Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Hostname: page-component-77c89778f8-gq7q9 Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-07-21T18:50:26.907Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Section 1 - Basic Principles, Assessment, and Planning of Airway Management

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  10 September 2019

Narasimhan Jagannathan
Affiliation:
Northwestern University Medical School, Illinois
John E. Fiadjoe
Affiliation:
Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia
Get access

Summary

Expertise in airway management in infants and young children requires a comprehensive knowledge and understanding of the developmental anatomy of the human upper airway from birth through adolescence. This chapter will review these topics as well as the anatomical and developmental causes for common syndromes that are associated with difficult mask ventilation or difficult tracheal intubation.

Type
Chapter
Information
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2019

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

References

Pohunek, P. Development, Structure and Function of the Upper Airways. Paediatric Respiratory Reviews 2004; 5(1): 28.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hast, MH. The Developmental Anatomy of the Larynx. Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America 1970; 3: 413–38.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Marcus, CL, Smith, RJH, Mankarious, LA, Arens, R, Mitchell, GS, Elluru, RG, et al. Developmental Aspects of the Upper Airway: Report from an NHLBI Workshop, March 5–6, 2009. Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society 2009; 6(6): 513–20.Google Scholar
Zaw-Tun, HA, Burdi, AR. Reexamination of the Origin and Early Development of the Human Larynx. Cells Tissues Organs 2016; 122(3): 163–84.Google Scholar
Moore, KL, Persaud, TVN, Torchia, MG. Pharyngeal Apparatus, Face, and Neck. In The Developing Human. Elsevier Health Sciences; 2016: 155–93.Google Scholar
Arens, R, McDonough, JM, Corbin, AM, Hernandez, ME, Maislin, G, Schwab, RJ, et al. Linear Dimensions of the Upper Airway Structure during Development. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2012; 165(1): 117–22.Google Scholar
Dorst, JP. Changes of the Skull during Childhood. In Newton, TH, Potts, DG, eds. Radiology of the Skull and Brain. St. Louis: Mosby; 1971: 118–31.Google Scholar
Sullivan, PG. Skull, Jaw, and Teeth Growth Patterns. In Falkner, F, Tanner, JM, eds. Human Growth: a Comprehensive Treatise. New York: Springer; 1986: 243–65.Google Scholar
Smith, JE, Reid, AP. Asymptomatic Intranasal Abnormalities Influencing the Choice of Nostril for Nasotracheal Intubation. British Journal of Anaesthesia 1999; 83(6): 882–6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Miller, MJ, Martin, RJ, Carlo, WA, Fouke, JM, Strohl, KP, Fanaroff, AA. Oral Breathing in Newborn Infants. The Journal of Pediatrics 1985; 107(3): 465–9.Google Scholar
Cozzi, F, Steiner, M, Rosati, D, Madonna, L, Colarossi, G. Clinical Manifestations of Choanal Atresia in Infancy. Journal of Pediatric Surgery 1988; 23(3): 203–6.Google Scholar
Mathru, M, Esch, O, Lang, J, Herbert, ME, Chaljub, G, Goodacre, B, et al. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Upper Airway. Effects of Propofol Anesthesia and Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure in Humans. Anesthesiology 1996; 84(2): 273–9.Google Scholar
Litman, RS, Weissend, EE, Shrier, DA, Ward, DS. Morphologic Changes in the Upper Airway of Children during Awakening from Propofol Administration. Anesthesiology 2002; 96(3): 607–11.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Praud, J-P, Reix, P. Upper Airways and Neonatal Respiration. Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology 2005; 149(1–3): 131–41.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jeans, WD, Fernando, DCJ, Maw, AR, Leighton, BC. A Longitudinal Study of the Growth of the Nasopharynx and its Contents in Normal Children. British Journal of Radiology 2014; 54(638): 117–21.Google Scholar
Litman, RS, Wake, N, Chan, L-ML, McDonough, JM, Sin, S, Mahboubi, S, et al. Effect of Lateral Positioning on Upper Airway Size and Morphology in Sedated Children. Anesthesiology 2005; 103(3): 484–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ronen, O, Malhotra, A, Pillar, G. Influence of Gender and Age on Upper-Airway Length during Development. Pediatrics 2007; 120(4): e1028–34.Google Scholar
Malhotra, A, Huang, Y, Fogel, RB, Pillar, G, Edwards, JK, Kikinis, R, et al. The Male Predisposition to Pharyngeal Collapse. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2012; 166(10): 1388–95.Google Scholar
Sasaki, CT, Levine, PA, Laitman, JT, Crelin, ES. Postnatal Descent of the Epiglottis in Man: a Preliminary Report. Archives of Otolaryngology 1977; 103(3): 169–71.Google Scholar
Schwartz, DS, Keller, MS. Maturational Descent of the Epiglottis. Archives of Otolaryngology – Head & Neck Surgery. 1997 Jun; 123(6): 627–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Radvanyi-Bouvet, MF, Monset-Couchard, M, Morel-Kahn, F, Vicente, G, Dreyfus-Brisac, C. Expiratory Patterns during Sleep in Normal Full-Term and Premature Neonates. Neonatology 1982; 41(1–2): 7484.Google Scholar
Mortola, JP, Milic-Emili, J, Noworaj, A, Smith, B, Fox, G, Weeks, S. Muscle Pressure and Flow during Expiration in Infants. American Review of Respiratory Disease 1984; 129(1): 4953.Google ScholarPubMed
Westhorpe, RN. The Position of the Larynx in Children and its Relationship to the Ease of Intubation. Anaesthesia and Intensive Care 1987; 15(4): 384–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eckenhoff, JE. Some Anatomic Considerations of the Infant Larynx Influencing Endotracheal Anesthesia. Anesthesiology 1951; 12(4): 401–10.Google Scholar
Butz, RO. Length and Cross-Section Growth Patterns in the Human Trachea. Pediatrics 1968; 42(2): 336–41.Google Scholar
Wailoo, MP, Emery, JL. Normal Growth and Development of the Trachea. Thorax 1982; 37(8): 584–7.Google Scholar
Benjamin, B. Prolonged Intubation Injuries of the Larynx: Endoscopic Diagnosis, Classification, and Treatment. Annals of Otology, Rhinology & Laryngology Supplement 1993; 160: 115.Google ScholarPubMed
Gould, SJ, Howard, S. The Histopathology of the Larynx in the Neonate Following Endotracheal Intubation. The Journal of Pathology 1985; 146(4): 301–11.Google ScholarPubMed
Joshi, VV, Mandavia, SG, Stern, L, Wiglesworth, FW. Acute Lesions Induced by Endotracheal Intubation: Occurrence in the Upper Respiratory Tract of Newborn Infants with Respiratory Distress Syndrome. American Journal of Diseases in Children 1972; 124(5): 646–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dalal, PG, Murray, D, Messner, AH, Feng, A, McAllister, J, Molter, D. Pediatric Laryngeal Dimensions: an Age-Based Analysis. Anesthesia & Analgesia 2009; 108(5): 1475–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dalal, PG, Murray, D, Feng, A, Molter, D, McAllister, J. Upper Airway Dimensions in Children Using Rigid Video‐Bronchoscopy and a Computer Software: Description of a Measurement Technique. Pediatric Anesthesia 2008; 18(7): 645–53.Google Scholar
Litman, RS, Weissend, EE, Shibata, D, Westesson, P-L. Developmental Changes of Laryngeal Dimensions in Unparalyzed, Sedated Children. Anesthesiology 2003; 98(1): 41–5.Google Scholar
Griscom, NT, Wohl, ME. Dimensions of the Growing Trachea Related to Age and Gender. American Journal of Roentgenology 2012; 146(2): 233–7.Google Scholar
Whitaker, LA, Pashayan, H, Reichman, J. A Proposed New Classification of Craniofacial Anomalies for The American Cleft Palate Association Committee on Nomenclature and Classification of Craniofacial Anomalies. Cleft Palate Journal 1981; 18(3): 161–75.Google Scholar
Cladis, FP, Grunwaldt, L, Losee, J. Anesthesia for Plastic Surgery. In Davis, PJ, Cladis, FP, eds. Smith’s Anesthesia for Infants and Children. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017: 821–41.Google Scholar
Evans, KN, Sie, KC, Hopper, RA, Glass, RP, Hing, AV, Cunningham, ML. Robin Sequence: From Diagnosis to Development of an Effective Management Plan. Pediatrics 2011; 127(5): 936–48.Google Scholar
Raj, D, Luginbuehl, I. Managing the Difficult Airway in the Syndromic Child. Continuing Education in Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain 2015; 15(1): 713.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tan, TY, Kilpatrick, N, Farlie, PG. Developmental and Genetic Perspectives on Pierre Robin Sequence. Seminars in Medical Genetics, Part C of American Journal of Medical Genetics 2013; 163(4): 295305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Graham, JM Jr., Sanchez-Lara, PA. Smith’s Recognizable Patterns of Human Deformation. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2016.Google Scholar
Beleza-Meireles, A, Clayton-Smith, J, Saraiva, JM, Tassabehji, M. Oculo-Auriculo-Vertebral Spectrum: a Review of the Literature and Genetic Update. Journal of Medical Genetics 2014; 51(10): 635–45.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Barisic, I, Odak, L, Loane, M, Garne, E, Wellesley, D, Calzolari, E, et al. Prevalence, Prenatal Diagnosis and Clinical Features of Oculo-Auriculo-Vertebral Spectrum: a Registry-Based Study in Europe. European Journal of Human Genetics 2014; 22(8): 1026–33.Google Scholar
van Gijn, DR, Tucker, AS, Cobourne, MT. Craniofacial Development: Current Concepts in the Molecular Basis of Treacher Collins Syndrome. British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery 2013; 51(5): 384–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gripp, K, Escobar, LF. Facial Bones. In Stevenson, RE, Hall, JG, eds. Human Malformations and Related Anomalies. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2005: 267–95.Google Scholar
Lomri, A, Lemonnier, J, Hott, M, de Parseval, N, Lajeunie, E, Munnich, A, et al. Increased Calvaria Cell Differentiation and Bone Matrix Formation Induced by Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 2 Mutations in Apert Syndrome. The Journal of Clinical Investigation 1998; 101(6): 1310–17.Google ScholarPubMed
Buchanan, EP, Xue, AS, Hollier, LH Jr. Craniofacial Syndromes. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 2014; 134(1): 128e–53e.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed

References

Habre, W, Disma, N, Virag, K, et al. Incidence of Severe critical Events in Paediatric Anaesthesia (APRICOT): a Prospective Multicentre Observational Study in 261 Hospitals in Europe. The Lancet Respiratory Medicine 2017; 5: 412–25.Google Scholar
Mir Ghassemi, A, Neira, V, Ufholz, LA, et al. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Acute Severe Complications of Pediatric Anesthesia. Paediatric Anaesthesia 2015; 25: 1093–102.Google Scholar
Fiadjoe, JE, Nishisaki, A, Jagannathan, N, et al. Airway Management Complications in Children with Difficult Tracheal Intubation from the Pediatric Difficult Intubation (PeDI) Registry: a Prospective Cohort Analysis. The Lancet Respiratory Medicine 2016; 4: 3748.Google Scholar
Hall, SC. The Difficult Pediatric Airway – Recognition, Evaluation, and Management. Canadian Journal of Anesthesia/Journal canadien d’anesthésie 2001; 48: R22–5.Google Scholar
Valois-Gomez, T, Oofuvong, M, Auer, G, Coffin, D, Loetwiriyakul, W, Correa, JA. Incidence of Difficult Bag-Mask Ventilation in Children: a Prospective Observational Study. Paediatric Anaesthesia 2013; 23: 920–6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kheterpal, S, Han, R, Tremper, KK, et al. Incidence and Predictors of Difficult and Impossible Mask Ventilation. Anesthesiology 2006; 105: 885–91.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Heinrich, S, Birkholz, T, Ihmsen, H, Irouschek, A, Ackermann, A, Schmidt, J. Incidence and Predictors of Difficult Laryngoscopy in 11 219 Pediatric Anesthesia Procedures. Paediatric Anaesthesia 2012; 22: 729–36.Google Scholar
Mirghassemi, A, Soltani, AE, Abtahi, M. Evaluation of Laryngoscopic Views and Related Influencing Factors in a Pediatric Population. Paediatric Anaesthesia 2011; 21: 663–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Akpek, EA, Mutlu, H, Kayhan, Z. Difficult Intubation in Pediatric Cardiac Anesthesia. Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia 2004; 18: 610–12.Google Scholar
Graciano, AL, Tamburro, R, Thompson, AE, Fiadjoe, J, Nadkarni, VM, Nishisaki, A. Incidence and Associated Factors of Difficult Tracheal intubations in Pediatric ICUs: a Report from National Emergency Airway Registry for Children: NEAR4KIDS. Intensive Care Medicine 2014; 40: 1659–69.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Santos, AP, Mathias, LA, Gozzani, JL, Watanabe, M. Difficult Intubation in Children: Applicability of the Mallampati Index. Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia 2011; 61: 156–8, 9–62, 84–7.Google Scholar
Jagannathan, N, Sequera-Ramos, L, Sohn, L, Wallis, B, Shertzer, A, Schaldenbrand, K. Elective Use of Supraglottic Airway Devices for Primary Airway Management in Children with Difficult Airways. British Journal of Anaesthesia 2014; 112: 742–8.Google Scholar
Asai, T. Is it Safe to Use Supraglottic Airway in Children with Difficult Airways? British Journal of Anaesthesia 2014; 112: 620–2.Google Scholar
Cox, RG, Lardner, DR. Supraglottic Airways in Children: Past Lessons, Future Directions. Canadian Journal of Anesthesia/Journal canadien d’anesthésie 2009; 56: 636–42.Google ScholarPubMed
Lopez-Gil, M, Brimacombe, J, Alvarez, M. Safety and Efficacy of the Laryngeal Mask Airway. A Prospective Survey of 1400 Children. Anaesthesia 1996; 51: 969–72.Google Scholar
Jagannathan, N, Ramsey, MA, White, MC, Sohn, L. An Update on Newer Pediatric Supraglottic Airways with Recommendations for Clinical Use. Paediatric Anaesthesia 2015; 25: 334–45.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Patel, A, Clark, SR, Schiffmiller, M, Schoenberg, C, Tewfik, G. A Survey of Practice Patterns in the Use of Laryngeal Mask by Pediatric Anesthesiologists. Paediatric Anaesthesia 2015; 25: 1127–31.Google Scholar
Black, AE, Flynn, PE, Smith, HL, et al. Development of a Guideline for the Management of the Unanticipated Difficult Airway in Pediatric Practice. Paediatric Anaesthesia 2015; 25: 346–62.Google Scholar
Apfelbaum, JL, Hagberg, CA, Caplan, RA, et al. Practice Guidelines for Management of the Difficult Airway: an Updated Report by the American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Management of the Difficult Airway. Anesthesiology 2013; 118: 251–70.Google Scholar
Mathis, MR, Haydar, B, Taylor, EL, et al. Failure of the Laryngeal Mask Airway Unique and Classic in the Pediatric Surgical Patient: a Study of Clinical Predictors and Outcomes. Anesthesiology 2013; 119: 1284–95.Google Scholar
Ramachandran, SK, Mathis, MR, Tremper, KK, Shanks, AM, Kheterpal, S. Predictors and Clinical Outcomes from Failed Laryngeal Mask Airway Unique: a Study of 15 795 Patients. Anesthesiology 2012; 116: 1217–26.Google Scholar
Nishisaki, A, Turner, DA, Brown, CA 3rd, et al. A National Emergency Airway Registry for Children: Landscape of Tracheal Intubation in 15 PICUs. Critical Care Medicine 2013; 41: 874–85.Google Scholar
Bhananker, SM, Ramamoorthy, C, Geiduschek, JM, et al. Anesthesia-Related Cardiac Arrest in Children: Update from the Pediatric Perioperative Cardiac Arrest Registry. Anesthesia & Analgesia 2007; 105: 344–50.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Morray, JP, Geiduschek, JM, Caplan, RA, Posner, KL, Gild, WM, Cheney, FW. A Comparison of Pediatric and Adult Anesthesia Closed Malpractice Claims. Anesthesiology 1993; 78: 461–7.Google Scholar
Gomes Cordeiro, AM, Fernandes, JC, Troster, EJ. Possible Risk Factors Associated with Moderate or Severe Airway Injuries in Children who Underwent Endotracheal Intubation. Pediatric Critical Care Medicine 2004; 5: 364–8.Google ScholarPubMed
Drake-Brockman, TFE, Ramgolam, A, Zhang, G, Hall, GL, von Ungern-Sternberg, BS. The Effect of Endotracheal Tubes versus Laryngeal Mask Airways on Perioperative Respiratory Adverse Events in Infants: a Randomised Controlled Trial. The Lancet 2017; 389: 701–8.Google Scholar
Luce, V, Harkouk, H, Brasher, C, et al. Supraglottic Airway Devices vs Tracheal Intubation in Children: a Quantitative Meta-Analysis of Respiratory Complications. Paediatric Anaesthesia 2014; 24: 1088–98.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Parnis, SJ, Barker, DS, Van Der Walt, JH. Clinical Predictors of Anaesthetic Complications in Children with Respiratory Tract Infections. Paediatric Anaesthesia 2001; 11: 2940.Google Scholar
Fiadjoe, JE, Litman, RS. Oxygen Supplementation during Prolonged Tracheal Intubation Should be the Standard of Care. British Journal of Anaesthesia 2016; 117: 417–8.Google Scholar
Steiner, JW, Sessler, DI, Makarova, N, et al. Use of Deep Laryngeal Oxygen Insufflation during Laryngoscopy in Children: a Randomized Clinical Trial. British Journal of Anaesthesia 2016; 117: 350–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Windpassinger, M, Plattner, O, Gemeiner, J, et al. Pharyngeal Oxygen Insufflation during AirTraq Laryngoscopy Slows Arterial Desaturation in Infants and Small Children. Anesthesia & Analgesia 2016; 122: 1153–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Olsson, GL, Hallen, B. Laryngospasm during Anaesthesia. A Computer-Aided Incidence Study in 136 929 Patients. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 1984; 28: 567–75.Google Scholar
von Ungern-Sternberg, BS, Boda, K, Chambers, NA, et al. Risk Assessment for Respiratory Complications in Paediatric Anaesthesia: a Prospective Cohort Study. The Lancet 2010; 376: 773–83.Google Scholar
Flick, RP, Wilder, RT, Pieper, SF, et al. Risk Factors for Laryngospasm in Children during General Anesthesia. Paediatric Anaesthesia 2008; 18: 289–96.Google Scholar
Lakshmipathy, N, Bokesch, PM, Cowen, DE, Lisman, SR, Schmid, CH. Environmental Tobacco Smoke: a Risk Factor for Pediatric Laryngospasm. Anesthesia & Analgesia 1996; 82: 724–7.Google Scholar
Mamie, C, Habre, W, Delhumeau, C, Argiroffo, CB, Morabia, A. Incidence and Risk Factors of Perioperative Respiratory Adverse Events in Children Undergoing Elective Surgery. Paediatric Anaesthesia 2004; 14: 218–24.Google Scholar
Weiss, M, Engelhardt, T. Cannot Ventilate – Paralyze! Paediatric Anaesthesia 2012; 22: 1147–9.Google Scholar
Kabalin, CS, Yarnold, PR, Grammer, LC. Low Complication Rate of Corticosteroid-Treated Asthmatics Undergoing Surgical Procedures. Archives of Internal Medicine 1995; 155: 1379–84.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
von Ungern-Sternberg, BS, Habre, W, Erb, TO, Heaney, M. Salbutamol Premedication in Children with a Recent Respiratory Tract Infection. Paediatric Anaesthesia 2009; 19: 1064–9.Google Scholar
Eames, WO, Rooke, GA, Wu, RS, Bishop, MJ. Comparison of the Effects of Etomidate, Propofol, and Thiopental on Respiratory Resistance after Tracheal Intubation. Anesthesiology 1996; 84: 1307–11.Google Scholar
Drake-Brockman, TF, Ramgolam, A, Zhang, G, Hall, GL, von Ungern-Sternberg, BS. The Effect of Endotracheal Tubes versus Laryngeal Mask Airways on Perioperative Respiratory Adverse Events in Infants: a Randomised Controlled Trial. The Lancet 2017; 389: 701–8.Google Scholar
Tait, AR, Pandit, UA, Voepel-Lewis, T, Munro, HM, Malviya, S. Use of the Laryngeal Mask Airway in Children with Upper Respiratory Tract Infections: a Comparison with Endotracheal Intubation. Anesthesia & Analgesia 1998; 86: 706–11.Google Scholar
Koka, BV, Jeon, IS, Andre, JM, MacKay, I, Smith, RM. Postintubation Croup in Children. Anesthesia & Analgesia 1977; 56: 501–5.Google Scholar
Dullenkopf, A, Gerber, A, Weiss, M. The Microcuff Tube Allows a Longer Time Interval until Unsafe Cuff Pressures are Reached in Children. Canadian Journal of Anesthesia Journal/Journal canadien d’anesthésie 2004; 51: 9971001.Google Scholar
Salgo, B, Schmitz, A, Henze, G, et al. Evaluation of a New Recommendation for Improved Cuffed Tracheal Tube Size Selection in Infants and Small Children. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 2006; 50: 557–61.Google Scholar
Weiss, M, Dullenkopf, A, Fischer, JE, Keller, C, Gerber, AC. Prospective Randomized Controlled Multi-Centre Trial of Cuffed or Uncuffed Endotracheal Tubes in Small Children. British Journal of Anaesthesia 2009; 103: 867–73.Google Scholar
Bjornson, C, Russell, K, Vandermeer, B, Klassen, TP, Johnson, DW. Nebulized Epinephrine for Croup in Children. Cochrane Database Systematic Reviews 2013: Cd006619.Google Scholar
Rizos, JD, DiGravio, BE, Sehl, MJ, Tallon, JM. The Disposition of Children with Croup Treated with Racemic Epinephrine and Dexamethasone in the Emergency Department. Journal of Emergency Medicine 1998; 16: 535–9.Google Scholar
Kunkel, NC, Baker, MD. Use of Racemic Epinephrine, Dexamethasone, and Mist in the Outpatient Management of Croup. Pediatric Emergency Care 1996; 12: 156–9.Google Scholar
Walker, RW. Pulmonary Aspiration in Pediatric Anesthetic Practice in the UK: a Prospective Survey of Specialist Pediatric Centers Over a One-Year Period. Paediatric Anaesthesia 2013; 23: 702–11.Google Scholar
Borland, LM, Sereika, SM, Woelfel, SK, et al. Pulmonary Aspiration in Pediatric Patients during General Anesthesia: Incidence and Outcome. Journal of Clinical Anesthesia 1998; 10: 95102.Google Scholar
Warner, MA, Warner, ME, Warner, DO, Warner, LO, Warner, EJ. Perioperative Pulmonary Aspiration in Infants and Children. Anesthesiology 1999; 90: 6671.Google Scholar
Practice Guidelines for Preoperative Fasting and the Use of Pharmacologic Agents to Reduce the Risk of Pulmonary Aspiration: Application to Healthy Patients Undergoing Elective Procedures: an Updated Report by the American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Preoperative Fasting and the Use of Pharmacologic Agents to Reduce the Risk of Pulmonary Aspiration. Anesthesiology 2017; 126: 376–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lee, KS, Yang, CC. Tracheal Length of Infants under Three Months Old. Annals of Otology, Rhinology & Laryngology 2001; 110: 268–70.Google Scholar
Sohn, L, Sawardekar, A, Jagannathan, N. Airway Management Options in a Prone Achondroplastic Dwarf with a Difficult Airway after Unintentional Tracheal Extubation during a Wake-Up Test for Spinal Fusion: To Flip or Not to Flip? Canadian Journal of Anesthesia/Journal canadien d’anesthésie 2014; 61: 741–4.Google Scholar
Chan, IA, Gamble, JJ. Tension Pneumothorax during Flexible Bronchoscopy in a Nonintubated Infant. Paediatric Anaesthesia 2016; 26: 452–4.Google Scholar
Parekh, UR, Maguire, AM, Emery, J, Martin, PH. Pneumothorax in Neonates: Complication during Endotracheal Intubation, Diagnosis, and Management. Journal of Anaesthesiology Clinical Pharmacology 2016; 32: 397–9.Google Scholar
Schweiger, C, Manica, D, Kuhl, G, Sekine, L, Marostica, PJ. Post-Intubation Acute Laryngeal Injuries in Infants and Children: a New Classification System. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology 2016; 86: 177–82.Google Scholar

References

Sands, SA, Edwards, BA, Kelly, VJ, Davidson, MR, Wilkinson, MH, Berger, PJ. A Model Analysis of Arterial Oxygen Desaturation during Apnea in Preterm Infants. PLoS Computational Biology 2009; 5: e1000588.Google Scholar
Hardman, JG, Wills, JS. The Development of Hypoxaemia during Apnoea in Children: a Computational Modelling Investigation. British Journal of Anaesthesia 2006; 97: 564–70.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
de Graaff, JC, Bijker, JB, Kappen, TH, van Wolfswinkel, L, Zuithoff, NP, Kalkman, CJ. Incidence of Intraoperative Hypoxemia in Children in Relation to Age. Anesthesia & Analgesia 2013; 117: 169–75.Google Scholar
Gencorelli, FJ, Fields, RG, Litman, RS. Complications during Rapid Sequence Induction of General Anesthesia in Children: a Benchmark Study. Paediatric Anaesthesia 2010; 20: 421–4.Google Scholar
Bhananker, SM, Ramamoorthy, C, Geiduschek, JM, Posner, KL, Domino, KB, Haberkern, CM, et al Anesthesia-Related Cardiac Arrest in Children: Update from the Pediatric Perioperative Cardiac Arrest Registry. Anesthesia & Analgesia 2007; 105: 344–50.Google Scholar
Long, E, Sabato, S, Babi, F. Endotracheal Intubation in the Pediatric Emergency Department. Pediatric Anesthesia 2014; 24: 1204.Google Scholar
Poets, CF, Roberts, RS, Schmidt, B, Whyte, RK, Asztalos, EV, Bader, D, et al. Canadian Oxygen Trial Investigators. Association between Intermittent Hypoxemia or Bradycardia and Late Death or Disability in Extremely Preterm Infants. JAMA 2015; 314: 595603.Google Scholar
Engelhardt, T. Rapid Sequence Induction has No Use in Pediatric Anesthesia. Paediatric Anaesthesia 2015; 25: 58.Google Scholar
Eich, C, Timmermann, A, Russo, SG, Cremer, S, Nickut, A, Strack, M, et al. A Controlled Rapid-Sequence Induction Technique for Infants May Reduce Unsafe Actions and Stress. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 2009; 53: 1167–72.Google Scholar
Fiadjoe, JE, Jagannathan, N, Hunyady, AI, Greenberg, RS, Reynolds, PI, Matuszczak, ME, et al. Airway Management Complications in Children with Difficult Tracheal Intubation from the Pediatric Difficult Intubation (PeDI) Registry: a Prospective Cohort Analysis The Lancet Respiratory Medicine 2016; 4: 3748.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Weiss, M, Engelhardt, T. Proposal for the Management of the Unexpected Difficult Pediatric Airway. Paediatric Anaesthesia 2010; 20: 454–64.Google Scholar
Schmidt, AR, Weiss, M, Engelhardt, T. The Paediatric Airway: Basic Principles and Current Developments. European Journal of Anaesthesiology 2014; 31: 293–9.Google Scholar
Engelhardt, T, Machotta, A, Weiss, M. Management Strategies for the Difficult Paediatric Airway. Trends in Anaesthesia and Critical Care 2013; 3: 183–7.Google Scholar
Weiss, M, Engelhardt, T. Cannot Ventilate – Paralyze! Pediatric Anesthesia 2012; 22: 1147–9.Google Scholar
Bennett, JA, Abrams, JT, Van Riper, DF, Horrow, JC. Difficult or Impossible Ventilation after Sufentanil-Induced Anesthesia is Caused Primarily by Vocal Cord Closure. Anesthesiology 1997; 87: 1070–4.Google Scholar
Woodall, NM, Cook, TM. National Census of Airway Management Techniques Used for Anaesthesia in the UK: First Phase of the Fourth National Audit Project at the Royal College of Anaesthetists. British Journal of Anaesthesia 2011; 106: 266–71.Google Scholar
Sabato, SC, Long, E. An Institutional Approach to the Management of the “Can’t Intubate, Can’t Oxygenate” Emergency in Children. Pediatric Anesthesia 2016; 26: 784–93.Google Scholar
Engelhardt, T, Weiss, M. A Child with a Difficult Airway: What do I do Next? Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology 2012; 25: 326–32.Google Scholar
Marin, PCE, Engelhardt, T. Algoritmo Para el Manejo de la vía Aérea Difícil en Pediatría. Revista Colombiana de Anestesiología 2014; 42: 325–35.Google Scholar

Save book to Kindle

To save this book to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats
×

Save book to Dropbox

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Available formats
×

Save book to Google Drive

To save content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Available formats
×