Published online by Cambridge University Press: 18 June 2020
In November 1929, clinicians first attempted to develop an ‘ovary stimulating hormone’ extracted from the human placenta for the treatment of symptoms resulting from the menopause. The team at Montreal General Hospital named it ‘Emmenin’ and it had to be purified from the urine of pregnant women to be administered orally. It was later discovered that pregnant mares’ urine could provide an abundant supply of a compound with high estrogenic activity. This conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) was commercially produced as Premarin and made available as an oral estrogenic agent in 1939.