Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-684899dbb8-gbqfq Total loading time: 2.123 Render date: 2022-05-21T23:20:12.572Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true }

6 - Generalized Anxiety Disorder

from Section II - The Disorders

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  28 December 2017

Kate M. Scott
Affiliation:
University of Otago, New Zealand
Peter de Jonge
Affiliation:
Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, The Netherlands
Dan J. Stein
Affiliation:
University of Cape Town
Ronald C. Kessler
Affiliation:
Harvard Medical School
Get access

Summary

Image of the first page of this content. For PDF version, please use the ‘Save PDF’ preceeding this image.'
Type
Chapter
Information
Mental Disorders Around the World
Facts and Figures from the World Mental Health Surveys
, pp. 79 - 92
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2018

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Abel, J. L. & Borkovec, T. D. (1995). Generalizability of DSM-III-R generalized anxiety disorders to proposed DSM-IV criteria and cross-validation of proposed changes. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 4, 303–15.Google Scholar
American Psychiatric Association. (1980). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 3rd ed. Washington, DC: Author.
American Psychiatric Association. (1987). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 3rd ed., revised. Washington, DC: Author.
American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th ed. Washington, DC: Author.
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th ed. Washington, DC: Author.
Andrews, G., Hobbs, M. J., Borkovec, T. D., et al. (2010). Generalized worry disorder: a review of DSM-IV generalized anxiety disorder and options for DSM-V. Depression and Anxiety, 27, 134–47.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ballenger, J. C., Davidson, J., Lecrubier, Y., & Wittchen, H. U. (2001). Consensus statement on generalized anxiety disorder from the International Consensus Group on Depression and Anxiety. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 62, 53–8.Google Scholar
Beesdo, K., Pine, D. S., Lieb, R., & Wittchen, H. U. (2010). Incidence and risk patterns of anxiety and depressive disorders and categorization of generalized anxiety disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 67, 4757.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Berkson, J. (1946). Limitations of the application of the four-fold table analysis to hospital data. Biometrics Bulletin, 2, 4753.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brown, T. A., Barlow, D. H., & Liebowitz, M. R. (1994). The empirical basis of generalized anxiety disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 1272–80.Google ScholarPubMed
Brown, T. A., DiNardo, P. A., Lehman, C. L., & Campbell, L. A. (2001). Reliability of DSM-IV anxiety and mood disorders: implications for the classification of emotional disorders. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 110, 4958.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bruce, S. E., Machan, J. T., Dyck, I., & Keller, M. B. (2001). Infrequency of “pure” GAD: impact of psychiatric comorbidity on clinical course. Depression and Anxiety, 14, 219–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chelminski, I. & Zimmerman, M. (2003). Pathological worry in depressed and anxious patients. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 17, 553–46.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Coplan, J. D., Aaronson, C. J., Panthangi, V., & Kim, Y. (2015). Treating comorbid anxiety and depression: psychosocial and pharmacological approaches. World Journal of Psychiatry, 5, 366–78.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Davidson, J. R., Zhang, W., Connor, K. M., et al. (2010). A psychopharmacological treatment algorithm for generalised anxiety disorder (GAD). Journal of Psychopharmacology, 24, 326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ehring, T. & Watkins, E. R. (2008). Repetitive negative thinking as a transdiagnostic process. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy, 1, 192205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
First, M. B., Spitzer, R. L., Gibbon, M., & Williams, J. B. W. (2002). Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders: Research Version, Non-patient Ed. New York, NY: Biometrics Research, New York State Psychiatric Institute.Google Scholar
Goldberg, D., Kendler, K. S., Sirovatka, P. J., & Regier, D. A., eds. (2010). Diagnostic Issues in Depression and Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Refining the Research Agenda for DSM-V. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
Grant, B. F., Hasin, D. S., Stinson, F. S., et al. (2005). Prevalence, correlates, co-morbidity, and comparative disability of DSM-IV generalized anxiety disorder in the USA: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Psychological Medicine, 35, 1747–59.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Haro, J. M., Arbabzadeh-Bouchez, S., Brugha, T. S., et al. (2006). Concordance of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview Version 3.0 (CIDI 3.0) with standardized clinical assessments in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 15, 167–80.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kendler, K. S., Neale, M. C., Kessler, R. C., Heath, A. C., & Eaves, L. J. (1992). Major depression and generalized anxiety disorder: same genes, (partly) different environments? Archives of General Psychiatry, 49, 716–22.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kessler, R. C., Gruber, M., Hettema, J. M., Hwang, I., Sampson, N., & Yonkers, K. A. (2008). Comorbid major depression and generalized anxiety disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey follow-up. Psychological Medicine, 38, 365–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Klein, D. N., & Riso, L. P. (1993). Psychiatric disorders: Problems of boundaries and comorbidity. In Costello, C. G. (Ed.), Basic Issues in Psychopathology (pp. 1966). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
Krueger, R. F. (1999). The structure of common mental disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56, 921–6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lawrence, A. E., Liverant, G. I., Rosellini, A. J., & Brown, T. A. (2009). Generalized anxiety disorder within the course of major depressive disorder: examining the utility of the DSM-IV hierarchy rule. Depression and Anxiety, 26, 909–16.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lewis-Fernández, R., Hinton, D. E., Laria, A. J., et al. (2010). Culture and the anxiety disorders: recommendations for DSM-V. Depression and Anxiety, 27, 212–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lieb, R., Becker, E., & Altamura, C. (2005). The epidemiology of generalized anxiety disorder in Europe. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 15, 445–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marten, P. A., Brown, T. A., Barlow, D. H., Borkovec, T. D., Shear, M. K., & Lydiard, R. B. (1993). Evaluation of the ratings comprising the associated symptom criterion of DSM-III-R generalized anxiety disorder. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 181, 676–82.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Merikangas, K. R., Akiskal, H. S., Angst, J., et al. (2007). Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of bipolar spectrum disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Archives of General Psychiatry, 64, 543–52.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Moffitt, T. E., Caspi, A., Harrington, H., et al. (2007). Generalized anxiety disorder and depression: childhood risk factors in a birth cohort followed to age 32. Psychological Medicine, 37, 441–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moffitt, T. E., Harrington, H., Caspi, A., et al. (2007). Depression and generalized anxiety disorder: cumulative and sequential comorbidity in a birth cohort followed prospectively to age 32 years. Archives of General Psychiatry, 64, 651–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Neale, M. C., & Kendler, K. S. (1995). Models of comorbidity for multifactorial disorders. American Journal of Human Genetics, 57, 935–53.Google ScholarPubMed
Rickels, K. & Rynn, M. (2001). Overview and clinical presentation of generalized anxiety disorder. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 24, 117.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ruscio, A. M., Hallion, L. S., Lim, C. C. W., et al. (2017). Cross-sectional comparison of the epidemiology of DSM-5 generalized anxiety disorder across the globe. JAMA Psychiatry, 74, 465–75.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ruscio, A. M. & Khazanov, G. K. (2017). Anxiety and depression. In DeRubeis, R. J. and Strunk, D. R. (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Mood Disorders (pp. 313–24). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Ruscio, A. M., Lane, M., Roy-Byrne, P., et al. (2005). Should excessive worry be required for a diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder? Results from the US National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Psychological Medicine, 35, 1761–772.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ruscio, J., & Ruscio, A. M. (2004). Clarifying boundary issues in psychopathology: the role of taxometrics in a comprehensive program of structural research. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 113, 2438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Somers, J. M., Goldner, E. M., Waraich, P., & Hsu, L. (2006). Prevalence and incidence studies of anxiety disorders: a systematic review of the literature. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 51, 100–13.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Starcevic, V., Portman, M. E., & Beck, A. T. (2012). Generalized anxiety disorder: between neglect and an epidemic. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 200, 664–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
The World Bank. (2009). Data & Statistics, Country Groups by Income. Retrieved from https://datahelpdesk.worldbank.org/knowledgebase/articles/906519.
Watson, D. (2005). Rethinking the mood and anxiety disorders: A quantitative hierarchal model for DSM-V. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 114, 522–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Watson, D. (2009). Differentiating the mood and anxiety disorders: A quadripartite model. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 5, 221–47.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wittchen, H. U., Kessler, R. C., Beesdo, K., Krause, P., Höfler, M., & Hoyer, J. (2002). Generalized anxiety and depression in primary care: Prevalence, recognition, and management. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 63, 2434.Google ScholarPubMed
Zimmerman, M. & Chelminski, I. (2003). Generalized anxiety disorder in patients with major depression: is DSM-IV's hierarchy correct? American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 504–12.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats
×

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats
×

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats
×