Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-99c86f546-8r8mm Total loading time: 0.803 Render date: 2021-12-05T03:56:58.130Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Book contents

Chapter 23 - Hormone replacement therapy and venous thrombosis

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  05 September 2015

Nick Panay
Queen Charlotte’s Hospital, London
Paula Briggs
Sefton Community Sexual Health Service, Liverpool
Gab Kovacs
Monash University, Victoria
Get access


Image of the first page of this content. For PDF version, please use the ‘Save PDF’ preceeding this image.'
Managing the Menopause
21st Century Solutions
, pp. 183 - 192
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2015

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Chan, WS, Dixon, ME. The “ART” of thromboembolism: a review of assisted reproductive technology and thromboembolic complications. Thromb Res 2008; 122: 289–90.Google Scholar
ACOG Committee Opinion no. 556. Postmenopausal estrogen therapy: route of administration and risk of venous thromboembolism. Obstet Gynecol 2013; 121: 887–90.
Canonico, M, Plu-Bureau, G, Scarabin, PY. Progestogens and venous thromboembolism among postmenopausal women using hormone therapy. Maturitas 2011; 70: 354–60.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Canonico, M. Hormone therapy and hemostasis among postmenopausal women: a review. Maturitas 2014; 21: 753–62.Google ScholarPubMed
Rosendaal, FR. Venous thrombosis: a multicausal disease. Lancet 1999; 353: 1167–73.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Roach, RE, Lijfering, WM, van Hylckama Vlieg, A, et al. The risk of venous thrombosis in individuals with a history of superficial vein thrombosis and acquired venous thrombotic risk factors. Blood 2013; 122: 4264–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Anderson, FA, Wheeler, HB, Goldberg, RJ, et al. A population-based perspective of the hospital incidence and case-fatality rates of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. The Worcester DVT study. Arch Intern Med 1991; 151: 933–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
White, RH. The epidemiology of venous thromboembolism. Circulation 2003; 107: 14–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tsai, AW, Cushman, M, Rosamond, WD, et al. Cardiovascular risk factors and venous thromboembolism incidence: the longitudinal investigation of thromboembolism etiology. Arch Intern Med 2002; 162: 1182–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cushman, M, Kuller, LH. Prentice, R, et al. Estrogen plus progestin and risk of venous thrombosis, JAMA 2004; 292: 1573–80.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Curb, JD, Prentice, RL, Bray, PF, et al. Venous thrombosis and conjugated equine estrogen in women without a uterus. Arch Intern Med 2006; 166: 772–80.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ageno, W, Becattini, C, Brighton, T, Selby, S, Kamphuisen, PW. Cardiovascular risk factors and venous thromboembolism: a meta-analysis. Circulation 2008; 117: 93102.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Alman-Farinelli, MA. Obesity and venous thrombosis: a review. Semin Thromb Hemost 2011; 8: 903–7.Google Scholar
Smith, NL, Blondon, M, Wiggins, KL, et al. Lower risk of cardiovascular events in postmenopausal women taking oral estradiol compared with oral conjugated equine estrogens. JAMA 2014; 174: 2531.Google ScholarPubMed
Skouby, SO, Jespersen, J. Progestins in HRT: sufferance or desire? Maturitas 2009; 62: 371–5.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Smith, NL, Heckbert, SR, Lemaitre, RN, et al. Esterified estrogens and conjugated equine estrogens and the risk of venous thrombosis. JAMA 2004; 292: 1581–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Skouby, SO, Sidelmann, J, Nilas, L, Gram, J, Jespersen, J. The effect of continuous combined conjugated equine estrogen plus medroxyprogesterone acetate and tibolone on cardiovascular metabolic risk factors. Climacteric 2008; 11: 489–97.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Canonico, M, Oger, E, Plu-Bureau, G, et al.; Estrogen and Thromboembolism Risk (ESTHER) Study Group. Hormone therapy and venous thromboembolism among postmenopausal women: impact of the route of estrogen administration and progestogens: the ESTHER study. Circulation 2007; 115: 840–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blondon, M, Wiggins, KL, Van Hylckama Vlieg, A, et al. Smoking, postmenopausal hormone therapy and the risk of venous thrombosis: a population-based, case-control study. Br J Haematol 2013; 163: 418–20.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Eisenberger, A, Westhoff, C. Hormone replacement therapy and venous thromboembolism. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2014; 142: 7682.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hoibraaten, E, Qvigstad, E, Arnesen, H, et al. Increased risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism during hormone replacement therapy – results of the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled estrogen in venous thromboembolism trial (EVTET). Thromb Haemost 2000; 84: 961–7.Google Scholar
Reitsma, PH, Versteeg, HH, Middeldorp, S. Mechanistic view of risk factors for venous thromboembolism. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2012; 32: 563–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Conard, J, Basdevant, A, Thomas, JL, et al. Cardiovascular risk factors and combined estrogen-progestin replacement therapy: a placebo-controlled study with nomegestrol acetate and estradiol. Fertil Steril 1995; 64: 957–62.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lobo, RA, Bush, T, Carr, BR, Pickar, JH. Effects of lower doses of conjugated equine estrogens and medroxyprogesterone acetate on plasma lipids and lipoproteins, coagulation factors, and carbohydrate metabolism. Fertil Steril 2001; 76: 1324.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sidelmann, JJ, Skouby, SO, Kluft, C, et al. Plasma factor VII-activating protease is increased by oral contraceptives and induces factor VII activation in-vivo. Thromb Res 2011; 128: e67–72.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed

Send book to Kindle

To send this book to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats

Send book to Dropbox

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Available formats

Send book to Google Drive

To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Available formats