Published online by Cambridge University Press: 05 April 2021
The incidence of infertility is up to 20–25 percent in men with poor semen quality with a contribution of the male factor in 30–50 percent of couples undergoing assisted reproduction, including in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). In 17 studies sampling 6410 women, the proportion of couples seeking such medical care was, on average, 56.1 percent (range 42–76.3 percent) in more developed countries and 51.2 percent (range 27–74.1 percent) in less developed countries . Investigation of male infertility or sub-fertility basically comprises of semen analysis . However, a standard semen analysis cannot always assess the multifunctional events and biological properties that spermatozoa express following capacitation. In many cases, it is only when couples fail to achieve conception, the male factor is suspected and advanced laboratory tests are recommended to establish this reliably.