzotti, Lorena. 2019. “From Irregular Migration to Radicalisation? Fragile Borders, Securitised Development and the Government of Moroccan Youth.” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 45 (15): 2888–909, DOI: 10.1080/1369183X.2018.1493914Google Scholar
Haas, Hein de. 2008. “The Myth of Invasion: The Inconvenient Realities of African Migration to Europe.Third World Quarterly 29 (7): 1305–22. https://doi.org/10.1080/01436590802386435.Google Scholar
Hansen, T. B. and Stepputat, F. (2006). “Sovereignty Revisited.” Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 35: 295315.Google Scholar
Hertog, Leonhard den. 2016. “Funding the Eu-Morocco ‘Mobility Partnership’: Of Implementation and Competences.European Journal of Migration and Law 18 (3): 275301. https://doi.org/10.1163/15718166-12342103.Google Scholar
Hibou, Béatrice. 1998. “Retrait Ou Redéploiement de l’Etat?Critique Internationale 4 (4): 151–68. https://doi.org/10.3917/crii.p1998.1n1.0151Google Scholar
Hibou, Béatrice ed. 2004. Privatising the State / Béatrice Hibou, Editor; Translated from the French by Jonathan Derrick. London: Hurst.Google Scholar
Hibou, Béatrice 2012. La Bureaucratisation Du Monde à l’ère Néolibérale / Béatrice Hibou. Paris: La Découverte.Google Scholar
Hibou, Béatrice and Tozy, Mohamed. 2015. “Gouvernement Personnel et Gouvernment Institutionnalisé de La Charité: L’INDH Au Maroc.” In Bono, Irene, Hibou, Béatrice, Meddeb, Hamza, and Tozy, Mohamed, eds., L’Etat d’injustice Au Maghreb. Maroc et Tunisie, 379428. Paris: Karthala.Google Scholar
IOM. 2010. “Regional Assisted Voluntary Return and Reintegration (AVRR) Programme for Stranded Migrants in Libya and Morocco. External Evaluation.”Google Scholar
Jiménez Álvarez, Mercedes. 2015. “Externalización Fronteriza En El Mediterráneo Occidental: Movilidades, Violencias y Políticas de Compasión.Revista de Dialectología y Tradiciones Populares 70 (2): 307–14.Google Scholar
LesEco.ma, 2017. ANAM: les migrants recevront bientot leurs cartes RAMED, www.leseco.ma/maroc/56028-anam-les-migrants-recevront-bientot-leurs-cartes-ramed.htmlGoogle Scholar
McGregor, Elaine. 2018. “Money Matters: The Role of Funding in Migration Governance.” Paper presented at the workshop “Show me the Money,” June 14–15, 2018, University of Amsterdam.Google Scholar
MCMREAM. 2015. Guide pratique pour faciliter votre intégration au Maroc. 1ère édition, http://docplayer.fr/8057025-Guide-pratique-pour-faciliter-votre-integration-au-maroc.htmlGoogle Scholar
MCMREAM. 2016. Politique Nationale d’Immigration et d’Asile 2013–2016.Google Scholar
MCMREAM and CNDH. 2016. “3ème Édition Forum Annuel de l’Immigration. Politiques Migratoires: Quel Role Pour La Société Civile? Actes Du Forum”. http://marocainsdumonde.gov.ma/ewhatisi/2018/02/acte-forum-immigration-2016.pdfGoogle Scholar
Mourji, Fouzi, Ferrié, Jean-Noel, Radi, Saadia, and Alioua, Mehdi. 2016. “Les Migrants Sub-Sahariens Au Maroc. Enjeux d’une Migration de Résidence”. Rabat, Konrad Adenauer Stiftung.Google Scholar
MSF. 2013. Violences, Vulnérabilité et Migration : Bloqués aux Portes de l’Europe, www.msf.fr/sites/default/files/informemarruecos2013_fr_0.pdfGoogle Scholar
Natter, Katharina. 2018. “Rethinking Immigration Policy Theory beyond ‘Western Liberal Democracies’.Comparative Migration Studies 6 (March): 4. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40878-018-0071-9.Google Scholar
Norman, Kelsey P. 2018. “Inclusion, Exclusion or Indifference? Redefining Migrant and Refugee Host State Engagement Options in Mediterranean ‘Transit’ Countries.Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 45 (1): 4260, DOI: 10.1080/1369183X.2018.1482201.Google Scholar
Oeppen, Ceri. 2016. “‘Leaving Afghanistan! Are You Sure?’ European Efforts to Deter Potential Migrants through Information Campaigns.Human Geography 9 (2): 5768.Google Scholar
Plateforme Nationale de Protections Migrants. 2017. “Etat Des Lieux de l’accès Aux Services Pour Les Personnes Migrantes Au Maroc: Bilan, Perspectives et Action de La Société Civile.”Google Scholar
Tazzioli, Martina. 2014. Spaces of Governmentality: Autonomous Migration and the Arab Uprisings. London: Rowman & Littlefield International.Google Scholar
Terre des Hommes – Espagne. 2014. “Femmes Migrantes Au Maroc: Une Approche Médicosociale. Rapport de Capitalisation Sur Le Volet Médicosocial Du Projet «Tamkine-Migrants» 2011 – 2014 d’appui à La Prise En Charge de Femmes Migrantes Enceintes et de Leurs Enfants.”Google Scholar
Tsourapas, Gerasimos. 2019. “The Syrian Refugee Crisis and Foreign Policy Decision-Making in Jordan, Lebanon, and Turkey.” Journal of Global Security Studies, 4 (4): 464481, https://doi.org/10.1093/jogss/ogz016.Google Scholar
Turner, Lewis. 2018. “Challenging Refugee Men: Humanitarianism and Masculinities in Za‘tari Refugee Camp.” PhD Thesis, School of Oriental and African Studies, Unpublished.Google Scholar

References

Amnesty International. 2019. “Welcome Venezuela: People fleeing massive human Rights Violations in Venezuela.” May 8. At www.amnesty.org/en/documents/amr53/0244/2019/en/Google Scholar
Bahar, Dany and Dooley, Meagan. 2019. “Venezuela refugee crisis to become the largest and most underfunded in modern history.” December 9. At www.brookings.edu/blog/up-front/2019/12/09/venezuela-refugee-crisis-to-become-the-largest-and-most-underfunded-in-modern-history/Google Scholar
Bahar, Dany, Dooley, Meagan, and Selee, Andrew. 2020. “Venezuelan migration, crime, and misperceptions: A review of data from Colombia, Peru, and Chile.” September 14. At www.brookings.edu/research/venezuelan-migration-crime-and-misperceptions-a-review-of-data-from-colombia-peru-and-chile/Google Scholar
Bahar, Dany, Ibañez, Ana María, and Rozo, Sandra. 2020. “Give Me Your Tired and Your Poor: Impact of a Large-Scale Amnesty Program for Undocumented Refugees.” CESifo Working Paper No. 8601.Google Scholar
Barráez, Sebastiana. 2020. “Un viaje por la frontera de Venezuela hasta Colombia: las extorsiones de los militares y del ELN, más el cobro en pesos y una carita feliz.” November 8. At www.infobae.com/america/venezuela/2020/11/08/un-viaje-por-la-frontera-de-venezuela-hasta-colombia-las-extorsiones-de-los-militares-y-del-eln-mas-el-cobro-en-pesos-y-una-carita-feliz/Google Scholar
Bonilla-Tinoco, Laura Juliana, Aguirre-Lemus, Melissa, and Fernández-Niño, Julián Alfredo. 2020. “Venezuelan migrant population in Colombia: Health indicators in the context of the Sustainable Development Goals.F1000Research 9, no. 684: 113.Google Scholar
Chauvin, Sébastien and Garcés‐Mascareñas, Blanca. 2014. “Becoming less illegal: Deservingness frames and undocumented migrant incorporation.Sociology Compass 8: 422432.Google Scholar
De León Vargas, Georgina Isabel. 2018. “Diaspora Venezolana, Cartagena Más Allá de las Cifras.Revista Jurídica Mario Alario D’Filippo 10, no. 20: 111119.Google Scholar
Defensoría del Pueblo. 2018. “Alerta Temprana N° 040–18.” April 19.Google Scholar
Defensoría del Pueblo. 2019a. “Alerta Temprana N° 011–19.” February 15.Google Scholar
Defensoría del Pueblo. 2019b. “Alerta Temprana N° 029–19.” July 11.Google Scholar
Defensoría del Pueblo. 2019c. “Alerta Temprana N° 037–19.” September 12.Google Scholar
Defensoría del Pueblo. 2019d. “Alerta Temprana N° 039–19.” September 16.Google Scholar
Defensoría del Pueblo. 2019e. “Alerta Temprana N° 024–19.” February 15.Google Scholar
Defensoría del Pueblo. 2020a. “Alerta Temprana N° 011–2020.” March 13.Google Scholar
Defensoría del Pueblo. 2020b. “Alerta Temprana N° 034–2020.” August 4.Google Scholar
Defensoría del Pueblo. 2020c. “Alerta Temprana N° 035–2020.” August 5.Google Scholar
Delgado, Jorge. 2015. “Counterinsurgency and the limits of state-building: An analysis of Colombia’s policy of territorial consolidation, 2006–2012.Small Wars & Insurgencies 26, no. 3: 408428.Google Scholar
Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística (DANE). 2019. “Boletín Técnico: Medición de empleo informal y seguridad social.” December 12. At www.dane.gov.co/files/investigaciones/boletines/ech/ech_informalidad/bol_ech_informalidad_ago19_oct19.pdfGoogle Scholar
El Heraldo. 2015. “Las fronteras no existen para la Gran Nación Wayuu.” September 6. At www.elheraldo.co/nacional/las-fronteras-no-existen-para-la-gran-nacion-wayuu-215788Google Scholar
El País. 2017. “Venezuela, Crimen sin frontera.” At www.elpais.com.co/especiales/venezuela-crimen-sin-frontera/Google Scholar
Extra Boyacá. 2019. “Torturados y decapitados en medio de una trocha: con sevicia fueron asesinados.” May 25. At https://boyaca.extra.com.co/noticias/judicial/torturados-y-decapitados-en-medio-de-una-trocha-con-sevicia-529979Google Scholar
García Pinzón, Viviana, and Mantilla, Jorge. 2020. “Contested borders: Organized crime, governance, and bordering practices in Colombia-Venezuela borderlands.” Trends in Organized Crime. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12117-020-09399-3Google Scholar
Guataquí, Juan Carlos, García-Suaza, Andrés, Cartagena, Cindy Vanessa Ospina, Aguirre, Diana Isabel Londoño, Lesmes, Paul Rodríguez, and Baquero, Juan Pablo. 2017. “Características de los migrantes de Venezuela a Colombia.Observatorio Laboral de la Universidad del Rosario Informe 3: 19.Google Scholar
Hernández, Rosalinda. 2019. “Frontera: Mientras los colectivos armados buscan la paz, los ciudadanos viven aterrorizados.” December 27. At www.fronteraviva.com/frontera-mientras-los-colectivos-armados-buscan-la-paz-los-ciudadanos-viven-aterrorizados/Google Scholar
Holland, Alisha, Peters, Margaret, and Zhou, Yang-Yang. 2020. “Left Out: How Political Ideology Affects Support for Migrants in Colombia.” Working Paper. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3803052Google Scholar
Human Rights Watch. 2019. “The War in Catatumbo: Abuses by Armed Groups Against Civilians Including Venezuelan Exiles in Northeastern Colombia.” August 8. At www.hrw.org/report/2019/08/08/war-catatumbo/abuses-armed-groups-against-civilians-including-venezuelan-exilesGoogle Scholar
Human Rights Watch. 2020. “‘The Guerrillas Are the Police’: Social Control and Abuses by Armed Groups in Colombia’s Arauca Province and Venezuela’s Apure State.” January 22. At www.hrw.org/report/2020/01/22/guerrillas-are-police/social-control-and-abuses-armed-groups-colombias-araucaGoogle Scholar
Ibañez, Ana María. 2018. Migración desde Venezuela a Colombia. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
Ibáñez, Ana María and Vélez, Carlos Eduardo. 2008. “Civil conflict and forced migration: The micro determinants and welfare losses of displacement in Colombia.World Development 36, no. 4: 659676.Google Scholar
Idler, Annette. 2019. Borderland Battles Violence, Crime, and Governance at the Edges of Colombia’s War. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Idler, Annette and Hochmüller, Markus. 2020. “Covid-19 in Colombia’s borderlands and the western hemisphere: Adding instability to a double crisis.Journal of Latin American Geography 19, no. 3: 280288.Google Scholar
InSight Crime. 2020. “Mexican Cartels – Venezuela’s Uninvited Guests Here to Stay.” April 3. At www.insightcrime.org/news/analysis/mexico-cartels-uninvited-guest-venezuela/.Google Scholar
Judex, Karina and Herrera, Cristian. 2015. “Venezolanos y menores, tras la coca del Catatumbo (III parte).” September 13. At www.laopinion.com.co/region/venezolanos-y-menores-tras-la-coca-del-catatumbo-iii-parte-98258Google Scholar
Knight, Brian and Tribin, Ana. 2020. “Immigration and Violent Crime: Evidence from the Colombia-Venezuela Border.” NBER Working Paper No. w27620.Google Scholar
La Opinión. 2016. “El Callejón de la muerte, la droga y la prostitución.” December 4. At www.laopinion.com.co/cucuta/el-callejon-de-la-muerte-la-droga-y-la-prostitucion-123852Google Scholar
La Opinión. 2017. “Crece la llegada de venezolanos al Catatumbo para raspar coca.” November 21. At www.laopinion.com.co/region/crece-la-llegada-de-venezolanos-al-catatumbo-para-raspar-coca-144106Google Scholar
La Opinión. 2018. “La frontera, una zona codiciada por las bandas criminals.” January 15. At www.laopinion.com.co/frontera/la-frontera-una-zona-codiciada-por-las-bandas-criminales-147264Google Scholar
La Opinión. 2019. “Pelea entre trabajadoras sexuales dejó una muerta en Ocaña.” July 12. At www.laopinion.com.co/judicial/pelea-entre-trabajadoras-sexuales-dejo-una-muerta-en-ocana-158106Google Scholar
Lacroix, Pauline, Bongard, Pascal, and Rush, Chris. 2011. “Engaging armed non-state actors in mechanisms for protection.Forced Migration Review 37: 1012.Google Scholar
Larratt-Smith, Charles. 2020. “Navigating formal and informal processes: Civic organizations, armed nonstate actors, and nested governance in Colombia.Latin American Politics and Society 62, no. 2: 7598.Google Scholar
Migración Colombia. 2020. “Más de 1 Millón 825 Mil Venezolanos Estarían Radicados en Colombia.” April 3. At www.migracioncolombia.gov.co/noticias/mas-de-1-millon-825-mil-venezolanos-estarian-radicados-en-colombiaGoogle Scholar
Millano, Jesika. 2018. “La riesgosa travesía de Maicao a Maracaibo.” October 7. At www.elheraldo.co/barranquilla/la-riesgosa-travesia-de-maicao-maracaibo-550660Google Scholar
Miranda, Boris. 2019. “Crisis en Venezuela: cómo las mafias y grupos armados de Colombia se aprovechan de los migrantes venezolanos.” September 19. At www.bbc.com/mundo/noticias-america-latina-49486230Google Scholar
Pineda, Esther, and Keymer, Ávila. 2019. “Aproximaciones a la migración colombo-venezolana: Desigualdad, Prejuicio y Vulnerabilidad.Clivatge 7: 4697.Google Scholar
Rodríguez Suárez, Aldair José. 2020. “Migrantes venezolanos regresan a Colombia por trochas de La Guajira.” September 28. At www.alertacaribe.com/noticias/migrantes-venezolanos-regresan-colombia-por-trochas-de-la-guajiraGoogle Scholar
Straka, Tomás. 2020. “When Caracas was a safe haven from tyranny.” April 20. At www.americasquarterly.org/article/when-caracas-was-a-safe-haven-from-tyranny/.Google Scholar
Taraciuk Broner, Tamara. 2018. “Los caminantes venezolanos – Huir a pie de un país en ruinas.” September 5. At www.hrw.org/es/news/2018/09/05/los-caminantes-venezolanosGoogle Scholar
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). 2016. “UNHCR viewpoint: ‘refugee’ or ‘migrant’ – Which is right?.” July 11. At www.unhcr.org/news/latest/2016/7/55df0e556/unhcr-viewpoint-refugee-migrant-right.htmlGoogle Scholar
Van Praag, Oriana. 2019. “Understanding the Venezuelan refugee crisis.” September 13. At www.wilsoncenter.org/article/understanding-the-venezuelan-refugee-crisisGoogle Scholar
Zulver, Julia and Idler, Annette. 2020. “Gendering the border effect: The double impact of Colombian insecurity and the Venezuelan refugee crisis.Third World Quarterly 41, no. 7: 11221140.Google Scholar

References

Abella, M. and Martin, P. (2014), Migration Costs of Low-skilled Labor Migrants: Key Findings from Pilot Surveys in Korea, Kuwait and Spain (draft), Global Knowledge Partnership on Migration and Development (KNOMAD), www.knomad.org/sites/default/files/2017-05/KNOMAD_TWG3_Report%20on%20Migration%20Cost%20Pilot%20Surveys%20May%2011_final%20%28002%29_1.pdf.Google Scholar
Afsar, R. (2009), Unravelling the Vicious Cycle of Recruitment: Labour Migration from Bangladesh to the Gulf States, Working Paper No. 63, International Labour Office.Google Scholar
International, Amnesty (2017), Turning People Into Profits: Abusive Recruitment, Trafficking and Forced Labour of Nepali Migrant Workers, London: Amnesty International. www.amnesty.org/download/Documents/ASA3162062017ENGLISH.PDFGoogle Scholar
Andrees, B., Nasri, A. and Swiniarski, P. (2015), Regulating Labour Recruitment to Prevent Human Trafficking and to Foster Fair Migration: Models, Challenges and Opportunities, Geneva: ILO.Google Scholar
Arif, G. M. (2009), Recruitment of Pakistani Workers for Overseas Employment: Mechanisms, Exploitation and Vulnerabilities, Working Paper No. 64, International Labour Office.Google Scholar
Bastia, T. and McGrath, S. (2011), Temporality, Migration and Unfree Labour: Migrant Garment Workers, Manchester Papers in Political Economy, Working Paper No. 6.Google Scholar
Bélanger, D. (2014), ‘Labor Migration and Trafficking among Vietnamese Migrants in Asia’, The Annals of the American Society of Political and Social Science, 653(1): 87106.Google Scholar
Bhoola, U. (2016), Report of the Special Rapporteur on Contemporary Forms of Slavery, Including its Causes and Consequences, Geneva: Human Rights Council, United Nations, Doc. A/HRC/33/46.Google Scholar
Cambier, G. (2012), The Relation between Forced Labour and Trafficking in Human Beings, Tilburg: Tilburg University, http://arno.uvt.nl/show.cgi?fid=128387.Google Scholar
Chee, Liberty L. (2015), Power as Practice in Global Governance: Recruitment Agencies and Domestic Worker Migration in Southeast Asia, Thesis submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, Department of Political Science, National University of Singapore.Google Scholar
Czaika, M. and Hobolth, M. (2014), Deflection into Irregularity? The (Un)Intended Effects of Restrictive Asylum and Visa Policies, International Migration Institute Working Paper No. 84, University of Oxford.Google Scholar
Davidson, J. O. (2013), ‘Troubling Freedom: Migration, Debt, and Modern Slavery’, Migration Studies, 1(2): 176195.Google Scholar
Encinas-Franco, J. (2016), ‘Promising Practices Emerging from the Recruitment Industry in the Philippines’, in Calenda, D. (ed.), Case Studies in the International Recruitment of Nurses: Promising Practices among Agencies in the United Kingdom, India, and the Philippines, Geneva: International Labour Organization, 6389.Google Scholar
Farbenblum, B. (2017), ‘Governance of Migrant Worker Recruitment: A Rights-Based Framework for Countries of Origin’, Asian Journal of International Law, 7(1): 152184.Google Scholar
Farbenblum, B. and Nolan, J. (2017), ‘The Business of Migrant Worker Recruitment: Who Has the Responsibility and Leverage to Protect Rights?’, Texas International Law Journal, 52(1): 477496.Google Scholar
Frantz, E. (2013), ‘Jordan’s Unfree Workforce: State-Sponsored Bonded Labour in the Arab Region’, The Journal of Development Studies, 49(8): 10721087.Google Scholar
Friebel, G. and Guriev, S. (2006), ‘Smuggling Humans: A Theory of Debt-Financed Migration’, Journal of the European Economic Association, 4(6): 10851111.Google Scholar
Garcés-Mascareñas, B. (2012), Labour Migration in Malaysia and Spain: Markets, Citizenship and Rights, Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.Google Scholar
Gardner, A., Pessoa, S., Diop, A., Al-Ghanim, K., Trung, K. L., and Harkness, L. (2013), ‘A Portrait of Low-Income Migrants in Contemporary Qatar’, Journal of Arabian Studies 3.1:117.Google Scholar
Ghayur, S. (2016), From Pakistan to the Gulf Region: an Analysis of Links between Labour Markets, Skills and the Migration Cycle, Islamabad: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH and International Labour Organization.Google Scholar
Goh, C., Wee, K. and Yeoh, B. S. (2016), ‘Who’s Holding the Bomb? Debt-financing Migration in Singapore’s Domestic Work Industry’, Migrating Out of Poverty – Research Programme Consortium, Working Paper 38.Google Scholar
Gustafsson, D. (2005), Debt-financed Migration and Debt-bounded Sexual Exploitation: A Study from an Economic Perspective, Master thesis, Department of Economics, University of Lund.Google Scholar
ILO (2015a), Fair recruitment in international labour migration between Asia and the Gulf Cooperation Council: realizing a fair migration agenda – labour flows between Asia and the Arab States, ILO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific; ILO Regional Office for Arab States.Google Scholar
ILO (2016a), The cost of migration: what low-skilled migrant workers from Pakistan pay to work in Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates.Google Scholar
ILO (2016b), General principles & operational guidelines for fair recruitment, International Labour Office, Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work Branch (FUNDAMENTALS); Labour Migration Branch (MIGRANT).Google Scholar
ILO (2018), Findings from the global comparative study on the definition of recruitment fees and related costs, Background paper for discussion at the Tripartite Meeting of Experts on Defining Recruitment Fees and Related Costs (Geneva, 1416 November 2018), International Labour Office, Conditions of Work and Equality Department.Google Scholar
ILO (2019), Report of the Meeting of Experts on Defining Recruitment Fees and Related Costs (Geneva, 14–16 November 2018), Governing Body, 335th Session, Geneva, 1428 March 2019, (GB.335/INS/14/2).Google Scholar
IOM (2003), Labour Migration in Asia: Trends, Challenges and Policy Responses in Countries of Origin, Geneva: IOM.Google Scholar
Jägers, N. and Rijken, C. (2014), ‘Prevention of Human Trafficking for Labor Exploitation: The Role of Corporations’, Northwestern Journal of International Human Rights, 12(1): 4773.Google Scholar
Jones, K. (2015), For a Fee: The Business of Recruiting Bangladeshi Women for Domestic Work in Jordan and Lebanon, Working Paper No. 2/2015, International Labour Office.Google Scholar
Jordan, A. (2011), Slavery, Forced Labor, Debt Bondage, and Human Trafficking: From Conceptional Confusion to Targeted Solutions, Center for Human Rights & Humanitarian Law Issue Paper 2, Washington College of Law, American University.Google Scholar
Jureidini, R. (2014), Migrant Labour Recruitment to Qatar, Report for Qatar Foundation Migrant Worker Welfare Initiative, Bloomsbury/Qatar Foundation Publishing.Google Scholar
Jureidini, R. (2016), Ways Forward in Recruitment of ‘Low-skilled’ Migrant Workers in the Asia-Arab States Corridor, ILO white paper, ILO Regional Office for the Arab States.Google Scholar
Jureidini, R. and Moukarbel, N. (2004), ‘Female Sri Lankan Domestic Workers in Lebanon: A Case of ‘Contract Slavery’?, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 30(4): 581607.Google Scholar
Kara, S. (2017), Modern Slavery: A Global Perspective, Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
LeBaron, G. (2014), ‘Reconceptualizing Debt Bondage: Debt as a Class-Based Form of Labor Discipline’, Critical Sociology, 40(5): 763780.Google Scholar
Lee, P. W. Y. and Petersen, C. J. (2006), Forced Labour and Debt Bondage in Hong Kong: A Study of Indonesian and Filipina Migrant Domestic Workers, Centre for Comparative and Public Law, Faculty of Law, The University of Hong Kong, Occasional Paper No. 16.Google Scholar
Lindquist, J. (2010), ‘Labour Recruitment, Circuits of Capital and Gendered Mobility: Reconceptualizing the Indonesian Migration Industry’, Pacific Affairs 83(1): 115132.Google Scholar
Martin, P. (2016), ‘Reducing Worker-Paid Migration Costs’, in Howe, J. and Owens, R. (eds.), Temporary Labour Migration in the Global Era: The Regulatory Challenges, Hart Publishing: 377392.Google Scholar
Martin, P. (2017), Merchants of Labor: Recruiters and International Labor Migration, Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Mantouvalou, V. (2016), ‘Temporary Labour Migration and Modern Slavery’, in Howe, J. and Owens, R. (eds.), Temporary Labour Migration in the Global Era: The Regulatory Challenges, Hart Publishing: 223240.Google Scholar
Newland, K. (2019), ‘The Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration: An Unlike Achievement’, International Journal of Refugee Law, 20(20): 14.Google Scholar
Oh, Y. A. (2016), ‘Oligarchic Rule and Best Practice Migration Management: The Political Economy Origins of Labour Migration Regime of the Philippines’, Contemporary Politics, 22 (2): 197214.Google Scholar
Pellerin, H. (2015), ‘Global Foreign Workers’ Supply and Demand and the Political Economy of International Labour Migration’, in Talani, L. S. and McMahon, S. (eds.), Handbook of the International Political Economy of Migration, Cheltenham & Northampton: Edward Elgar Publishing, 145166.Google Scholar
Platt, M., Baey, G., Yeoh, B. S., Choon, Y. K. and Lam, T. (2017), ‘Debt, Precarity and Gender: Male and Female Temporary Labour Migrants in Singapore’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 43(1): 119136.Google Scholar
Rahman, M. M. (2011a) Recruitment of Labour Migrants for the Gulf States: The Bangladeshi Case, ISAS Working Paper No. 132, National University of Singapore.Google Scholar
Rahman, M. M. (2011b), Does Labour Migration Bring about Economic Advantage? A Case of Bangladeshi Migrants in Saudi Arabia, ISAS Working Paper No. 135, National University of Singapore.Google Scholar
Rijken, C. (2015), ‘Legal Approaches to Combating the Exploitation of Third-Country National Seasonal Workers’, The International Journal of Comparative Labour Law and Industrial Relations, 31 (4): 431452.Google Scholar
Rijken, C. (2018), ‘When Bad Labour Conditions Become Exploitation: Lessons Learnt from the Chowdury Case’, in Rijken, C. and de Lange, T. (eds.), Towards a Decent Labour Market for Low-Waged Migrant Workers, Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 189206.Google Scholar
Ruhs, M. (2013), The Price of Rights: Regulating International Labor Migration, Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Sijapati, B. (2015), Women’s Labour Migration from Asia and the Pacific: Opportunities and Challenges, Issue in Brief No. 12, IOM Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific and the Migration Policy Institute.Google Scholar
Sijapati, B., Lama, A., Baniya, J., Rinck, J., Jha, K., and Gurung, A. (2017), Labour Migration and the Remittance Economy: The Social-Political Impact, Centre for the Study of Labour and Mobility (CESLAM).Google Scholar
Sobieszczyk, T. (2002), Risky Business: Debt Bondage International Labour Migration from Northern Thailand, Paper presented at the IUSSP Regional Population Conference on Southeast Asia’s Changing Population in a Changing Asian Context, Bangkok.Google Scholar
Surak, K. (2013), ‘Guestworkers: A Taxonomy’, New Left Review 84:84102.Google Scholar
Szulecka, M. (2012), ‘The Right to be Exploited: Vietnamese Workers in Poland’, in Anker, C. V. D. and Liempt, I. V. (eds.), Human Rights and Migration: Trafficking for Forced Labour, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 161192.Google Scholar
Testaverde, M., Moroz, H., Hollweg, C. H., and Schmillen, A. (2017), Migrating to Opportunity: Overcoming Barriers to Labor Mobility in Southeast Asia, Washington: World Bank Group.Google Scholar
UNODC (2015), The Role of Recruitment Fees and Abusive and Fraudulent Recruitment Practices of Recruitment Agencies in Trafficking in Persons, www.unodc.org/documents/human-trafficking/2015/Recruitment_Fees_Report-Final-22_June_2015_AG_Final.pdf.Google Scholar
Varona, R. (2013), License to Exploit: A Report on the Recruitment Practices and Problems Experienced by Filipino Domestic Workers in Hong Kong, Alliance of Progressive Labor (APL-SENTRO).Google Scholar
Verité (2012), An Ethical Framework for Cross-Border Labor Recruitment: An Industry/Stakeholder Collaboration to Reduce the Risks of Forced Labor and Human Trafficking, www.verite.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/ethical_framework_paper.pdf.Google Scholar
Vlieger, A. (2011), Domestic Workers in Saudi Arabia and the Emirates: A Socio-Legal Study on Conflicts, New Orleans: Quid Pro Books.Google Scholar
World Bank (2017a), Indonesia’s Global Workers: Juggling Opportunities and Risks, The World Bank Office Jakarta, The World Bank Group.Google Scholar
World Bank (2017b), Sustaining Resilience: East Asia and Pacific Economic Update (April), Washington, DC: The World Bank.Google Scholar

References

Anderson, Bridget. 2010. ‘Migration Immigration Controls and the Fashioning of Precarious Workers’. Work, Employment and Society 24(2): 300317.Google Scholar
Anderson, Bridget 2013. Us & Them. The Dangerous Politics of Immigration Control. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Anderson, Bridget 2015. ‘Heads I Win, Tails You Lose’. Current Legal Problems 68: 179–96.Google Scholar
Barbulescu, Roxanna and Favell, Adrian. 2020. ‘Commentary: A Citizenship without Social Rights? EU Freedom of Movement and Changing Access to Welfare Rights’. International Migration 58(1): 151–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Boswell, Christina and Geddes, Andrew. 2011. Migration and Mobility in the European Union. The European Union Series. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
Brubaker, Rogers. 1992. Citizenship and Nationhood in France and Germany. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. eBook Academic Collection (EBSCOhost). At https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=e000xww&AN=282615&site=ehost-live&scope=site.Google Scholar
Collett, Elizabeth. 2013. ‘The Integration Needs of EU Mobile Citizens. Impediments and Opportunities’. Migration Policy Institute Europe. At https://emnbelgium.be/sites/default/files/publications/mpieurope_-_integration_mobile_eu_citizens.pdf, accessed September 25, 2020.Google Scholar
de Jong, Judith and Betty, de Hart. 2021. ‘Divided Families and Devalued Citizens. Money Matters in Mixed-Status Families in the Netherlands’. In de Lange, Tesseltje, Maas, Willem, and Schrauwen, Annette, eds. Money Matters in Migration. Policy, Particiption, and Citizenship, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Eggebø, Helga and Staver, Anne. 2021. ‘Follow the Money: Income Requirements in Norwegian Immigration Regulations’. In de Lange, Tesseltje, Maas, Willem, and Schrauwen, Annette, eds. Money Matters in Migration. Policy, Participation, and Citizenship, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Evans, Matthew. 2020. ‘Abusing or Misusing the Right of Free Movement? The UK’s Policy towards EU Nationals Sleeping Rough’. In Mantu, Sandra, Minderhoud, Paul, and Guild, Elspeth, eds. EU Citizenship and Free Movement Rights. Taking Supranational Citizenship Seriously Immigration and Asylum Law and Policy in Europe, Volume 47 Leiden/Boston: Brill Nijhoff, 302322.Google Scholar
Ferrera, Maurizio. 2016. ‘The Contentious Policies of Hospitality: Intra-EU Mobility and Social Rights’. European Law Journal 22: 791805.Google Scholar
Gutiérrez-Barbarrusa, T. 2016. ‘The Growth of Precarious Employment in Europe: Concepts, Indicators and the Effects of the Global Economic Crisis’. International Labour Review 4: 478508.Google Scholar
Heindlmaier, Anita and Blauberger, Michael. 2017. ‘Enter at Your Own Risk: Free Movement of EU Citizens in Practice’. West European Politics 40, no. 6 Routledge: 11981217.Google Scholar
Joppke, Christian. 2008. ‘Comparative Citizenship: A Restrictive Turn in Europe?Law & Ethics of Human Rights 2, no. 1 bepress, Walter de Gruyter GmbH: 641.Google Scholar
Joppke, Christian 2011. ‘European Immigration Policies: Between Stemming and Soliciting Still’. In Jones, Erik, Heywood, Paul, Rhodes, Martin, and Sedelmeier, Ulrich, eds., Developments in European Politics, 2nd ed. Basingstoke/ New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 220240.Google Scholar
Kramer, Dion. 2016. ‘Earning Social Citizenship in the European Union: Free Movement and Access to Social Assistance Benefits Reconstructed’. Cambridge Yearbook of European Legal Studies 18: 270301.Google Scholar
Kramer, Dion 2017. ‘“In Search of the Law”: Governing Homeless EU Citizens in a State of Legal Ambiguity’. SSRN Electronic Journal. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3091539Google Scholar
Kramer, Dion 2020. Earning Social Citizenship. Free Movement, National Welfare and the European Court of Justice. PhD Thesis Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.Google Scholar
Maas, Willem. 2007. Creating European Citizens. New York: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
Maas, Willem 2009. ‘Unrespected, Unequal, Hollow – Contingent Citizenship and Reversible Rights in the European Union’. Columbia Journal of European Law 15: 265–80.Google Scholar
Maas, Willem 2021. ‘Money in Internal Migration: Financial Resources and Unequal Citizenship’. In de Lange, Tesseltje, Maas, Willem, and Schrauwen, Annette, eds., Money Matters in Migration. Policy, Participation, and Citizenship. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Mantu, Sandra. 2017. ‘Alternative Views on EU Citizenship’. In Grüters, Carolus, Mantu, Sandra and Minderhoud, Paul, eds., Migration on the Move. Essays on the Dynamics of Migration. Leiden; Boston: Brill Nijhoff, 225246.Google Scholar
Mantu, Sandra 2021. ‘Women as EU Citizens: Caught between Work, Sufficient Resources, and the Market’. In de Lange, Tesseltje, Maas, Willem, and Schrauwen, Annette, eds., Money Matters in Migration. Policy, Participation, and Citizenship. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Mantu, Sandra and Minderhoud, Paul. 2016. ‘Exploring the Limits of Social Solidarity: Welfare Tourism and EU-Citizenship’. UNIO-EU Law Journal 2: 419.Google Scholar
Minderhoud, Paul. 2017. ‘Free Movement of Workers: Some Reflections’. In Grütters, Carolus, Mantu, Sandra, and Minderhoud, Paul eds., Migration on the Move: Essays on the Dynamics of Migration Immigration and Asylum Law and Policy in Europe 42, Leiden; Boston: Brill Nijhoff, 5475.Google Scholar
O’Brien, Charlotte. 2016. ‘Civis Capitalist Sum: Class and the New Guiding Principle of EU Free Movement Rights’. Common Market Law Review 53: 937–78.Google Scholar
O’Brien, Charlotte, Spaventa, Eleanor, and De Coninck, Joyce. 2016. ‘Comparative Report 2015. The Concept of Worker under Article 45 TFEU and Certain Non-Standard Forms of Employment’. FresSco, European Union. Available via https://ec.europa.eu/social/main.jsp?pager.offset=10&catId=1098&langId=en&moreDocuments=yesGoogle Scholar
Peers, Steve. 2015. ‘Ending the Exploitation of Seasonal Workers: EU Law Picks the Low-Hanging Fruit’. EU Law Analysis Blog. At http://eulawanalysis.blogspot.nl/2015/02/ending-exploitation-of-seasonal-workers.html, accessed 5 December 2020.Google Scholar
Ruhs, Martin. 2013. The Price of Rights: Regulating International Labor Migration. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Ruhs, Martin 2017. ‘Free Movement in the European Union: National Institutions vs Common Policies?International Migration 55 Wiley-Blackwell: 2238. Academic Search Alumni Edition.Google Scholar
Sankari, Suvi and Frerichs, Sabine. 2016. ‘From Resource to Burden: Rescaling Solidarity with Strangers in the Single Market’. European Law Journal 22, no. 6 Wiley-Blackwell: 806821.Google Scholar
Sassen, Saskia. 2003. ‘Citizenship Destabilized’. Liberal Education 89, no. 2 Association of American Colleges & Universities: 1421. Academic Search Premier.Google Scholar
Schiek, Dagmar. 2017. ‘Perspectives on Social Citizenship in the EU: From Status Positivus to Status Socialis Activus via Two Forms of Transnational Solidarity’. In Kochenov, Dimitry, ed. EU Citizenship and Federalism: The Role of Rights. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. At www.cambridge.org/core/books/eu-citizenship-and-federalism/perspectives-on-social-citizenship-in-the-eu-from-status-positivus-to-status-socialis-activus-via-two-forms-of-transnational-solidarity/A0E8612A8FEFA468F8EA8A472E970685, accessed 16 November 2020.Google Scholar
Schrauwen, Annette. 2016. ‘Citizenship: A Balancing Exercise?’ In Annette Schrauwen, Christina Eckes, and Maria Weimer, eds. At https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstractid=2835345, accessed 5 December 2020.Google Scholar
Simola, Anna. 2020. ‘EU Citizenship as Precarious Status for Precarious Workers: Implications of National Policies Restricting EU Citizens’ Rights for Young University-Educated EU Migrants in Brussels’. In Mantu, Sandra, Minderhoud, Paul and Guild, Elspeth, eds., EU Citizenship and Free Movement Rights. Taking Supranational Citizenship Seriously, Leiden; Boston: Brill Nijhoff, 190214.Google Scholar
Spaventa, Eleanor. 2017. ‘Earned Citizenship – Understanding Union Citizenship through Its Scope’. In Kochenov, Dimitry, ed. EU Citizenship and Federalism: The Role of Rights, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 204225.Google Scholar
Valcke, Anthony. 2020. ‘Expulsion from the “Heart of Europe”: The Belgian Law and Practice Relating to Termination of EU Residence Rights’. In Mantu, Sandra, Minderhoud, Paul, and Guild, Elspeth, eds., EU Citizenship and Free Movement Rights. Taking Supranational Citizenship Seriously Immigration and Asylum Law and Policy in Europe, Volume 47, Leiden/Boston: Brill Nijhoff, 155189.Google Scholar
van Ostaijen, Mark. 2017. Worlds between Words. The Politics of Intra-European Movement Discourses (Phd Thesis). Rotterdam.Google Scholar
van Ostaijen, Mark, Reeger, Ursula, and Zelano, Karin. 2017. ‘The Commodification of Mobile Workers in Europe – a Comparative Perspective on Capital and Labour in Austria, the Netherlands and Sweden’. Comparative Migration Studies 5, no. 6: 122.Google Scholar
Verschueren, Herwig. 2014. ‘Free Movement or Benefit Tourism: The Unreasonable Burden of Brey’. European Journal of Migration and Law 16, no. 2 Brill Nijhoff, sec. European Journal of Migration and Law: 147179.Google Scholar
Welsh, Alice. 2020. Vanishing Safety Nets, the Citizenship Illusion, and the Worker That Isn’t: A Case Study of EU Migrant Atypical Workers’ Rights in the UK. York: University of York.Google Scholar

References

Bacchi, Carol Lee. 2009. Analysing Policy: What’s the Problem Represented To Be? Frenchs Forest, N.S.W.: Pearson Education.Google Scholar
Barker, Vanessa. 2017. Nordic Nationalism and Penal Order: Walling the Welfare State. Abingdon, Oxon.: Routledge.Google Scholar
Bech, Emily Cochran, Borevi, Karin, and Mouritsen, Per. 2017. ‘A “Civic Turn” in Scandinavian Family Migration Policies? Comparing Denmark, Norway and Sweden’. Comparative Migration Studies 5, no. 1: 7.Google Scholar
Bonjour, Saskia and Duyvendak, Jan Willem. 2018. ‘The “Migrant with Poor Prospects”: Racialized Intersections of Class and Culture in Dutch Civic Integration Debates’. Ethnic and Racial Studies 41, no. 5: 882900.Google Scholar
Bratsberg, Bernt and Raaum, Oddbjørn. 2010. ‘Effekter Av Krav Om Forsørgelsesevne Ved Familiegjenforening’. 4/2010 Oslo: Ragnar Frisch Centre for Economic Research. www.frisch.uio.no/publikasjoner/pdf/rapp10_04.pdfGoogle Scholar
Brekke, Jan-Paul and Staver, Anne. 2018. ‘The Renationalisation of Migration Policies in Times of Crisis: The Case of Norway’. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 44, no. 13: 21632181.Google Scholar
Brochmann, Grete and Hagelund, Anniken. 2011. ‘Migrants in the Scandinavian Welfare State’. Nordic Journal of Migration Research 1, no. 1: 1324.Google Scholar
Charsley, Katharine, Bolognani, Marta, Ersanilli, Evelyn, and Spencer, Sarah. 2020. Marriage Migration and Integration. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan Studies in Family and Intimate Life Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
Eggebø, Helga. 2010. ‘The Problem of Dependency: Immigration, Gender, and the Welfare State’. Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State & Society 17, no. 3: 295322.Google Scholar
Eggebø, Helga 2013. ‘The Regulation of Marriage Migration to Norway’. PhD dissertation, The University of Bergen. At https://bora.uib.no/handle/1956/6421, accessed 22 November 2016.Google Scholar
Eggebø, Helga and Brekke, Jan-Paul. 2018. ‘Family Migration and Integration: A Literature Review’. 4 NF-Report Bodø: Nordland Research Institute. At www.nordlandsforskning.no/getfile.php/1322503-1526993549/Dokumenter/Rapporter/1018/NF-report%204_2018.pdf.Google Scholar
Eggebø, Helga and Staver, Anne. 2020. ‘Mer Midlertidighet – Innvandringspolitikken Etter Asylforliket’. Nytt Norsk Tidsskrift 37, no. 2: 125136.Google Scholar
Gammeltoft-Hansen, Thomas. 2017. ‘Refugee Policy as “Negative Nation Branding”: The Case of Denmark and the Nordics’. Fischer, K. and Mouritzen, H. (eds.), Danish Foreign Policy Yearbook 2017. Copenhagen: Danish Institute for International Studies, pp. 99125.Google Scholar
Hernes, Vilde. 2018. ‘Cross-National Convergence in Times of Crisis? Integration Policies before, during and after the Refugee Crisis’. West European Politics 41, no. 6: 13051329.Google Scholar
Innst. 391 L. 2016. ‘Innst. 391 L (2015–2016) Innstilling fra kommunal- og forvaltningskomiteen om Endringer i utlendingsloven mv. (innstramninger II) [Recommendation from the Municipal and Management Committee concerning changes to the Immigration Act etc (Restrictions II)]’. At www.stortinget.no/no/Saker-og-publikasjoner/Publikasjoner/Innstillinger/Stortinget/2015-2016/inns-201516–391/, accessed 19 May 2018.Google Scholar
Kofman, Eleonore. 2018. ‘Family Migration as a Class Matter’. International Migration 56, no. 4: 3346.Google Scholar
Koopmans, Ruud. 2010. ‘Trade-Offs between Equality and Difference: Immigrant Integration, Multiculturalism and the Welfare State in Cross-National Perspective’. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 36, no. 1: 126.Google Scholar
Kuhnle, Stein. 1999. ‘Survival of the European Welfare State’. ARENA Working Papers Number 99/19.Google Scholar
Ministry of Justice and Public Security. 2015. ‘Høringsnotat – endringer i utlendingslovgivningen (innstramninger II) [Consultation brief – changes to the Immigration Act (Restrictions II)]’. At www.regjeringen.no/no/dokumenter/horing–endringer-i-utlendingslovgivningen-innstramninger-ii/id2469054/, accessed 19 May 2018.Google Scholar
Ministry of Justice and Public Security 2016. ‘Prop. 90 L (2015–2016) Endringer i utlendingsloven mv. (innstramninger II) [Immigration Bill Restrictions II]’. At www.regjeringen.no/no/dokumenter/prop.-90-l-20152016/id2481758/, accessed 27 August 2017.Google Scholar
Ministry of Justice and Public Security 2017. ‘Høringsbrev – endringer i utlendingsforskriften – krav om selvforsørgelse for rett til permanent oppholdstillatelse [Consultation memorandum – changes to the Immigration Regulations – requirement of self-reliance for a right to permanent residence]’. At www.regjeringen.no/no/dokumenter/horing–endringer-i-utlendingsforskriften–krav-om-selvforsorgelse-for-rett-til-permanent-oppholdstillatelse/id2545453/, accessed 19 May 2018.Google Scholar
Norwegian Labour Inspection Authority. 2019. ‘Minimum Wage’. At www.arbeidstilsynet.no/en/working-conditions/pay-and-minimum-rates-of-pay/minimum-wage/, accessed 26 April 2019.Google Scholar
NOU 2004:20. 2004. ‘Ny Utlendingslov [New Immigration Act]’. Norwegian Official Report 2004:20 Arbeidsdepartementet.Google Scholar
Shachar, Ayelet. 2006. ‘Race for Talent: Highly Skilled Migrants and Competitive Immigration Regimes’. NYUL Rev. 81: 148.Google Scholar
Sirriyeh, Ala. 2015. ‘“All You Need Is Love And\pounds 18,600”: Class and the New UK Family Migration Rules’. Critical Social Policy 35, no. 2: 228247.Google Scholar
Staver, Anne. 2014. ‘From Right to Earned Privilege? The Development of Stricter Family Reunification Rules in Denmark, Norway and the United Kingdom’. PhD thesis, University of Toronto.Google Scholar
Staver, Anne 2015. ‘Hard Work for Love – The Economic Drift in Norwegian Family Immigration and Integration Policies’. Journal of Family Issues 36, no. 11: 14531471.Google Scholar
Sumption, Madeleine and Vargas-Silva., Carlos 2018. ‘Love Is Not All You Need: Income Requirement for Visa Sponsorship of Foreign Family Members’. Journal of Economics, Race, and Policy 2, no. 1: 6276.Google Scholar
Tjelle, Irina. 2016. ‘UDI: Laveste asylankomster til Norge på 19 år’. NRK.no, July 5, Online edition. At www.nrk.no/norge/udi-laveste-asylankomster-til-norge-pa-19-ar-1.13027939, accessed 22 August 2018.Google Scholar